FreeBSD 9.1-RELEASE Release Notes

The FreeBSD Project

$FreeBSD: stable/9/release/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/relnotes/article.xml 244869 2012-12-30 17:54:25Z hrs $

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The release notes for FreeBSD 9.1-RELEASE contain a summary of the changes made to the FreeBSD base system on the 9.1-STABLE development line. This document lists applicable security advisories that were issued since the last release, as well as significant changes to the FreeBSD kernel and userland. Some brief remarks on upgrading are also presented.

Table of Contents
1 Introduction
2 What's New
2.1 Security Advisories
2.2 Kernel Changes
2.2.1 Boot Loader Changes
2.2.2 Hardware Support
2.2.3 Network Protocols
2.2.4 Disks and Storage
2.2.5 File Systems
2.3 Userland Changes
2.3.1 periodic(8) Scripts
2.3.2 rc(8) Scripts
2.4 Contributed Software
2.5 Release Engineering and Integration
3 Upgrading from previous releases of FreeBSD
3.1 Upgrading using freebsd-update(8) or a source-based procedure
3.2 User-visible incompatibilities

1 Introduction

This document contains the release notes for FreeBSD 9.1-RELEASE. It describes recently added, changed, or deleted features of FreeBSD. It also provides some notes on upgrading from previous versions of FreeBSD.

This distribution of FreeBSD 9.1-RELEASE is a release distribution. It can be found at or any of its mirrors. More information on obtaining this (or other) release distributions of FreeBSD can be found in the “Obtaining FreeBSD” appendix to the FreeBSD Handbook.

All users are encouraged to consult the release errata before installing FreeBSD. The errata document is updated with “late-breaking” information discovered late in the release cycle or after the release. Typically, it contains information on known bugs, security advisories, and corrections to documentation. An up-to-date copy of the errata for FreeBSD 9.1-RELEASE can be found on the FreeBSD Web site.

2 What's New

This section describes the most user-visible new or changed features in FreeBSD since 9.0-RELEASE.

Typical release note items document recent security advisories issued after 9.0-RELEASE, new drivers or hardware support, new commands or options, major bug fixes, or contributed software upgrades. They may also list changes to major ports/packages or release engineering practices. Clearly the release notes cannot list every single change made to FreeBSD between releases; this document focuses primarily on security advisories, user-visible changes, and major architectural improvements.

2.1 Security Advisories

Problems described in the following security advisories have been fixed. For more information, consult the individual advisories available from

Advisory Date Topic
SA-12:01.openssl 3 May 2012

OpenSSL multiple vulnerabilities

SA-12:02.crypt 30 May 2012

Incorrect crypt() hashing

SA-12:03.bind 12 June 2012

Incorrect handling of zero-length RDATA fields in named(8)

SA-12:04.sysret 12 June 2012

Privilege escalation when returning from kernel

SA-12:05.bind 6 August 2012

named(8) DNSSEC validation Denial of Service

SA-12:06.bind 22 November 2012

Multiple Denial of Service vulnerabilities with named(8)

SA-12:07.hostapd 22 November 2012

Insufficient message length validation for EAP-TLS messages

SA-12:08.linux 22 November 2012

Linux compatibility layer input validation error

2.2 Kernel Changes

The FreeBSD Jail subsystem now supports mounting devfs(5), nullfs(5), and ZFS filesystem inside a jail. New jail(8) parameters allow.mount.devfs, allow.mount.nullfs, and allow.mount.zfs to control the per-jail capabilities have been added. All of them are disabled by default.[r232728]

A new loader(8) tunable kern.eventtimer.activetick has been added. This tunable specifies whether each hardclock tick should be run on every active CPU or only one. By setting it to 0, the total number of interrupts can be reduced on SMP machines. The default value is 1.[r234167]

The posix_fadvise(2) system call has been implemented. This is a function similar to madvise(2) except that it operates on a file descriptor instead of a memory region.[r229723]

The filemon(4) pseudo-device has been added. This allows a process to collect file operations data of its children.[r237795]

The sysctl(8) variable kern.stop_scheduler_on_panic is now set to 1 by default.[r235413]

