FreeBSD/alpha 5.0-DP1 Release Notes

The FreeBSD Project

$FreeBSD: src/release/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/relnotes/common/new.sgml,v 1.299 2002/03/13 05:41:41 bmah Exp $

The release notes for FreeBSD 5.0-DP1 contain a summary of the changes made in the FreeBSD base system since 4.0-RELEASE. Both changes for kernel and userland are listed, as well as applicable security advisories that were issued since the last release. Some brief remarks on upgrading are also presented.

Table of Contents
1 Introduction
2 What's New
2.1 Kernel Changes
2.1.1 Processor/Motherboard Support
2.1.2 Bootloader Changes
2.1.3 Network Interface Support
2.1.4 Network Protocols
2.1.5 Disks and Storage
2.1.6 Filesystems
2.1.7 PCCARD Support
2.1.8 Multimedia Support
2.1.9 Contributed Software
2.2 Security-Related Changes
2.3 Userland Changes
2.3.1 Contributed Software
2.3.2 Ports/Packages Collection
3 Upgrading from previous releases of FreeBSD

1 Introduction

This document contains the release notes for FreeBSD 5.0-DP1 on the Alpha/AXP hardware platform. It describes new features of FreeBSD that have been added (or changed) since 4.0-RELEASE. It also provides some notes on upgrading from previous versions of FreeBSD.

The snapshot distribution to which these release notes apply represents a point along the 5-CURRENT development branch between 4.0-RELEASE and the future 5.0-RELEASE. Some pre-built, binary snapshot distributions along this branch can be found at

2 What's New

This section describes the most user-visible new or changed features in FreeBSD since 4.0-RELEASE. Typical release note items document new drivers or hardware support, new commands or options, major bugfixes, or contributed software upgrades. Security advisories issued after 4.0-RELEASE are also listed. In general, changes described here are unique to the 5-CURRENT branch unless specifically marked as [MERGED] features.

Many additional changes were made to FreeBSD that are not listed here for lack of space. For example, documentation was corrected and improved, minor bugs were fixed, insecure coding practices were audited and corrected, and source code was cleaned up.

2.1 Kernel Changes

The agp(4) driver for AGP devices has been added. [MERGED]

A new ddb(4) command show pcpu lists some of the per-CPU data.

Two new ddb(4) commands, hwatch and dhwatch, have been introduced. Analogous to watch and dwatch, they install hardware watchpoints (as opposed to software watchpoints) if supported by the architecture. [MERGED]

devfs(5), which allows entries in the /dev directory to be built automatically and supports more flexible attachment of devices, has been largely reworked. devfs(5) is now enabled by default and can be disabled by the NODEVFS kernel option.

The dgm driver has been removed in favor of the digi driver.

A new digi driver has been added to support PCI Xr-based and ISA Xem Digiboard cards. A new digictl(8) program is (mainly) used to re-initialize cards that have external port modules attached such as the PC/Xem.

An eaccess(2) system call has been added, similar to access(2) except that the former uses effective credentials rather than real credentials.

Each jail(2) environment can now run under its own securelevel.

The tunable sysctl variables for jail(2) have moved from jail.* to the security.* hierarchy. Other security-related sysctl variables have moved from* to security.*.

The kern.maxvnodes limit now properly limits the number of vnodes in use. Previously only vnodes with no cached pages could be freed; this could allow the number of vnodes to grow without limit on large-memory machines accessing many small files. A vnlru kernel thread helps to flush and reuse vnodes. [MERGED]

The kernel message buffer is now accessible by the (machine-independent) kern.msgbuf sysctl variable; dmesg(8) no longer needs to be SGID kmem. [MERGED]

The kqueue(2) event notification facility was added to the FreeBSD kernel. This is a new interface which is able to replace poll(2)/ select(2), offering improved performance, as well as the ability to report many different types of events. Support for monitoring changes in sockets, pipes, fifos, and files are present, as well as for signals and processes. [MERGED]

The labpc(4) driver has been removed due to ``bitrot''.

The loader and kernel linker now look for files named linker.hints in each directory with KLDs for a module name and version to KLD filename mapping. The new kldxref(8) utility is used to generate these files.

Linux emulation now supports the kernel functionality required by the emulators/linux_base-7 (RedHat 7.X emulation) port. [MERGED]

Linux emulation now requires options SYSVSEM in the kernel configuration. [MERGED]

lomac(4), a Low-Watermark Mandatory Access Control security facility, has been added as a kernel module. It provides a drop-in security mechanism in addition to the traditional UID-based security facilities, requiring no additional configuration from the administrator. Work on this feature was sponsored by DARPA and NAI Labs.

The maxusers kernel configuration parameter is now a boot-time tunable variable. The kernel parameters derived from maxusers are now also tunables and can be overridden at boot-time. The hz parameter is also now a tunable. [MERGED]

Specifying a value of 0 for the maxusers kernel configuration parameter will now cause an appropriate value to be calculated at boot-time (between 32 and 384, depending on the amount of memory present). This value is now the default for all GENERIC kernels. [MERGED]

A MAXMEM kernel option, along with the hw.physmem loader tunable, can be used to artificially reduce the memory size of a machine for testing (or other purposes). [MERGED]

The kernel configuration parameters MAXTSIZ, DFLDSIZ, MAXDSIZ, DFLSSIZ, MAXSSIZ, and SGROWSIZ are all loader tunables (kern.maxtsiz, kern.maxdfldsiz, etc.). [MERGED]

A nmdm(4) null-modem terminal driver has been added. [MERGED]

The O_DIRECT flag has been added to open(2) and fcntl(2). Specifying this flag for open files will attempt to minimize the cache effects of reading and writing. [MERGED]

An orm(4) device has been added to claim the option ROMs in the ISA memory I/O space, to prevent other drivers from mistakenly assigning addresses that conflict with these ROMs. [MERGED]

POSIX.1b Shared Memory Objects are now supported. The implementation uses regular files, but automatically enables the MAP_NOSYNC flag when they are mmap(2)-ed. [MERGED]

Replaced the PQ_*CACHE options with a single PQ_CACHESIZE option to be set to the cache size in kilobytes. The old options are still supported for backwards compatibility. [MERGED]

The random(4) device has been rewritten to use the Yarrow algorithm. It harvests entropy from a variety of interrupt sources, including the console devices, Ethernet and point-to-point network interfaces, and mass-storage devices. Entropy from the random(4) device is now periodically saved to files in /var/db/entropy, as well as at shutdown time. The semantics of /dev/random have changed; it never blocks waiting for entropy bits but generates a stream of pseudo-random data and now behaves exactly as /dev/urandom.

A new kernel option, options REGRESSION, enables interfaces and functionality intended for use during correctness and regression testing.

The snp(4) device is no longer static and can now be compiled as a module. [MERGED]

The syscons(4) driver now supports keyboard-controlled pasting, by default bound to Shift-Insert.

Support for USB devices was added to the GENERIC kernel and to the installation programs to support USB devices out of the box. Note that SRM does not support USB devices at the moment, so you must still use an AT keyboard if you are not using a serial console. [MERGED]

The USER_LDT kernel option is now activated by default.

A VESA S3 linear framebuffer driver has been added.

Write combining for crashdumps has been implemented. This feature is useful when write caching is disabled on both SCSI and IDE disks, where large memory dumps could take up to an hour to complete. [MERGED]

Extremely large swap areas (>67 GB) no longer panic the system.

Support for threads under Linux emulation has been added.

The buildkernel target now gets the name of the configuration(s) to build from the KERNCONF variable, not KERNEL. It is no longer required, in some cases, for a buildworld to precede a buildkernel. (The buildworld is still required when upgrading across major releases, across binutil updates and when config(8) changes version.) [MERGED]

The out-of-swap process termination code now begins killing processes earlier to avoid deadlocks; it now also takes into account the swap space used by processes when computing the process sizes. [MERGED]

Linker sets are now self-contained; gensetdefs(8) is unnecessary and has been removed.

Numerous SMP-friendly changes have been made to the kernel's mbuf allocator.

Network device cloning has been implemented, and the gif(4) device has been modified to take advantage of it. Thus, instead of specifying how many gif(4) interfaces are available in kernel configuration files, ifconfig(8)'s create option should be used when another device instance is desired. [MERGED]

It is now possible to hardwire kernel environment variables (such as tuneables) at compile-time using config(8)'s ENV directive.

Idle zeroing of pages can be enabled with the vm.zeroidle_enable sysctl variable.

Coredumps of large processes (or of a large number of processes) no longer lock up the machine for long periods of time. [MERGED]

The kernel is now aware of the concept that there are smaller units of scheduling than a process (but only one thread per process is allowed at this time).

The kernel now has support for multiple low-level console devices. The new conscontrol(8) utility helps to manage the different consoles.

The console driver has gained support for TGA-based display adapters.

The kernel on the installation CDs is now separated from the mfsroot image. This permits the use of a full kernel when installing from CD on machines that support CD booting (instead of the stripped-down kernel used on floppies). [MERGED]

The system load average computation now adds some jitter to the timing of samples, in order to avoid synchronization with processes that run periodically. [MERGED]

If a debugging kernel with modules is being built (i.e. using makeoptions DEBUG=-g), the modules will now be built with debugging support as well, for completeness. A side effect of this change is that modules built and installed with debugging kernels will now occupy more space on disk than they did previously. [MERGED]

The kernel dump device can now be set via the dumpdev loader tunable. As a result, it is now possible to obtain crash dumps from panics during the late stages of kernel initialization (before the system enters into single-user mode). [MERGED]

2.1.1 Processor/Motherboard Support

SMP support has been largely reworked, incorporating code from BSD/OS 5.0. One of the main features of SMPng (``SMP Next Generation'') is to allow more processes to run in kernel, without the need for spin locks that can dramatically reduce the efficiency of multiple processors. Interrupt handlers now have contexts associated with them that allow them to be blocked, which reduces the need to lock out interrupts.

AlphaServer 1200 (``Tincup'') has been tested and works OK. Currently it does not want to boot from CD or floppy but a transplanted disk that was installed on another Alpha works well. [MERGED]

The API UP1100 mainboard has been verified to work.