[powerpc] FreeBSD/powerpc64 now supports kernel profiling by using kgmon(8).[r231907]

The FreeBSD Linux ABI compatibility layer now supports the linux_fadvise64() and linux_fadvise64_64() system calls.[r231145]

The default value of the loader(8) tunable hw.memtest.tests is now automatically set to 0 when FreeBSD is running on a virtual machine.[r230266]

A new loader(8) tunable kern.msgbuf_show_timestamp has been added. When it is enabled, a timestamp is added to each line of the system message buffer. The default value is 0 (disabled).[r234075]

The null(4) and zero(4) pseudo device driver now supports non-blocking mode via the fcntl(2) system call.[r230320]

The FreeBSD sched_ule(4) scheduler has been improved for CPU load balancing on SMT (Simultaneous MultiThreading) CPUs. It gives a 10-15% performance improvement when the number of threads is lesser than the number of logical CPUs.[r233599]

[sparc64] The PREEMPTION kernel option is now enabled in the GENERIC kernel.[r235992]

A new sysctl(8) variable security.bsd.unprivileged_idprio has been added. This variable controls whether non-root users can set an idle priority or not. This is disabled by default.[r230039]

The splash(4) screen interface now supports ASCII art in TheDraw format.[r228445]

2.2.1 Boot Loader Changes

The boot0cfg(8) utility now supports configuration of PXE boot via the boot0 boot block temporarily on the next boot. The slice number 6 or a keyword PXE can be specified to enable PXE boot using the -s option.[r230065]

The FreeBSD boot(8) block now supports /boot/config in addition to /boot.config as the boot block parameter file. When both of them exist, the former will be used.[r231287]

The gptboot boot block now reads the backup GPT header from the last LBA only when the primary GPT header and tables are invalid. This mitigates interoperability issues with some geom(4) providers like MIRROR which use the last LBA for the metadata.[r234693]

The zfsboot boot block and zfsloader support filesystems within a ZFS storage pool. In zfsloader, the ZFS device name format is now zfs:pool/fs and the fully qualified file path format is zfs:pool/fs:/path/to/file. The zfsboot boot block accepts the kernel/loader name in the format pool:fs:path/to/file or, as before, pool:path/to/file. In the latter case a default filesystem is used (the pool root or a filesystem with the bootfs property). The zfsboot boot block passes the GUIDs of the selected storage pool and dataset to zfsloader to be used as its defaults.[r237766]

[sparc64] FreeBSD/sparc64 now supports booting from ZFS via the zfsboot boot block and zfsloader. For example, the following commands create a mirrored storage pool rpool consisting of da0a and da0b and configure the storage pool as the root filesystem:[r236076]

# gpart create -s vtoc8 da0
# gpart add -t freebsd-zfs -s 10g da0
# gpart add -t freebsd-swap -s 10g da0
# gpart add -t freebsd-zfs -s 10g da0
# zpool create rpool mirror da0a da0b
# zpool set bootfs=rpool rpool
# zpool export rpool
# gpart bootcode -p /boot/zfsboot da0
# sysctl kern.geom.debugflags=0x10
# dd if=/boot/zfsloader of=/dev/da0a bs=512 oseek=1024 conv=notrunc
# dd if=/boot/zfsloader of=/dev/da0b bs=512 oseek=1024 conv=notrunc
# zpool import rpool
# cp -p /boot/zfs/zpool.cache /rpool/boot/zfs/zpool.cache
# zfs set mountpoint=/ rpool

2.2.2 Hardware Support

[powerpc] The abtn(4) driver, which supports ADB keyboards found on Apple laptops, has been added.[r230751]

[amd64] A workaround for Erratum 721 for AMD Processor Family 10h and 12h has been implemented. Under a highly specific and detailed set of internal timing conditions, the processor may incorrectly update the stack pointer after a long series of push and/or near-call instructions, or a long series of pop and/or near-return instructions.[r233798]

[powerpc] The atibl(4) driver, which supports backlight control of ATI graphics chips on PowerBooks and iBooks, has been added.[r232677]

The acpi_wmi(4) driver now supports attaching multiple instances.[r229858]

[powerpc] The adm1030(4) driver for G4 MDD fans now shows its PWM parameter in the device's sysctl(8) variable.[r230290]