The API CS20 1U high server has been verified to work.

The DEC3000 series support has been removed from the mfsroot floppy image so that it fits on a 1.44 Mbyte floppy again. As the DEC3000 is currently only usable diskless this should not cause any problems.

Support for AlphaServer 2100A (``Lynx'') has been added.

Kernel code has been added that allows older generation Alpha CPUs (EV4 and EV5) to emulate instructions of the newer Alpha CPU generations. This enables the use of binary-only programs like Adobe Acrobat 4 on EV4 and EV5.

SMP support for the Alpha is now operational.

Support for the following hardware has been removed from the installation kernel to make it fit on a 1.44MB floppy again: Multia, NoName, PC64, EB64, Aspen Alpine, sa (SCSI tape), amr, parallel port support, vx (3c590, 3c595), pcn (AMD Am79C97x PCI 10/100), sf (Adaptec AIC-6915), sis (SiS 900/SiS 7016), ste (Sundance ST201 (D-Link DFE-550TX)), wb (Winbond W89C840F).

2.1.2 Bootloader Changes

The FreeBSD boot loader is now capable of booting from filesystems with block sizes larger than 8K. [MERGED]

The kernel and modules have been moved to the directory /boot/kernel, so they can be easily manipulated together. The boot loader has been updated to make this change as seamless as possible.

2.1.3 Network Interface Support

The an(4) driver for Cisco Aironet cards now supports Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) encryption, settable via ancontrol(8). [MERGED]

The an(4) driver now supports the Cisco Aironet 350 series of adaptors. [MERGED]

The an(4) driver now supports ``monitor'' mode, settable via the -M option to ancontrol(8). [MERGED]

The an(4) driver now supports Cisco LEAP, as well as the ``Home'' WEP key. The Linux Aironet utilities are now supported under emulation. [MERGED]

The dc(4) driver now supports NICs based on the Xircom 3201 and Conexant LANfinity RS7112 chips.

The dc(4) driver now has support for VLANs. [MERGED]

The de(4) driver now performs round-robin arbitration between the transmit and receive units of the 21143, instead of giving priority to the receive unit. This gives a 10-15% performance improvement in the forwarding rate under heavy load. [MERGED]

The ed(4) driver is now supported.

A bug in the ed(4) driver that could cause panics with very short packets and BPF or bridging active has been fixed. [MERGED]

The ed(4) driver now has support for D-Link DL10022 chips, necessary for the NetGear FA-410TX and other cards. As a result, device miibus is required in kernel configurations using the ed(4) driver. [MERGED]

The faith(4) device is now loadable, unloadable, and clonable. [MERGED]

The fpa(4) driver now supports Digital's DEFPA FDDI adaptors on the Alpha. [MERGED]

The fxp(4) driver now requires a device miibus entry in the kernel configuration file. [MERGED]

The fxp(4) driver now contains a workaround for PCI protocol violations caused by defects in some systems based on the Intel ICH2/ICH2-M chip. The workaround is to rewrite the EEPROM on the interface to disable Dynamic Standby Mode; once the EEPROM is rewritten, the system needs to be rebooted for the new settings to take effect. [MERGED]

The fxp(4) driver now supports Intel's loadable microcode to implement receive-side interrupt coalescing and packet bundling, on NICs that support these features. This support can be activated by the use of the link0 option to ifconfig(8). [MERGED]

The gx(4) driver has been added to support NICs based on the Intel 82542 and 82543 Gigabit Ethernet controller chips. Both fiber and copper variants of the cards are supported. Both boards support VLAN tagging/insertion, and the 82543 additionally supports TCP/IP checksum offload. [MERGED]

The lge(4) driver has been added to support the Level 1 LXT1001 NetCellerator Gigabit Ethernet controller chip. This device is used on some fiber optic GigE cards from SMC, D-Link and Addtron. Jumbograms and TCP/IP checksum offload on receive are supported, although hardware VLAN filtering is not. [MERGED]

Added the nge(4) driver, which supports PCI Gigabit Ethernet adapters based on the National Semiconductor DP83820 and DP83821 Gigabit Ethernet controller chips, including the D-Link DGE-500T, SMC EZ Card 1000 (SMC9462TX), Asante FriendlyNet GigaNIC 1000TA and 1000TPC and Addtron AEG320T. This driver supports transmit and receive checksum offloading. [MERGED]

The pcn(4) driver, which supports the AMD PCnet/FAST, PCnet/FAST+, PCnet/FAST III, PCnet/PRO, PCnet/Home, and HomePNA adapters, has been added. Although these cards are already supported by the lnc(4) driver, the pcn(4) driver runs these chips in 32-bit mode and uses the RX alignment feature to achieve zero-copy receive. This driver is also machine-independent, so it will work on both the i386 and Alpha platforms. The lnc(4) driver is still needed to support non-PCI cards. [MERGED]

The ray(4) driver, which supports the Webgear Aviator wireless network cards, has been committed. The operation of ray(4) interfaces can be modified by raycontrol(8). [MERGED]

Added support for PCI Ethernet adapters based on the SiS 900 and SiS 7016 Fast Ethernet controller chips (for example, as seen on the SiS 635 and 735 motherboard chipsets), as well as the National Semiconductor DP83815 chipset (including the NetGear FA311-TX and FA312-TX) in the form of the sis(4) driver. This device has support for VLANs. [MERGED]

The stf(4) device is now clonable.

The tap(4) driver, a virtual Ethernet device driver for bridged configurations, has been added. This device is clonable. [MERGED]

The ti(4) driver now supports the Alteon AceNIC 1000baseT Gigabit Ethernet and Netgear GA620T 1000baseT Gigabit cards. [MERGED]

The ti(4) driver correctly masks VLAN tags. [MERGED]

The txp(4) driver has been added to support NICs based on the 3Com 3XP Typhoon/Sidewinder (3CR990) chipset. [MERGED]

vlan(4) devices are now loadable, unloadable, and clonable. [MERGED]

The wi(4) driver now has support for Prism II and Prism 2.5-based NICs. 104/128-bit WEP now works on Prism cards. [MERGED]

The xl(4) driver now supports the 3Com 3C556 and 3C556B MiniPCI adapters used on some laptops. [MERGED]

The xl(4) driver now supports reception of VLAN tagged frames (on the ``Cyclone'' or newer chipsets). [MERGED]

The xl(4) driver now supports send- and receive-side TCP/IP checksum offloading for NICs implementing this feature, such as the 3C905B, 3C905C, and 3C980C. [MERGED]

A bug in the xl(4) driver, related to statistics overflow interrupt handling, was causing slowdowns at medium to high packet rates; this has been fixed. [MERGED]

The per-interface ifnet structure now has the ability to indicate a set of capabilities supported by a network interface, and which ones are enabled. ifconfig(8) has support for querying these capabilities. [MERGED]

Performance with hosts having a large number of IP aliases has been improved, by replacing the per-interface if_inaddr linear list with a hash table. [MERGED]

Network devices now automatically appear as special files in /dev/net. Interface hardware ioctls (not protocol or routing) can be performed on these devices. The SIOCGIFCONF ioctl may be performed on the special /dev/network node.

Selected network drivers now implement a semi-polling mode, which makes systems much more resilient to attacks and overloads. To enable polling, the following options are required in a kernel configuration file:

    options DEVICE_POLLING
    options HZ=1000 # not compulsory but strongly recommended
The kern.polling.enable sysctl variable will then activate polling mode; with the kern.polling.user_frac sysctl indicating the percentage of CPU time to be reserved for userland. The devices initially supporting polling are dc(4), fxp(4), and sis(4). More details can be found in the polling(4) manual page. [MERGED]

2.1.4 Network Protocols

accept_filter(9), a kernel feature to reduce overheads when accepting and reading new connections on listening sockets, has been added. [MERGED]

The proxy modifier to arp(8)'s -d option has been renamed to pub, for consistency with the -s option. The only keyword has been added to the -s and -S flags, to be used in creating ``proxy-only'' published entries. [MERGED]

The read timeout feature of bpf(4) now works more correctly with select(2)/ poll(2), and therefore with pthreads. [MERGED]

bridge(4) and dummynet(4) have received some enhancements and bug fixes, and are now loadable modules. [MERGED]

bridge(4) now has better support for multiple, fully-independent bridging clusters, and is much more stable in the presence of dynamic attachments and detatchments. Full support for VLANs is also supported. [MERGED]

ICMP ECHO and TSTAMP replies are now rate limited. TCP RSTs generated due to packets sent to open and unopen ports are now limited by separate counters. Each rate limiting queue now has its own description.

ICMP UNREACH_FILTER_PROHIB messages can now RST TCP connections in the SYN_SENT state if the correct sequence numbers are sent back, as controlled by the net.inet.tcp.icmp_may_rst sysctl.

IP multicast now works on VLAN devices. Several other bugs in the VLAN code have also been fixed.

A bug in the IPSec processing for IPv4, which caused the inbound SPD checks to be ignored, has been fixed. [MERGED]

ipfw(4) now filters correctly in the presence of ECN bits in TCP segments. [MERGED]

A new ng_eth(4) netgraph node allows Ethernet type packets to be filtered to different hooks depending on ethertype.

The ng_gif(4) and ng_gif_demux(4) netgraph nodes, for operating on gif(4) devices, have been added.

The ng_ip_input(4) netgraph node, for queueing IP packets into the main IP input processing code, has been added.

The ng_mppc(4) and ng_bridge(4) node types have been added to the netgraph(4) subsystem. The ng_ether(4) node is now dynamically loadable. Miscellaneous bug fixes and enhancements have also been made. [MERGED]

A new netgraph node type ng_one2many(4) for multiplexing and demultiplexing packets over multiple links has been added. [MERGED]

A new sysctl net.inet.ip.check_interface, which is on by default, causes IP to verify that an incoming packet arrives on an interface that has an address matching the packet's destination address. [MERGED]

A new sysctl has been added to control the suppression of logging when ARP replies arrive on the wrong interface. [MERGED]

A new options RANDOM_IP_ID kernel option causes the ID field of IP packets to be randomized. This closes a minor information leak which allows a remote observer to determine the rate at which the machine is generating packets, since the default behavior is to increment a counter for each packet sent. [MERGED]

SLIP has been removed from the mfsroot floppy image.

TCP has received some bug fixes for its delayed ACK behavior. [MERGED]

TCP now supports the NewReno modification to the TCP Fast Recovery algorithm. This behavior can be controlled via the net.inet.tcp.newreno sysctl variable. [MERGED]

TCP now uses a more aggressive timeout for initial SYN segments; this allows initial connection attempts to be dropped much faster. [MERGED]

The TCP_COMPAT_42 kernel option has been removed. [MERGED]

The TCP_RESTRICT_RST kernel option has been removed. Similar functionality can be achieved with the net.inet.tcp.blackhole sysctl variable. [MERGED]

TCP now has RFC 1323 extensions enabled by default in rc.conf(5). [MERGED]

RFC 1323 and RFC 1644 TCP extensions are now disabled for a connection in progress if no response has been received by the third SYN segment sent. This behavior tries to work around (very old) terminal servers with buggy VJ header compression implementations. [MERGED]

The TCP implementation no longer requires the allocation of a TCP template structure for each connection; this should reduce the buffer usage on large systems handling many connections. [MERGED]

TCP's default buffer sizes, controlled by the net.inet.tcp.sendspace and net.inet.tcp.recvspace sysctl variables, have been increased to 32K and 64K respectively. Previously, the default for both buffer sizes was 16K. To try to avoid increasing congestion, the default value for net.inet.tcp.local_slowstart_flightsize has been changed from infinity to 4. [MERGED]

Note: On busy hosts, the new larger buffer sizes may require manually increasing the NMBCLUSTERS parameter, either in the kernel configuration file or via the kern.ipc.nmbclusters loader tunable. netstat -mb can be used to monitor the state of mbuf clusters.

TCP now supports RFC 1948 (Defending Against Sequence Number Attacks). This functionality is controlled by the net.inet.tcp.strict_rfc1948 and net.inet.tcp.isn_reseed_interval sysctl variables. [MERGED]

The TCP implementation in FreeBSD now implements a cache of outstanding, received SYN segments. Incoming SYN segments now cause entries to be placed in the cache until the TCP three-way handshake is complete, at which point, memory is allocated for the connection as usual. In addition, all TCP Initial Sequence Numbers (ISNs) are used as cookies, allowing entries in the cache to be dropped, but still have their corresponding ACKs accepted later. The combination of the so-called ``syncache'' and ``syncookies'' features makes a host much more resistant to TCP-based Denial of Service attacks. Work on this feature was sponsored by DARPA and NAI Labs. [MERGED]

A bug in the TCP implementation, which could cause connections to stall if a sender saw a zero-sized window, has been corrected. [MERGED]

The TCP implementation now properly ignores packets addressed to IP-layer broadcast addresses. [MERGED]

2.1.5 Disks and Storage

The ahc(4) driver has received numerous updates, bugfixes, and enhancements. Among various improvements are improved compatibility with chips in ``RAID Port'' mode and systems with AAA and/or ARO cards installed, as well as performance improvements. Some bugs were also fixed, including a rare hang on Ultra2/U160 controllers. [MERGED]

The ata(4) driver now has support for ATA100 controllers. In addition, it now supports the ServerWorks ROSB4 ATA33 chipset, the CMD 648 ATA66 and CMD 649 ATA100 chipsets, and the Cyrix 5530. [MERGED]

To provide more flexible configuration, the various options for the ata(4) driver are now boot loader tunables, rather than kernel configure-time options. [MERGED]

The ata(4) driver now has support for tagged queuing, which is enabled by the hw.ata.tags loader tunable. [MERGED]

The ata(4) driver now has support for ATA ``pseudo'' RAID controllers as the Promise Fasttrak and HighPoint HPT370 controllers. [MERGED]

The ata(4) driver now supports a wider variety of SiS chipsets, as listed in the Hardware Notes. [MERGED]

The ata(4) driver now has support for rebuilding failed drives in a RAID1 configuration, under control of atacontrol(8)

The BurnProof(TM) feature, for applicable ATAPI CD-ROM burners, is now supported. [MERGED]

The ata(4) driver now has support for 48-bit addressing. Devices larger than 137GB are now supported. [MERGED]

The ata(4) driver now contains fixes for some data corruption problems on systems using the VIA 82C686B Southbridge chip. [MERGED]

The CAM error recovery code has been updated.

The cd(4) driver now has support for write operations. This allows writing to DVD-RAM, PD and similar drives that probe as CD devices. Note that change affects only random-access writeable devices, not sequential-only writeable devices such as CD-R drives, which are supported by cdrecord(1) (a part of sysutils/cdrtools in the Ports Collection. [MERGED]

The fdc(4) floppy disk has undergone a number of enhancements. Density selection for common settings is now automatic; the driver is also much more flexible in setting the densities of various subdevices.

The ida disk driver now has crashdump support. [MERGED]

A bug that made certain CDROM drives fail to attach when connected to a SCSI card driven by isp(4) has been fixed. [MERGED]

The isp(4) driver is now proactive about discovering Fibre Channel topology changes.

The isp(4) driver now supports target mode for Qlogic SCSI cards, including Ultra2 and Ultra3 and dual bus cards.

The isp(4) driver now supports the Qlogic 2300 and 2312 Optical Fibre Channel PCI cards. [MERGED]

md(4), the memory disk device, has had the functionality of vn(4) incorporated into it. md(4) devices can now be configured by mdconfig(8). vn(4) has been removed. The Memory Filesystem (MFS) has also been removed.

Some problems in sa(4) error handling have been fixed, including the ``tape drive spinning indefinitely upon mt(1) stat'' problem.

The vinum(4) volume manager has received some bug fixes and enhancements.

The wd(4) compatibility devices were removed from the ata(4) driver. [MERGED]

2.1.6 Filesystems

Support for named extended attributes was added to the FreeBSD kernel. This allows the kernel, and appropriately privileged userland processes, to tag files and directories with attribute data. Extended attributes were added to support the TrustedBSD Project, in particular ACLs, capability data, and mandatory access control labels (see /usr/src/sys/ufs/ufs/README.extattr for details).

Due to a licensing change, softupdates have been integrated into the main portion of the kernel source tree. As a consequence, softupdates are now available with the GENERIC kernel. [MERGED]

A filesystem snapshot capability has been added to FFS. Details can be found in /usr/src/sys/ufs/ffs/README.snapshot.

Softupdates for FFS have received some bug fixes and enhancements.

When running with softupdates, statfs(2) and df(1) will track the number of blocks and files that are committed to being freed.

A bug in FFS that could cause superblock corruption on very large filesystems has been corrected. [MERGED]

The Inode Filesystem (IFS) has been added; more information can be found in /usr/src/sys/ufs/ifs/README.

The ISO-9660 filesystem now has a hook that supports a loadable character conversion routine. The sysutils/cd9660_unicode port contains a set of common conversions.

kernfs(5) is obsolete and has been retired.

A bug in the NFS client that caused bogus access times with O_EXCL|O_CREAT opens was fixed. [MERGED]

A new NFS hash function (based on the Fowler/Noll/Vo hash algorithm) has been implemented to improve NFS performance by increasing the efficiency of the nfsnode hash tables. [MERGED]

Client-side NFS locks have been implemented.

The client-side and server-side of the NFS code in the kernel used to be intertwined in various complex ways. They have been split apart for ease of maintenance and further development.

Support for filesystem Access Control Lists (ACLs) has been introduced, allowing more fine-grained control of discretionary access control on files and directories. This support was integrated from the TrustedBSD Project. More details can be found in /usr/src/sys/ufs/ufs/README.acls.

The directory layout preference algorithm for FFS (dirprefs) has been changed. Rather than scattering directory blocks across a disk, it attempts to group related directory blocks together. Operations traversing large directory hierarchies, such as the FreeBSD Ports tree, have shown marked speedups. This change is transparent and automatic for new directories. [MERGED]

For consistency, the fdesc, fifo, null, msdos, portal, umap, and union filesystems have been renamed to fdescfs, fifofs, msdosfs, nullfs, portalfs, umapfs, and unionfs. Where applicable, modules and mount_* programs have been renamed. Compatibility ``glue'' has been added to mount(8) so that msdos filesystem entries in fstab(5) will work without changes.

pseudofs, a pseudo-filesystem framework, has been added. linprocfs(5) and procfs(5) have been modified to use pseudofs.

A simple hash-based lookup optimization for large directories called dirhash has been added. Conditional on the UFS_DIRHASH kernel option (enabled by default in the GENERIC kernel), it improves the speed of operations on very large directories at the expense of some memory. [MERGED]

The virtual memory subsystem now backs UFS directory memory requirements by default (this behavior is controlled via the vfs.vmiodirenable sysctl variable). [MERGED]

A bug that prevented the root filesystem from being mounted from a SCSI CDROM has been fixed (ATAPI CDROMs were always supported). [MERGED]

A number of bugs in the filesystem code, discovered through the use of the fsx filesystem test tool, have been fixed. Under certain circumstances (primarily related to use of NFS), these bugs could cause data corruption or kernel panics. [MERGED]

Network filesystems (such as NFS and smbfs filesystems) listed in /etc/fstab can now be properly mounted during startup initialization; their mounts are deferred until after the network is initialized.