[arm] The cesa(4) driver for the Marvell crypto engine and security accelerator has been added.[r234559]

[powerpc] The hwpmc(4) driver now supports PowerPC G4+ (MPC745x/MPC744x).[r230305]

[amd64, i386] The hwpmc(4) driver now supports the Intel Sandy Bridge microarchitecture.[r234046]

The hwpmc(4) driver now supports software events. Simultaneous usage of software PMC and hardware PMC is allowed.[r236238]

The pcf8563(4) driver for the NXP (Philips) PCF8563 RTC has been added.[r236078]

[powerpc] FreeBSD/powerpc now supports the PWM-controlled fans found on the PowerMac SMU (System Management Unit).[r233471]

[arm] FreeBSD/arm now supports the Atmel SAM9XE family of microcontrollers.[r236081]

The following sysctl(8) variables have been added: kern.proc.env for environment strings, kern.proc.auxv for ELF auxiliary vectors from a process's stack, kern.proc.groups for process groups, kern.proc.rlimit for process resource limits, kern.proc.ps_strings for the ps_strings location, and kern.proc.osrel for the osreldate of the process's binary.[r230754, r233950]

The usb(4) driver now handles suspend and resume correctly with no need to reload the kernel module.[r229100, r229369]

A bug in the xhci(4) (USB 3.0) driver has been fixed. It did not work with USB 3.0 hubs.[r230302]

The viawd(4) driver, which supports the watchdog timer found in VIA south bridges (VT8251, CX700, VX800, VX855, VX900), has been added.[r229927]

The wbwd(4) driver, which supports the watchdog timer found in Winbond Super I/O chips, has been added.[r235926] Multimedia Support

The drm2(4) Intel GPU driver, which supports GEM and KMS and works with new generations of GPUs such as IronLake, SandyBridge, and IvyBridge, has been added. The agp(4) driver now supports SandyBridge and IvyBridge CPU northbridges.[r236926, r236927, r239965]

The snd_hda(4) driver has been updated. It now supports and provides HDMI, new volume control, automatic recording source selection, runtime reconfiguration, more then 4 PCM devices on a controller, multichannel recording, additional playback/record streams, higher bandwidth, and more informative device names.[r232798]

The snd_hdspe(4) driver has been added. This supports RME HDSPe AIO and RayDAT sound cards.[r233165]

GPL-licensed headers in the snd_emu10kx(4), snd_maestro3(4), and snd_csa(4) drivers have been replaced with BSD-licensed one. These drivers are now fully BSD-licensed and included in the GENERIC kernel on FreeBSD/amd64 and FreeBSD/i386.[r230964, r230985, r231047, r235769] Network Interface Support

A bug in the ae(4) driver which could prevent it from working under certain conditions has been fixed.[r229520]

The axe(4) driver now supports TX/RX checksum offloading support for the ASIX AX88772B controller.[r229106]

The bce(4) driver has been improved:

  • Unnecessary link up/down has been eliminated.[r229864]

  • A bug has been fixed which could prevent IPMI from working when the interface was marked as down.[r236216]

  • It now supports remote PHYs, which allow the controller to perform MDIO type accesses to a remote transceiver by using message pages defined through MRBE (MultiRate Backplane Ethernet). This is found on machines such as the Dell PowerEdge M610 Blade.[r235818]

The bge(4) and brgphy(4) drivers have been improved:

  • A bug which could prevent DMA functionality from working correctly has been fixed.[r229350]

  • It now works with a PCI-X BCM 5704 controller that is connected to AMD-8131 PCI-X bridge.[r233495]

  • It now supports the BCM 5720 and BCM 5720C PHY, and the BCM 57780 1000BASE-T media interface.[r229357, r229867, r232134]

  • It now supports a loader(8) tunable dev.bge.N.msi to control the use of MSI. The default value is 1 (enabled).[r231734]

The cxgbe(4) and cxgb(4) drivers have been updated to firmware version They now support device configuration via a plain text configuration file, IPv6 hardware checksumming, IPv6 TSO and LRO, a loadfw command in the cxgbetool(8) utility which allows installing a firmware to the card, and sysctl(8) variables under dev.t4nex.N.misc for various information.[r231093, r237925]