2.1.7 PCCARD Support

On many modern hosts, PCCARD devices can be configured to route their interrupts via either the ISA or PCI interrupt paths. The pcic(4) driver has been updated to support both interrupt paths (formerly, only routing via ISA was supported). [MERGED] In most cases, configuration of PCMCIA devices in laptops is simpler and more flexible. In addition, various Cardbus bridge PCI cards (such as those used by Orinoco PCI NICs) are now supported. Some hosts may experience problems, such as hangs or panics, with PCI interrupt routing; they can frequently be made to work by forcing the older-style ISA interrupt routing. The following lines, placed in /boot/loader.conf, may fix the problem:


When installing FreeBSD on such a system, typing the following lines to the boot loader may be helpful in starting up FreeBSD for the first time:

    ok set hw.pcic.intr_path="1"
    ok set hw.pcic.irq="0"

2.1.8 Multimedia Support


The bktr(4) driver has been updated to 2.18. This update provides a number of new features. New tuner types have been added, and improvements to the KLD module and to memory allocation have been made. Bugs in devfs(5) when unloading and reloading have been fixed. Support for new Hauppauge Model 44xxx WinTV Cards (the ones with no audio mux) has been added. [MERGED]

When sound modules are built, one can now load all the drivers and infrastructure by kldload snd. [MERGED]

A new API has been added for sound cards with hardware volume control.

2.1.9 Contributed Software

The Forth Inspired Command Language (FICL) used in the boot loader has been updated to 2.05.

Support for Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI), a multi-vendor standard for configuration and power management, has been added. This functionality has been provided by the Intel ACPI Component Architecture project, as of the ACPI CA 20020308 snapshot. Some backward compatability for applications using the older APM standard has been provided. IPFilter

IPFilter has been updated to 3.4.20. [MERGED]

IPFilter now supports IPv6. [MERGED] KAME

The IPv6 stack is now based on a snapshot based on the KAME Project's IPv6 snapshot as of 28 May, 2001. Most of the items listed in this section are a result of this import. Section lists userland updates to the KAME IPv6 stack. [MERGED]

gif(4) is now based on RFC 2893, rather than RFC 1933. The IFF_LINK2 interface flag can be used to control ingress filtering. [MERGED]

IPSec has received some enhancements, including the ability to use the Rijndael and SHA2 algorithms. IPSec RC5 support has been removed due to patent issues. [MERGED]

stf(4) now conforms to RFC 3056; the IFF_LINK2 interface flag can be used to control ingress filtering. [MERGED]

IPv6 has better checking of illegal addresses (such as loopback addresses) on physical networks. [MERGED]

The IPV6_V6ONLY socket option is now completely supported. The kernel's default behavior with respect to this option is controlled by the net.inet6.ip6.v6only sysctl variable. [MERGED]

RFC 3041 (Privacy Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration) is now supported. It can be enabled via the net.inet6.ip6.use_tempaddr sysctl variable. [MERGED]

2.2 Security-Related Changes

sysinstall(8) now allows the user to select one of two ``security profiles'' at install-time. These profiles enable different levels of system security by enabling or disabling various system services in rc.conf(5) on new installs. [MERGED]

A bug in which malformed ELF executable images can hang the system has been fixed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-00:41). [MERGED]

A security hole in Linux emulation was fixed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-00:42). [MERGED]

String-handling library calls in many programs were fixed to reduce the possibility of buffer overflow-related exploits. [MERGED]

TCP now uses stronger randomness in choosing its initial sequence numbers (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-00:52). [MERGED]

Several buffer overflows in tcpdump(1) were corrected (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-00:61). [MERGED]

A security hole in top(1) was corrected (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-00:62). [MERGED]

A potential security hole caused by an off-by-one-error in gethostbyname(3) has been fixed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-00:63). [MERGED]

A potential buffer overflow in the ncurses(3) library, which could cause arbitrary code to be run from within systat(1), has been corrected (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-00:68). [MERGED]

A vulnerability in telnetd(8) that could cause it to consume large amounts of server resources has been fixed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-00:69). [MERGED]

The nat deny_incoming command in ppp(8) now works correctly (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-00:70). [MERGED]

A vulnerability in csh(1)/ tcsh(1) temporary files that could allow overwriting of arbitrary user-writable files has been closed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-00:76). [MERGED]

The ssh(1) binary is no longer SUID root by default. [MERGED]

Some fixes were applied to the Kerberos IV implementation related to environment variables, a possible buffer overrun, and overwriting ticket files. [MERGED]

telnet(1) now does a better job of sanitizing its environment. [MERGED]

Several vulnerabilities in procfs(5) were fixed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-00:77). [MERGED]

A bug in OpenSSH in which a server was unable to disable ssh-agent(1) or X11Forwarding was fixed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:01). [MERGED]

A bug in ipfw(8) and ip6fw(8) in which inbound TCP segments could incorrectly be treated as being part of an established connection has been fixed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:08). [MERGED]

A bug in crontab(1) that could allow users to read any file on the system in valid crontab(5) syntax has been fixed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:09). [MERGED]

A vulnerability in inetd(8) that could allow read-access to the initial 16 bytes of wheel-accessible files has been fixed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:11). [MERGED]

A bug in periodic(8) that used insecure temporary files has been corrected (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:12). [MERGED]

A bug in sort(1) in which an attacker might be able to cause it to abort processing has been fixed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:13). [MERGED]

OpenSSH now has code to prevent (instead of just mitigating through connection limits) an attack that can lead to guessing the server key (not host key) by regenerating the server key when an RSA failure is detected (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:24). [MERGED]

A number of programs have had output formatting strings corrected so as to reduce the risk of vulnerabilities. [MERGED]

A number of programs that use temporary files now do so more securely. [MERGED]

A bug in ICMP that could cause an attacker to disrupt TCP and UDP ``sessions'' has been corrected. [MERGED]

A bug in timed(8), which caused it to crash if send certain malformed packets, has been corrected (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:28). [MERGED]

A bug in rwhod(8), which caused it to crash if send certain malformed packets, has been corrected (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:29). [MERGED]

A security hole in FreeBSD's FFS and EXT2FS implementations, which allowed a race condition that could cause users to have unauthorized access to data, has been fixed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:30). [MERGED]

A remotely-exploitable vulnerability in ntpd(8) has been closed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:31). [MERGED]

A security hole in IPFilter's fragment cache has been closed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:32). [MERGED]

Buffer overflows in glob(3), which could cause arbitrary code to be run on an FTP server, have been closed. In addition, to prevent some forms of DOS attacks, glob(3) allows specification of a limit on the number of pathname matches it will return. ftpd(8) now uses this feature (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:33). [MERGED]

Initial sequence numbers in TCP are more thoroughly randomized (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:39). Due to some possible compatibility issues, the behavior of this security fix can be enabled or disabled via the net.inet.tcp.tcp_seq_genscheme sysctl variable.[MERGED]

A vulnerability in the fts(3) routines (used by applications for recursively traversing a filesystem) could allow a program to operate on files outside the intended directory hierarchy. This bug has been fixed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:40). [MERGED]

FreeBSD's TCP implementation has been made more resistant to SYN floods, by eliminating the RST segment normally sent when removing a connection from the listen queue.

OpenSSH now switches to the user's UID before attempting to unlink the authentication forwarding file, nullifying the effects of a race.

A flaw allowed some signal handlers to remain in effect in a child process after being exec-ed from its parent. This allowed an attacker to execute arbitrary code in the context of a setuid binary. This flaw has been corrected (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:42). [MERGED]

A remote buffer overflow in tcpdump(1) has been fixed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:48). [MERGED]

A remote buffer overflow in telnetd(8) has been fixed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:49). [MERGED]

The new net.inet.ip.maxfragpackets and net.inet.ip6.maxfragpackets sysctl variables limit the amount of memory that can be consumed by IPv4 and IPv6 packet fragments, which defends against some denial of service attacks (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:52). [MERGED]

All services in inetd.conf are now disabled by default for new installations. sysinstall(8) gives the option of enabling or disabling inetd(8) on new installations, as well as editing inetd.conf. [MERGED]

A flaw in the implementation of the ipfw(8) me rules on point-to-point links has been corrected. Formerly, me filter rules would match the remote IP address of a point-to-point interface in addition to the intended local IP address (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:53). [MERGED]

A vulnerability in procfs(5), which could allow a process to read sensitive information from another process's memory space, has been closed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:55). [MERGED]

The PARANOID hostname checking in tcp_wrappers now works as advertised (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:56). [MERGED]

A local root exploit in sendmail(8) has been closed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:57). [MERGED]

A remote root vulnerability in lpd(8) has been closed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:58). [MERGED]

A race condition in rmuser(8) that briefly exposed a world-readable /etc/master.passwd has been fixed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:59). [MERGED]

A vulnerability in UUCP has been closed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:62). All non-root-owned binaries in standard system paths now have the schg flag set to prevent exploit vectors when run by cron(8), by root, or by a user other then the one owning the binary. In addition, uustat(1) is now run via /etc/periodic/daily/410.status-uucp as uucp, not root. In FreeBSD -CURRENT, UUCP has since been moved to the Ports Collection and no longer a part of the base system. [MERGED]

A security hole in the form of a buffer overflow in the semop(2) system call has been closed. [MERGED]

A security hole in OpenSSH, which could allow users to execute code with arbitrary privileges if UseLogin yes was set, has been closed. Note that the default value of this setting is UseLogin no. (See security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:63.) [MERGED]

The use of an insecure temporary directory by pkg_add(1) could permit a local attacker to modify the contents of binary packages while they were being installed. This hole has been closed. (See security advisory FreeBSD-SA-02:01.) [MERGED]

A race condition in pw(8), which could expose the contents of /etc/master.passwd, has been eliminated. (See security advisory FreeBSD-SA-02:02.) [MERGED]

A bug in k5su(8) could have allowed a process that had given up superuser privileges to regain them. This bug has been fixed. (See security advisory FreeBSD-SA-02:07.) [MERGED]

An ``off-by-one'' bug has been fixed in OpenSSH's multiplexing code. This bug could have allowed an authenticated remote user to cause sshd(8) to execute arbitrary code with superuser privileges, or allowed a malicious SSH server to execute arbitrary code on the client system with the privileges of the client user. (See security advisory FreeBSD-SA-02:13.) [MERGED]

A programming error in zlib could result in attempts to free memory multiple times. The malloc(3)/ free(3) routines used in FreeBSD are not vulnerable to this error, but applications receiving specially-crafted blocks of invalid compressed data could be made to function incorrectly or abort. This zlib bug has been fixed. For a workaround and solutions, see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-02:18. [MERGED]

2.3 Userland Changes

If the first argument to ancontrol(8) or wicontrol(8) doesn't start with a -, it is assumed to be an interface.

apmd(8) now has the ability to monitor battery levels and execute commands based on percentage or minutes of battery life remaining via the apm_battery configuration directive. See the commented-out examples in /etc/apmd.conf for the syntax. [MERGED]

arp(8) now prints the applicable interface name for each ARP entry. [MERGED]

arp(8) now prints [fddi] or [atm] tags for addresses on interfaces of those types.

atacontrol(8) has been added to control various aspects of the ata(4) driver.

burncd(8) now supports a -m option for multisession mode (the default behavior now is to close disks as single-session). A -l option to take a list of image files from a filename was also added; - can be used as a filename for stdin. [MERGED]

burncd(8) now supports Disk At Once (DAO) mode, selectable via the -d flag.

burncd(8) now has the ability to write VCDs/SVCDs.

c89(1) has been converted from a shell script to a binary executable, fixing some minor bugs. [MERGED]

cat(1) now has the ability to read from UNIX-domain sockets. [MERGED]

cdcontrol(1) now supports a cdid command, which calculates and displays the CD serial number, using the same algorithm used by the CDDB database. [MERGED]

cdcontrol(1) now uses the CDROM environment variable to pick a default device. [MERGED]

cdcontrol(1) now supports next and prev commands to skip forwards or backwards a specified number of tracks while playing an audio CD. [MERGED]

chflags(1) has moved from /usr/bin to /bin.

chio(1) now has the ability to specify elements by volume tag instead of by their physical location as well as the ability to return an element to its previous location. [MERGED]

chmod(1) now supports a -h for changing the mode of a symbolic link.

chown(8) now correctly follows symbolic links named as command line arguments if run without -R. [MERGED]

chown(8) no longer takes . as a user/group delimeter. This change was made to support usernames containing a ..

Use of the CSMG_* macros no longer require inclusion of <sys/param.h>

col(1) now takes a -p flag to force unknown control sequences to be passed through unchanged. [MERGED]

The compat3x distribution has been updated to include libraries present in FreeBSD 3.5.1-RELEASE. [MERGED]

A compat4x distribution has been added for compatibility with FreeBSD 4-STABLE.

config(8) is now better about converting various warnings that should have been errors into actual fatal errors with an exit code. This ensures that make buildkernel doesn't quietly ignore them and build a bogus kernel without a human to read the errors. [MERGED]

A number of buffer overflows in config(8) have been fixed. [MERGED]

ctags(1) no longer creates a corrupt tags file if the source file used // (C++-style) comments. [MERGED]

The daemon(8) program, a command-line interface to daemon(3), has been added. It detaches itself from its controlling terminal and executes a program specified on the command line. This allows the user to run an arbitrary program as if it were written to be a daemon.

devinfo, a simple tool to print the device tree and resource usage by devices, has been added.

df(1) now takes a -l option to only display information about locally-mounted filesystems. [MERGED]

disklabel(8) now supports partition sizes expressed in kilobytes, megabytes, or gigabytes, in addition to sectors. [MERGED]

dmesg(8) now has a -a option to show the entire message buffer, including syslogd(8) records and /dev/console output. [MERGED]

du(1) now takes a -I command-line flag to ignore/skip files and subdirectories matching a specified shell-glob mask. [MERGED]

dump(8) now supports inheritance of the nodump flag down a hierarchy. [MERGED]

The -T option to dump(8) no longer swallows an extra argument. [MERGED]

dump(8) has a new -D option, allowing the path to the /etc/dumpdates file to be changed. [MERGED]

dump(8) now supplies progress information in its process title, useful for monitoring automated backups. [MERGED]

dump(8) now supports a new -S to allow it to just print out the dump size estimates and exit.

edquota(8) now takes a -f option to allow limiting the prototype quota distribution (specified with -p) to a single filesystem. [MERGED]

/etc/rc.firewall and /etc/rc.firewall6 will no longer add their own hardcoded rules in the cases of a rules file in the firewall_type variable or a non-existent firewall type. (The motivation for this change is to avoid acting on assumptions about a site's firewall policies.) In addition, the closed firewall type now works as documented in the rc.firewall(8) manual page. [MERGED]

The functionality of /etc/security has been been moved into a set of scripts under the periodic(8) framework, to make local customization easier and more maintainable. These scripts now reside in /etc/periodic/security/. [MERGED]

fbtab(5) now accepts glob matching patterns for target devices, not just individual devices and directories.

fdread(1), a program to read data from floppy disks, has been added. It is a counterpart to fdwrite(1) and is designed to provide a means of recovering at least some data from bad media, and to obviate for a complex invocation of dd(1).

find(1) now takes the -empty flag, which returns true if a file or directory is empty. [MERGED]

find(1) now takes the -iname and -ipath primaries for case-insensitive matches, and the -regexp and -iregexp primaries for regular-expression matches. The -E flag now enables extended regular expressions. [MERGED]

find(1) now has the -anewer, -cnewer, -mnewer, -okdir, and -newer[acm][acmt] primaries for comparisons of file timestamps. The latter primaries can be specified with various units of time. [MERGED]

finger(1) now has the ability to support fingering aliases, via the finger.conf(5) file. [MERGED]

finger(1) now has support for a .pubkey file.

fmt(1) has been rewritten; the rewrite fixes a number of bugs compared to its prior behavior. [MERGED]

fmtcheck(3), a function for checking consistency of format string arguments, has been added. [MERGED]

fsck(8) wrappers have been imported; this feature provides infrastructure for fsck(8) to work on different types of filesystems (analogous to mount(8)).

The behavior of fsck(8) when dealing with various passes (a la /etc/fstab) has been modified to accommodate multiple-disk filesystems.

fsck(8) now has support for foreground (-F) and background (-B) checks. Traditionally, fsck(8) is invoked before the filesystems are mounted and all checks are done to completion at that time. If background checking is available, fsck(8) is invoked twice. It is first invoked at the traditional time, before the filesystems are mounted, with the -F flag to do checking on all the filesystems that cannot do background checking. It is then invoked a second time, after the system has completed going multiuser, with the -B flag to do checking on all the filesystems that can do background checking. Unlike the foreground checking, the background checking is started asynchronously so that other system activity can proceed even on the filesystems that are being checked. Boot-time enabling of this feature is controlled by the background_fsck option in rc.conf(5).

Shortly after the receipt of a SIGINFO signal (normally control-T from the controlling tty), fsck_ffs(8) will now output a line indicating the current phase number and progress information relevant to the current phase. [MERGED]

fsck_ffs(8) now supports background filesystem checks to mounted FFS filesystems with the -B option (softupdates must be enabled on these filesystems). The -F flag now determines whether a specified filesystem needs foreground checking.

A new fsck_msdosfs(8) utility has been added to check the consistency of MS-DOS filesystems. [MERGED]

ftpd(8) now supports a -r flag for read-only mode and a -E flag to disable EPSV. It also has some fixes to reduce information leakage and the ability to specify compile-time port ranges. [MERGED]

ftpd(8) now supports -o and -O options to disable the RETR command; the former for everybody, and the latter only for guest users. Coupled with -A and appropriate file permissions, these can be used to create a relatively safe anonymous FTP drop box for others to upload to.

The getprogname(3) and setprogname(3) library functions have been added to manipulate the name of the current program. They are used by error-reporting routines to produce consistent output. [MERGED]

gprof(1) now has a -K option to enable dynamic symbol resolution from the currently-running kernel. With this change, properly-compiled KLD modules are now able to be profiled.

growfs(8), a utility for growing FFS filesystems, has been added. ffsinfo(8), a utility for dump all the meta-information of an existing filesystem, has also been added. [MERGED]

The groups(1) and whoami(1) shell scripts are now unnecessary; their functionality has been completely folded into id(1). [MERGED]

The ibcs2(8), linux(8), osf1(8), and svr4(8) scripts, whose sole purpose was to load emulation kernel modules, have been removed. The kernel module system will automatically load them as needed to fulfill dependencies.

indent(1) has gained some new formatting options. [MERGED]

ifconfig(8) command can set the link-layer address of an interface using the lladdr parameter. [MERGED]

ifconfig(8) can now accept addresses in slash/CIDR notation. [MERGED]

ifconfig(8) now has support for setting parameters for IEEE 802.11 wireless network devices. wi(4) and an(4) devices are supported, and partial support is provided for awi(4) devices. [MERGED]

ifconfig(8) no longer displays the list of supported media by default. Instead it displays it when the -m flag is given. [MERGED]

The syntax of inetd(8)'s support for faithd(8) is now compatible with that of other BSDs. [MERGED]

The ident protocol support in inetd(8) has been cleaned up and updated. [MERGED]

inetd(8) now has the ability to manage UNIX-domain sockets. [MERGED]

install(1) has a number of new features, including the -b and -B options for backing up existing target files and the -S option for ``safe'' (atomic copy) operation. The -c (copy) flag is now the default, and the -D (debugging) flag has been withdrawn. install(1) now issues a warning if -d (create directories) and -C (copy changed files only) are used together. [MERGED]

IP Filter is now supported by the rc.conf(5) boot-time configuration and initialization. [MERGED]

ipfstat(8) now supports the -t option to turn on a top(1)-like display. [MERGED]

ipfw(8) will now avoid the display of dynamic firewall rules unless the -d flag is passed to it. The -e option lists expired dynamic rules. [MERGED]

ipfw(8) has a new feature (me) that allows for packet matching on interfaces with dynamically-changing IP addresses. [MERGED]

ipfw(8) has a new limit type of firewall rule, which limits the number of sessions between address pairs. [MERGED]

ipfw(8) filter rules can now match on the value of the IPv4 precedence field.

ip6fw(8) now has the ability to use a preprocessor and use the -q (quiet) flag when reading from a file. [MERGED]

kenv(1), a command to dump the kernel environment, has been added. [MERGED]

keyinfo(1) is now a C program, rather than a Perl script. [MERGED]

killall(1) is now a C program, rather than a Perl script. As a result, its -m option now uses the regular expression syntax of regex(3), rather than that of perl(1). [MERGED]

killall(1) now allows non-root users to kill SUID root processes that they started, the same as the Perl version did. [MERGED]

The kldconfig(8) utility has been added to make it easier to manipulate the kernel module search path. [MERGED]

last(1) now implements a -d that provides a ``snapshot'' of who was logged in at a particular date and time. [MERGED]

last(1) now supports a -y flag, which causes the year to be included in the session start time.