The dc(4) driver now supports NVIDIA (ULi) M5261/M5263 PCI FastEthernet controllers, which are found on the ULi M1563 South Bridge and M1689 Bridge.[r229334]

The et(4) driver now works on all platforms. A bug which could prevent altq(4) support from working has been fixed. A new sysctl(8) variable under has been added for hardware MAC statistics.[r229711, r229717, r229720]

The igb(4) driver has been updated to version 2.3.4. It now supports newer i210/i211 devices.[r238262]

The iwn(4) driver now supports Intel Centrino Wireless-N + WiMAX 6150 and Wireless-N 100/130 series.[r233838, r235843]

The miibus(4) bus driver now supports device hints hint.miibus.N.phymask for PHY addresses being probed. This is useful to manually probe PHYs which do not implement basic the register set of IEEE 802.3. Also, the miibus(4) driver has been changed to a hinted bus, allowing to add child devices via hints and to set their attach arguments in addition to automatically-probed PHYs.[r230709]

The msk(4) driver now uses 64-bit DMA addressing on 64-bit platforms.[r229524]

The mxge(4) driver has been updated to firmware version 1.4.55 from Myricom.[r236413]

The nsphyter(4) driver now supports National DP83849.[r232137]

The oce(4) driver, which supports Emulex OneConnect 10Gbit Ethernet cards, has been added.[r231663]

The ral(4) driver now supports Ralink RT2800 and RT3000 chipsets.[r236004]

The re(4) driver now supports the RTL8411 PCIe Gigabit Ethernet controller. A bug which could prevent WoL (Wake-on-LAN) from working on RTL8168E has been fixed.[r229529, r231731]

The runfw(4) firmware has been updated to version 0.236.[r234028]

The sfxge(4) driver, which supports 10Gb Ethernet adapters based on Solarflare SFC9000 family controllers, has been added.[r228100]

The smcphy(4) driver now supports the Seeq Technology 80220 PHY. This is found on Adaptec AIC-6915 Starfire Ethernet controllers supported by the sf(4) driver.[r233485]

The ti(4) driver now supports the altq(4) framework, reporting link-state changes, and sysctl(8) variables under dev.ti.N for interrupt moderation parameters.[r229417, r229438]

A bug in the ti(4) driver which could prevent it from working correctly with the PAE kernel option has been fixed.[r229441]

The vge(4) driver has been updated to improve its link establishment and link-state detection.[r229540]

The vr(4) driver now enables flow control capability in the PHY drivers.[r229641]

The xnb(4) Xen Paravirtualized Backend Ethernet Driver (netback) has been updated. This is attached via the newbus framework and works properly in both HVM and PVM mode.[r231697]

2.2.3 Network Protocols

The if_bridge(4) pseudo-interface now supports reporting link-state changes depending on the status of the member interfaces.[r236051]

The table argument in the ipfw(4) packet filter rule syntax now supports IP address, interface name, port number, and jail ID. The following syntax is valid:[r234597]

skipto tablearg ip from any to any via table(42) in

The FreeBSD ip6(4) protocol stack has been improved in terms of its performance. Benchmarking can be found at

The FreeBSD ip6(4) protocol stack now supports multiple FIBs.[r232292]

An IPv6 default route configured via Router Advertisement messages is now reinstalled correctly when the default route is manually removed and then another RA message is received for the same route.[r230604]

A bug which could return an incorrect value for the IPV6_MULTICASE_HOPS socket option has been fixed.[r227885]

A new sysctl(3) name NET_RT_IFLISTL has been added. This queries the address list and works on extended and extensible structures if_msghdrl and ifa_msghdrl without breaking the ABI.[r231768]

The netmap(4) fast packet I/O framework has been added. The em(4), lem(4), igb(4), and re(4) drivers now support this framework. The technical details can be found at[r231650, r235527]

The FreeBSD sctp(4) protocol stack now supports a new sysctl(8) variable net.inet.sctp.blackhole. If this is set to 1, no ABORT is sent back in response to an incoming INIT. If this is set to 2, no ABORT is sent back in response to an out-of-the-blue packet. If set to 0 (the default), ABORTs are sent.[r231045]