The lastlogin(8) utility, which prints the last login time of each user, has been imported from NetBSD. [MERGED]

ldconfig(8) now checks directory ownerships and permissions for greater security; these checks can be disabled with the -i flag. [MERGED]

ldd(1) can now be used on shared libraries, in addition to executables. [MERGED]

ldd(1) now supports a -a flag to list all the objects that are needed by each loaded object.

libc is now thread-safe by default; libc_r contains only thread functions.

libcrypt and libdescrypt have been unified to provide a configurable password authentication hash library. Both the md5 and des hash methods are provided unless the des hash is specifically compiled out. [MERGED]

libcrypt now has support for Blowfish password hashing. [MERGED]

libstand now has support for filesystems containing bzip2-compressed files. [MERGED]

libstand now has support for overwriting the contents of a file on a UFS filesystem (it cannot expand or truncate files because the filesystem may be dirty or inconsistent).

The default TCP port range used by libfetch for passive FTP retrievals has changed; this affects the behavior of fetch(1), which has gained the -U option to restore the old behavior. [MERGED]

libfetch now has support for an authentication callback. [MERGED]

libfetch now has support for a HTTP_USER_AGENT environment variable. [MERGED]

libgmp has been superceded by libmp.

The functions from libposix1e have been integrated into libc.

ln(1) now takes an -i option to request user confirmation before overwriting an existing file. [MERGED]

ln(1) now takes a -h flag to avoid following a target that is a link, with a -n flag for compatibility with other implementations. [MERGED]

logger(1) can now send messages directly to a remote syslog. [MERGED]

login(1) now exports environment variables set by PAM modules. [MERGED]

lpc(8) has been improved; lpc clean is now somewhat safer, and a new lpc tclean command has been added to check to see what files would be removed by lpc clean. [MERGED]

lpd(8) now takes two new options: -c will log all connection errors to syslogd(8), while -W will allow connections from non-reserved ports. [MERGED]

lpd(8) now has some support for o-type print-file actions in its control files, which allows printing of PostScript files generated by MacOS 10.1. [MERGED]

lpr(1), lpq(1), and lpd(8) have received a few minor enhancements. [MERGED]

Catching up with most other network utilities in the base system, lpr(1), lpd(8), syslogd(8), and logger(1) are now all IPv6-capable. [MERGED]

lprm - now works for remote printer queues. [MERGED]

ls(1) can produce colorized listings with the -G flag (and appropriate terminal support). The CLICOLOR environment variable can be set to enable colorized listings by default. [MERGED]

mail(1) now takes a -E flag to avoid sending messages with empty bodies. [MERGED]

make(1) has gained the :C/// (regular expression substitution), :L (lowercase), and :U (uppercase) variable modifiers. These were added to reduce the differences between the FreeBSD and OpenBSD/NetBSD make(1) programs. [MERGED]

Bugs in make(1), among which include broken null suffix behavior, bad assumptions about current directory permissions, and potential buffer overflows, have been fixed. [MERGED]

The new CPUTYPE make.conf variable controls the compilation of processor-specific optimizations in various pieces of code such as OpenSSL. [MERGED]

The FreeBSD Makefile infrastructure now supports the WARNS directive from NetBSD. This directive controls the addition of compiler warning flags to CFLAGS in a relatively compiler-neutral manner. [MERGED]

man(1) is no longer installed SUID man, in order to reduce vulnerabilities associated with generating ``catpages'' (preformatted manual pages cached for repeated viewing). As a result, man(1) can no longer create system catpages on a regular user's behalf. It is still able to do so if the user has write permissions to the directory holding catpages (e.g. a user's own manpages) or if the running user is root.

The mdmfs(8) command has been added; it is a wrapper around mdconfig(8), disklabel(8), newfs(8), and mount(8) that mimics the command line option set of the deprecated mount_mfs(8).

mergemaster(8) now sources an /etc/mergemaster.rc file and also prompts the user to run recommended commands (such as newaliases) as needed. [MERGED]

moused(8) now takes a -a option to control mouse acceleration. [MERGED]

mtree(8) now includes support for a file that lists pathnames to be excluded when creating and verifying prototypes. This makes it easier to use mtree(8) as a part of an intrusion-detection system. [MERGED]

natd(8) now supports a -log_ipfw_denied option to log packets that cannot be re-injected because they are blocked by ipfw(8) rules. [MERGED]

The ``in use'' percentage metric displayed by netstat(1) now really reflects the percentage of network mbufs used. [MERGED]

netstat(1) now has a -W flag that tells it not to truncate addresses, even if they're too long for the column they're printed in. [MERGED]

netstat(1) now keeps track of input and output packets on a per-address basis for each interface. [MERGED]

netstat(1) now has a -z flag to reset statistics. [MERGED]

netstat(1) now has a -S flag to print address numerically but port names symbolically. [MERGED]

newfs(8) now implements write combining, which can make creation of new filesystems up to seven times faster. [MERGED]

newfs(8) now takes a -U option to enable softupdates on a new filesystem. [MERGED]

The default number of cylinders per group in newfs(8) is now computed to be the maximum allowable given the current filesystem parameters. It can be overridden with the -c option. Formerly, the default was fixed at 16. This change leads to better fsck(8) performance and reduced fragmentation. [MERGED]

The default block and fragment sizes for new filesystems created by newfs(8) are now 16384 and 2048 bytes, respectively (the old defaults were 8192 and 1024 bytes). This change generally provides increased performance, at the expense of some wasted disk space. [MERGED]

newsyslog(8) now has the ability to compress log files using bzip2(1). [MERGED]

NFS now works over IPv6.

ngctl(8) now supports a write command to send a data packet down a given hook. [MERGED]

nl(1), a line numbering filter program, has been added. [MERGED]

nsswitch support has been merged from NetBSD. By creating an nsswitch.conf(5) file, FreeBSD can be configured so that various databases such as passwd(5) and group(5) can be looked up using flat files, NIS, or Hesiod. The old hosts.conf file is no longer used.

PAM support has been added for account management and sessions.

PAM configuration is now specified by files in /etc/pam.d/, rather than a single /etc/pam.conf file. /etc/pam.d/README has more details.

A number of new PAM modules have been added.

passwd(1) and pw(8) now select the password hash algorithm at run time. See the passwd_format attribute in /etc/login.conf. [MERGED]

pax(1) has received a number of enhancements, including cpio(1) functionality, tar(1) compatibility enhancements, -z and -Z flags for gzip(1) and compress(1) functionality, and a number of bug fixes.

pciconf(8) now supports a -v option to display the vendor/device information of configured devices, in conjunction with the -l option. The default vendor/device database can be found at /usr/share/misc/pci_vendors. [MERGED]

The behavior of periodic(8) is now controlled by /etc/defaults/periodic.conf and /etc/periodic.conf. [MERGED]

ping(8) now supports a -m option to set the TTL of outgoing packets. [MERGED]

ping(8) now supports a -A option to beep when packets are lost. [MERGED]

Userland ppp(8) has received a number of updates and bug fixes. [MERGED]

ppp(8) has gained the tcpmssfixup option, which adjusts outgoing and incoming TCP SYN packets so that the maximum receive segment size is no larger than allowed by the interface MTU. [MERGED]

ppp(8) now supports IPv6.

pppd(8) (the control program for kernel-level PPP) is now installed mode 4550 and root:dialer, rather than mode 4555 (in other words, it is no longer world-executable). Users of pppd(8) may need to change their group settings. [MERGED]

The -W option to ps(1) (to extract information from a specified swap device) has been useless for some time; it has been removed. [MERGED]

pwd(1) can now double as realpath(1), a program to resolve pathnames to their underlying physical paths. [MERGED]

The pseudo-random number generator implemented by rand(3) has been improved to provide less biased results.

rc(8) now has an framework for handling dependencies between rc.conf(5) variables. [MERGED]

rc(8) now deletes all non-directory files in /var/run and /var/spool/lock at boot time. [MERGED]

rcmd(3) now supports the use of the RSH environment variable to specify a program to use other than rsh(1) for remote execution. As a result, programs such as dump(8), can use ssh(1) for remote transport.

rdist(1) has been retired from the base system, but is still available from FreeBSD Ports Collection as net/44bsd-rdist.

The resolver(3) in FreeBSD now implements EDNS0 support, which will be necessary when working with IPv6 transport-ready resolvers/DNS servers. [MERGED]

The rfork_thread(3) library call has been added as a helper function to rfork(2). Using this function should avoid the need to implement complex stack swap code. [MERGED]

The -v option to rm(1) now displays the entire pathname of a file being removed.

route(8) is now more verbose when changing indirect routes, in the case of a gateway route that is the same route as the one being modified. [MERGED]

route(8) now uses host/bits syntax instead of net/bits syntax, for compatibility with netstat(1). [MERGED]

route(8) can now create ``proxy only'' published ARP entries. [MERGED]

The route(8) add command now supports the -ifp and -ifa modifiers. [MERGED]

rpcbind(8) has replaced portmap(8).

rpcgen(1) now uses /usr/bin/cpp (as on NetBSD), not /usr/libexec/cpp.

rpc.lockd(8) has been imported from NetBSD. This daemon provides support for servicing client NFS locks.