A bug which could cause a system panic when SCTP_RECVINFO or SCTP_NXTINFO is specified to the getsockopt(2) system call has been fixed.[r231049]

The FreeBSD sctp(4) protocol stack now supports the SCTP_REMOTE_UDP_ENCAPS_PORT socket option.[r231070, r231140]

The SO_PROTOCOL and SO_PROTOTYPE socket options have been added. These return the socket protocol number.[r232805]

The TCP_KEEPINIT, TCP_KEEPIDLE, TCP_KEEPINTVL, and TCP_KEEPCNT socket options have been added. These allow controlling initial timeout, idle time, idle resend interval, and idle send count on a per-socket basis.[r232945]

2.2.4 Disks and Storage

The arcmsr(4) driver has been updated to version[r240758]

The ahci(4) driver now supports a new loader(8) tunable hw.ahci.force. This controls whether it attempts to attach an AHCI-capable device even if it is configured to use legacy emulation. This is enabled by default.[r229291]

The new cam(4)-based ata(4) driver now supports old loader(8) tunables hw.ata.ata_dma and hw.ata.atapi_dma, for backward compatibility.[r231251]

The cam(4) driver now supports SEMB (SATA Enclosure Management Bridge) devices, which are equivalent to the SCSI SES/SAF-TE devices.[r236778]

A new sysctl(8) variable has been added. This controls whether special PMP ports such as PMP (Port MultiPlier) configuration or SEMB (SATA Enclosure Management Bridge) will be exposed or hidden. The default value is 1 (hidden).[r236765]

The ctl(4) driver, which supports cam(4) Target Layer and ctladm(8), a userland control utility, have been added. ctl(4) is a disk and processor device emulation subsystem supporting tagged queuing, SCSI task attribute, SCSI implicit command ordering, full task management, multiple ports, multiple simultaneous initiators, multiple simultaneous backing stores, mode sense/select, and error injection support.[r231772]

The cd(4) driver now supports Audio CDs in the same way as acd(4) did. It will report a 2352-byte sector size to the geom(4) subsystem and use the READ CD command for reading the data. This fixes an interoperability issue with multimedia/vlc.[r230014]

The da(4) driver now supports BIO_DELETE. To select the method, a new sysctl(8) variable has been added for each device instance. The following values are supported:[r236677]

Value Method
NONE no provisioning support reported by the device
DISABLE provisioning support was disabled because of errors
ZERO WRITE SAME (10) command to write zeroes
WS10 WRITE SAME (10) command with UNMAP bit set
WS16 use WRITE SAME (16) command with UNMAP bit set
UNMAP use UNMAP command (equivalent of the ATA DSM TRIM command)

When it was NONE, the device did not report logical block provisioning support via respective VPD pages. One can set a specific method for testing and it will be disabled automatically when not supported on the device.

The MIRROR geom(4) class now supports BIO_DELETE. This means the TRIM command will be issued on supported devices when deleting data.[r238500]

The MULTIPATH geom(4) class has been updated. It now supports Active/Active mode, Active/Read mode as hybrid of Active/Active and Active/Passive, keeping a failed path without removing the geom provider, manual configuration without on-disk metadata, and add, remove, fail, restore, configure subcommands in the gmultipath(8) utility to manage the configured paths.[r229303, r234916]

The PART_LDM geom(4) class has been added. This partition scheme has support for Logical Disk Manager, which is also known as dynamic volumes in Microsoft Windows NT. Note that JBOD, RAID0, and RAID5 volumes are not supported yet.[r234406]

The PART_MBR geom(4) class now allows a primary or extended Linux swap partition to be used as the system dump device.[r230763]

[amd64, i386] The RAID geom(4) class is now included in the GENERIC kernel.[r235877]

The RAID geom(4) class now supports disks with over 2TB capacity for the Intel metadata format.[r230244]

The RAID geom(4) class now supports the DDF metadata format, which is defined in the SNIA Common RAID Disk Data Format Specification v2.0.[r235874]