The performance of the ELF dynamic linker rtld(1) has been improved. [MERGED]

RSA Security has waived all patent rights to the RSA algorithm. As a result, the native OpenSSL implementation of the RSA algorithm is now activated by default, and the security/rsaref port and the librsaUSA and librsaINTL libraries are no longer required for USA and non-USA residents respectively. [MERGED]

rtld(1) will now print the names of all objects that cause each object to be loaded, if the LD_TRACE_LOADED_OBJECTS_ALL environment variable is defined.

savecore(8) now supports a -k option to prevent clearing a crash dump after saving it. It also attempts to avoid writing large stretches of zeros to crash dump files to save space and time. [MERGED]

savecore(8) now works correctly on machines with 2 GB or more of RAM. [MERGED]

sed(1) now takes a -E option for extended regular expression support. [MERGED]

send-pr(1) now takes a -a option to include a file into the Fix: section of a problem report. [MERGED]

The setfacl(1) and getfacl(1) commands have been added to manage filesystem Access Control Lists.

setproctitle(3) has been moved from libutil to libc. [MERGED]

sh(1) now implements test as a built-in command for improved efficiency. [MERGED]

sh(1) no longer implements printf as a built-in command because it was considered less valuable compared to the other built-in commands (this functionality is, of course, still available through the printf(1) executable).

sockstat(1) now has -c and -l flags for listing connected and listening sockets, respectively. [MERGED]

split(1) now has the ability to split a file longer than 2GB. [MERGED]

In preparation for meeting SUSv2/POSIX <sys/select.h> requirements, struct selinfo and related functions have been moved to <sys/selinfo.h>.

The strnstr(3) and strcasestr(3) variants of strstr(3) have been implemented. [MERGED]

stty(1) now has support for an erase2 control character, so that, for example, both the Delete and Backspace keys can be used to erase characters. [MERGED]

style.perl(7), a style guide for Perl code in the FreeBSD base system, has been added. [MERGED]

su(1) now uses PAM for authentication.

Boot-time syscons(4) configuration was moved to a machine-independent /etc/rc.syscons. [MERGED]

sysctl(8) now supports a -N option to print out variable names only. [MERGED]

sysctl(8) has replaced the -A and -X options with -ao and -ax respectively; the former options are now deprecated. The -w option is deprecated as well; it is not needed to determine the user's intentions. [MERGED]

sysctl(8) now supports a -e option to separate variable names and values by = rather than :. This feature is useful for producing output that can be fed back to sysctl(8). [MERGED]

sysinstall(8) now properly preserves /etc/mail during a binary upgrade. [MERGED]

sysinstall(8) now uses some more intuitive defaults thanks to some new dialog support functions. [MERGED]

The default root partition in sysinstall(8) is now 100MB on the i386 and 120MB on the Alpha.

sysinstall(8) now lives in /usr/sbin, which simplifies the installation process. The sysinstall(8) manpage is also installed in a more consistent fashion now.

sysinstall(8) now has the ability to load KLDs as a part of the installation. [MERGED]

When run from the installation media, sysinstall(8) will automatically load any device drivers found in the /stand/modules directory of the mfsroot floppy or filesystem image. Note that any drivers so loaded will not appear in the kernel's boot messages; the sysinstall(8) debugging screen will provide additional information. [MERGED]

sysinstall(8) now enables Soft Updates by default on all filesystems it creates, except for the root filesystem. [MERGED]

sysinstall(8) has received updates for its ``auto'' partitioning mode which provide more reasonable defaults for the sizes of partitions that are created; auto-sized partitions can now also recover the space that becomes available when other partitions are deleted. [MERGED]

syslogd(8) can take a -n option to disable DNS queries for every request. [MERGED]

syslogd(8) now supports a LOG_CONSOLE facility (disabled by default), which can be used to log /dev/console output. [MERGED]

syslogd(8) now has the ability to bind to a specific address (as opposed to using every available one) via the -b option. [MERGED]

syslogd(8) now accepts a -c flag to disable repeated line compression. [MERGED]

tail(1) now has the ability to work on files longer than 2GB. [MERGED]

tar(1) now supports the TAR_RSH variable, principally to enable the use of ssh(1) as a transport. [MERGED]

telnet(1) now does autologin and encryption by default; a new -y option turns off encryption.

telnet(1) now supports a -u flag to allow connections to UNIX-domain (AF_UNIX) sockets. [MERGED]

tftpd(8) now takes the -c and -C options, which allow the server to chroot(2) based on the IP address of the connecting client. tftp(1) and tftpd(8) can now transfer files larger than 65535 blocks. [MERGED]

tftpd(8) now supports RFC 2349 (TFTP Timeout Interval and Transfer Size Options); this feature is required by some firmware like EFI boot managers (at least on HP i2000 Itanium servers) in order to boot an image using TFTP.

timed(8) now works on the alpha.

A version of Transport Independent RPC (TI-RPC) has been imported.

tmpnam(3) will now use the TMPDIR environment variable, if set, to specify the location of temporary files. [MERGED]

tip(1) has been updated from OpenBSD, and has the ability to act as a cu(1) substitute.

top(1) will now use the full width of its tty.

touch(1) now takes a -h option to operate on a symbolic link, rather than what the link points to.

The truncate(1) utility, which truncates or extends the length of files, has been added. [MERGED]

Ukrainian language support has been added to the FreeBSD console. [MERGED]

UUCP has been removed from the base system. It can be found in the Ports Collection, in net/freebsd-uucp.

units(1) has received some updates and bugfixes. [MERGED]

usbdevs(8) now supports a -d flag to show the device driver associated with each device.

uudecode(1) now accepts a -o option to set its output file.

vidcontrol(1) now accepts a -g parameter to select custom text geometry in the VESA_800x600 raster text mode. [MERGED]

vidcontrol(1) now allows the user to omit the font size specification when loading a font, and has some better error-handling. [MERGED]

vidcontrol(1) now supports a -p option to take a snapshot of a syscons(4) video buffer. These snapshots can be manipulated by the graphics/scr2png utility in the Ports Collection. [MERGED]

vidcontrol(1) now supports a -C option to clear the history buffer for a given tty, as well as a -h option to set the size of the history buffer. [MERGED]

The default stripe size in vinum(8) has been changed from 256KB to 279KB, to spread out superblocks more evenly between stripes.

wall(1) now supports a -g flag to write a message to all users of a given group. [MERGED]

watch(8) now takes a -f option to specify a snp(4) device to use. [MERGED]

which(1) is now a C program, rather than a Perl script.

whois(1) now directs queries for IP addresses to ARIN. If a query to ARIN references APNIC or RIPE, the appropriate server will also be queried, provided that the -Q option is not specified. [MERGED]

whois(1) supports a -c option to specify a country code to help direct queries towards a particular whois server. [MERGED]

xargs(1) now supports a -J replstr option that allows the user to tell xargs(1) to insert the data read from standard input at a specific point in the command line arguments rather than at the end. [MERGED]

The compiler chain now uses the FSF-supplied C/C++ runtime initialization code. This change brings about better compatibility with code generated from the various egcs and gcc ports, as well as the stock public FSF source. [MERGED]

The threads library has gained some signal handling changes, bug fixes, and performance enhancements (including zero system call thread switching). gdb(1) thread support has been updated to match these changes. [MERGED]

Significant additions have been made to internationalization support; FreeBSD now has complete locale support for the LC_MONETARY, LC_NUMERIC, and LC_MESSAGES categories. A number of applications have been updated to take advantage of this support.

Locale names have been changed to improve compatibility with the names used by X11R6, as well as a number of other UNIX versions. As an example, the en_US.ISO_8859-1 locale name has been changed to en_US.ISO8859-1. Entries in /etc/locale.alias provide backward compatibility. [MERGED]

/usr/src/share/examples/BSD_daemon/ now contains a scalable Beastie graphic. [MERGED]

As part of an ongoing process, many manual pages were improved, both in terms of their formatting markup and in their content. [MERGED]

2.3.1 Contributed Software

am-utils has been updated to 6.0.7.

awk from Bell Labs (variously known as ``BWK awk'' or ``The One True AWK'') has been imported. It is available as awk on the sparc64 architecture, and nawk on other architectures.

bc has been updated from 1.04 to 1.06. [MERGED]

The ISC library from the BIND distribution is now built as libisc. [MERGED]

BIND is now built with the NOADDITIONAL flag, which causes named(8) to operate in a more consistent fashion for certain common misconfigurations. [MERGED]

BIND has been updated to 8.3.1-REL. [MERGED]

Binutils has been updated to 2.12.0.

bzip2 1.0.2 has been imported; this brings the bzip2(1) program and the libbz2 library to the base system. [MERGED]

The ee(1) Easy Editor has been updated to 1.4.2. [MERGED]

file has been updated to 3.37.

gcc has been updated to 2.95.3. [MERGED]

gcc(1) now uses a unified libgcc rather than a separate one for threaded and non-threaded programs. /usr/lib/libgcc_r.a can be removed. [MERGED]

gcc(1) now supports the environment variable GCC_OPTIONS, which can hold a set of default options for GCC. [MERGED]

GNATS has been updated to 3.113. [MERGED]

GNU awk has been updated to 3.1.0. It is available as gawk on the sparc64 architecture, and as awk on other architectures.

gperf has been updated to 2.7.2.

groff and its related utilities have been updated to FSF version 1.17.2. This import brings in a new mdoc(7) macro package (sometimes referred to as mdocNG), which removes many of the limitations of its predecessor. [MERGED]

Heimdal has been updated to 0.3f.

The version of IPFilter provided with FreeBSD now includes the ipfs(8) program, which allows state information created for NAT entries and stateful rules to be saved to disk and restored after a reboot. Boot-time configuration of these features is supported by rc.conf(5). [MERGED]

The ISC DHCP client has been updated to 3.0.1RC6.

Kerberos IV has been updated to 1.0.5. [MERGED]

The more(1) command has been replaced by less(1), although it can still be run as more. [MERGED] Version 371 of less has been imported.

libpcap has been updated to 0.6.2. [MERGED]

libreadline has been updated to 4.2.

libz has been updated to 1.1.4.

lint has been updated to snapshot of NetBSD lint(1) as of 3 March 2002.

lukemftp (the FTP client from NetBSD) has replaced the FreeBSD ftp(1) program. Among its new features are more automation methods, better standards compliance, transfer rate throttling, and a customizable command-line prompt. Some environment variables and command-line arguments have changed.

The FTP daemon from NetBSD, otherwise known as lukemftpd, has been imported and is available as lukemftpd(8).

ncurses has been updated to 5.2-20010512.

The NTP suite of programs has been updated to 4.1.0. [MERGED]

OpenPAM (``Centaury'' release) has been imported, replacing Linux-PAM.

The OPIE one-time-password suite has been updated to 2.32. [MERGED] It has completely replaced the functionality of S/Key.

Perl has been updated to version 5.6.0.

routed(8) has been updated to version 2.22. [MERGED]

tcpdump has been updated to 3.6.3. [MERGED]

The csh(1) shell has been replaced by tcsh(1), although it can still be run as csh. tcsh has been updated to version 6.11. [MERGED]

The contributed version of tcp_wrappers now includes the tcpd(8) helper daemon. While not strictly necessary in a standard FreeBSD installation (because inetd(8) already incorporates this functionality), this may be useful for inetd(8) replacements such as xinetd.

top has been updated to version 3.5b12.

traceroute(8) now takes its default maximum TTL value from the net.inet.ip.ttl sysctl variable. [MERGED]

The timezone database has been updated to the tzdata2001d release. [MERGED] CVS

cvs has been updated to 1.11.1p1. [MERGED]

The default value for cvs(1)'s CVS_RSH variable is now ssh, rather than rsh. [MERGED]

cvs(1) now supports a -T option to update a sandbox's CVS/Template file from the repository. [MERGED]

cvs(1) diff now supports the -j option to perform differences against a revision relative to a branch tag. [MERGED] CVSup

CVSup, a frequently used utility in the FreeBSD Ports Collection, was formerly installable using several ports and packages. The net/cvsup-bin and net/cvsupd-bin ports/packages are no longer necessary or available; the net/cvsup port should be used instead. [MERGED]

CVSup has been updated to 16.1_3, which is available in the FreeBSD Ports Collection as net/cvsup. This update fixes a long-standing (but only recently encountered) bug which affects the timestamps on all files after Sun Sep 9 01:46:40 UTC 2001 (1,000,000,000 seconds after the UNIX epoch). [MERGED] KAME

The IPv6 stack is now based on a snapshot based on the KAME Project's IPv6 snapshot as of 28 May, 2001. Most of the items listed in this section are a result of this import. Section lists kernel updates to the KAME IPv6 stack. [MERGED]

faithd(8) now supports a configuration file for access control. [MERGED]

ifconfig(8) can now perform the functions of gifconfig(8). [MERGED]

ifconfig(8) can now perform the functions of prefix(8). prefix(8) is now a shell script for partial backwards compatibility. [MERGED]

ndp(8) now implements garbage collection for stale NDP entries, as described in RFC 2461 (Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)). [MERGED]

pim6dd(8) and pim6sd(8) have been removed due to restrictive licensing conditions. These programs are available in the ports collection as net/pim6dd and net/pim6sd. [MERGED]

route6d(8) now supports an -n flag to avoid updating the kernel forwarding table. [MERGED]

The -R (router renumbering) option to rtadvd(8) is currently ignored. [MERGED] OpenSSH

OpenSSH has been updated to 2.9, which provides support for the SSH2 protocol (now the default) and DSA keys. ssh-add(1) and ssh-agent(1) can now handle DSA keys, with support for authentication forwarding. OpenSSH users in the USA no longer need to rely on the restrictively-licensed RSAREF toolkit which is required to handle RSA keys. Among other new features: A client and server for sftp has been added. scp(1) can now handle files larger than 2 GBytes. A limit on the number of outstanding, unauthenticated connections in sshd(8) has been added. Support has been added for the Rijndael encryption algorithm. Rekeying of existing sessions is now supported, and an experimental SOCKS4 proxy has been added to ssh(1).

OpenSSH can now authenticate using OPIE passwords in SSH1 mode. Support is not yet available in SSH2 mode. [MERGED]

PAM support for OpenSSH has been added.

A long-standing bug in OpenSSH, which sometimes resulted in a dropped session when an X11-forwarded client was closed, was fixed.

Kerberos compatibility has been added to OpenSSH. [MERGED]

OpenSSH has been modified to be more resistant to traffic analysis by requiring that ``non-echoed'' characters are still echoed back in a null packet, as well as by padding passwords sent so as not to hint at password lengths. [MERGED]

sshd(8) is now enabled by default on new installs. [MERGED]

sshd(8) X11Forwarding is now turned on by default on the server (any risk is to the client, where it is already disabled by default). [MERGED]

In /etc/ssh/sshd_config, the ConnectionsPerPeriod parameter has been deprecated in favor of MaxStartups. [MERGED]

OpenSSH now has a VersionAddendum configuration setting for sshd(8) to allow changing the part of the OpenSSH version string after the main version number. OpenSSL

OpenSSL has been updated to 0.9.6c.

OpenSSL now has support for machine-dependent ASM optimizations, activated by the new MACHINE_CPU and/or CPUTYPE make.conf variables. [MERGED] sendmail

sendmail has been updated from version 8.9.3 to version 8.12.2. Important changes include: sendmail(8) is no longer installed as a set-user-ID root binary (now set-group-ID smmsp); new default file locations (see /usr/src/contrib/sendmail/cf/README); newaliases(1) is limited to root and trusted users; STARTTLS encryption; and the MSA port (587) is turned on by default. See /usr/src/contrib/sendmail/RELEASE_NOTES for more information. [MERGED]

mail.local(8) is no longer installed as a set-user-ID binary. If you are using a /etc/mail/ from the default included with FreeBSD any time after 3.1.0, you are fine. If you are using a hand-configured and mail.local for delivery, check to make sure the F=S flag is set on the Mlocal line. Those with .mc files who need to add the flag can do so by adding the following line to their .mc file and regenerating the file:


Note that FEATURE(`local_lmtp') already does this. [MERGED]

The default /etc/mail/ disables the SMTP EXPN and VRFY commands. [MERGED]

vacation(1) has been updated to use the version included with sendmail. [MERGED]

The sendmail configuration building tools are installed in /usr/share/sendmail/cf/. [MERGED]

New make.conf options: SENDMAIL_MC and SENDMAIL_ADDITIONAL_MC. See /usr/share/examples/etc/make.conf for more information. [MERGED]

/etc/mail/Makefile now supports: the new SENDMAIL_MC make.conf option; the ability to build .cf files from .mc files; generalized map rebuilding; rebuilding the aliases file; and the ability to stop, start, and restart sendmail. [MERGED]

The smmsp and mailnull users have been added to /etc/master.passwd. In the absence of a confDEF_USER_ID setting, by default, sendmail will use the mailnull user for extra security. Previously, if the mailnull user did not exist, the daemon user was used. This change may generate some permissions issues when mailing to files or to programs (such as mail/majordomo). [MERGED] The previous behavior can be restored by adding the following line to a system's *.mc configuration file:

    define(`confDEF_USER_ID', `daemon')

2.3.2 Ports/Packages Collection

BSDPAN, a collection of modules that provides tighter integration of Perl into the FreeBSD Ports Collection, has been added.

pkg_create(1) and pkg_add(1) can now work with packages that have been compressed using bzip2(1). pkg_add(1) will use the PACKAGEROOT environment variable to determine a mirror site for new packages. [MERGED]

pkg_create(1) now records dependencies in dependency order rather than in the order specified on the command line. This improves the functioning of pkg_add -r. [MERGED]

pkg_create(1) now supports a -b to create a package file from a locally-installed package. [MERGED]

When requested to delete multiple packages, pkg_delete(1) will now attempt to remove them in dependency order rather than the order specified on the command line. [MERGED]

pkg_delete(1) now can perform glob/regexp matching of package names. In addition, it supports a -a option for removing all packages and a -i option for rm(1)-style interactive confirmation. [MERGED]

pkg_delete(1) now supports a -r option for recursive package removal. [MERGED]

pkg_info(1) now supports globbing against names of installed packages. The -G option disables this behavior, and the -x option causes regular expression matching instead of shell globbing. [MERGED]

pkg_info(1) can now accept a -g flag for verifying an installed package against its recorded checksums (to see if it's been modified post-installation). Naturally, this mechanism is only as secure as the contents of /var/db/pkg if it's to be used for auditing purposes. [MERGED]

pkg_sign(1) and pkg_check(1) have been added to digitally sign and verify the signatures on binary package files. [MERGED]

pkg_update(1), a utility to update installed packages and update their dependencies, has been added. [MERGED]

pkg_version(1) now has a version number comparison routine that corresponds to the Porters Handbook. It also has a -t option for testing address comparisons. [MERGED]

pkg_version(1) now takes a -s flag to limit its operation to ports/packages matching a given string. [MERGED]

Version numbers of installed packages have a new (backward-compatible) syntax, which supports the PORTREVISION and PORTEPOCH variables in Ports Collection Makefiles. These changes help keep track of changes in the ports collection entries such as security patches or FreeBSD-specific updates, which aren't reflected in the original, third-party software distributions. pkg_version(1) can now compare these new-style version numbers. [MERGED]

To improve performance and disk utilization, the ``ports skeletons'' in the FreeBSD Ports Collection have been restructured. Installed ports and packages should not be affected. [MERGED]

All packages and ports now contain an ``origin'' directive, which makes it easier for programs such as pkg_version(1) to determine the directory from which a package was built. [MERGED]

3 Upgrading from previous releases of FreeBSD

If you're upgrading from a previous release of FreeBSD, you generally will have three options:

Please read the INSTALL.TXT file for more information, preferably before beginning an upgrade. If you are upgrading from source, please be sure to read /usr/src/UPDATING as well.

Finally, if you want to use one of various means to track the -STABLE or -CURRENT branches of FreeBSD, please be sure to consult the ``-CURRENT vs. -STABLE'' section of the FreeBSD Handbook.

Important: Upgrading FreeBSD should, of course, only be attempted after backing up all data and configuration files.

This file, and other release-related documents, can be downloaded from

For questions about FreeBSD, read the documentation before contacting <>.

All users of FreeBSD 5-CURRENT should subscribe to the <> mailing list.

For questions about this documentation, e-mail <>.