The UNCOMPRESS geom(4) class and the mkulzma(8) utility have been added. This class supports lzma compressed images like the UZIP geom(4) class and the mkuzip(8) utility.[r235483]

[amd64, i386] The hpt27xx(4) driver has been added. This supports HighPoint RocketRAID 27xx-based SAS 6Gb/s HBA.[r229975]

[amd64, i386] The isci(4) driver, which supports the integrated SAS controller in the Intel C600 (Patsburg) chipset, has been added.[r231689]

Bugs in isp(4) target mode have been fixed.[r230019]

The ixgbe(4) driver now supports the Intel X540 adapter.[r230775]

A bug in the mfi(4) driver has been fixed. It could cause some inconsistencies due to missed interrupt acknowledgements and output the following log message:[r227533]


The mfi(4) driver now supports single-message MSI, and Drake Skinny and Thunderbolt cards. The loader(8) tunable hw.mfi.msi has been added and it is enabled by default.[r229611, r234429]

The mps(4) driver has been updated to version This now supports Integrated RAID, WarpDrive controllers, WRITE12 and READ12 for direct I/O, SCSI protection information (EEDP), Transport Level Retries (TLR) for tape drives, and LSI's userland utility.[r230920, r231679, r237876]

A bug in the mpt(4) driver has been fixed. It could attempt to attach MegaRAID cards which should be handled by the mfi(4) driver.[r232562]

The usb(4) storage device driver now enables power save mode by default.[r229107]

2.2.5 File Systems

The FreeBSD NFS filesystem has been improved:

  • It now supports a timeout on positive name cache entries on the client side. A new mount option nametimeo has been added and set to 60 (in seconds) by default.[r233326]

  • A memory leak when a ZFS volume is exported via the FreeBSD NFS server has been fixed.[r234740]

  • A bug has been fixed. When a process writes to an mmap-backed file on an NFS filesystem, flushing changes to the data could fail under some circumstances such as errors due to permission mismatch, and this failure could not be detected as an error. A new sysctl(8) variable vfs.nfs.nfs_keep_dirty_on_error has been added to control the behavior on the client side related to this issue. When this is set to 1, the pages where a write operation failed are kept dirty. The default value is set to 0.[r233730]

  • The nfsv4(4) filesystem now supports a sysctl(8) variable vfs.nfsd.disable_checkutf8. This disables the check for UTF-8 compliance in filenames. This is disabled by default. Note that enabling this may help wht some interoperability issues but results in an NFSv4 server that is not RFC 3530 compliant.[r229799]

The tmpfs(5) filesystem is not an experimental implementation anymore.[r234511]

The tmpfs(5) filesystem now supports a sysctl(8) variable vfs.tmpfs.memory_reserved to set the amount of required free pages when tmpfs(5) attempts to allocate a new node.[r234849]

FreeBSD's ZFS filesystem has been updated by merging improvements from the illumos project. The following changes are made:[r229578, r232328]

  • New properties, clones and written, have been added.

  • The zfs(8) send command now reports an estimated size of the stream.

  • The zfs(8) destroy command now reports an estimate of the space which would be reclaimed, when -n is specified.

  • The zfs(8) get command now supports the -t type flag to specify the data type.

A simple script has been added to the source tree. This checks if the system is configured correctly when using ZFS as the root filesystem. The script is located at /usr/src/tools/tools/ and it uses the zfsboottest binary program in the same directory.[r227705]

The binary program can be built and installed by the following command:

# cd /usr/src/tools/tools/zfsboottest
# make
# make install

After that, the following command can be used to check the system. poolname is the ZFS storage pool name to boot:

# sh /usr/src/tools/tools/zfsboottest/ poolname

The sysctl(8) variable vfs.zfs.txg.timeout has been changed from read-only to writable.

2.3 Userland Changes

auth.conf(5) has been removed because it was deprecated years ago.[r238481]

The camcontrol(8) utility now supports a fwdownload subcommand for firmware update on SCSI devices from Hitachi, HP, IBM, Plextor, Quantum, and Seagate. This subcommand will reprogram the firmware on devices connected over an ATA/SATA transport.[r237740]

The dhclient(8) utility now supports domain-search (option number 119, described in RFC 3397). This allows a DHCP server to publish a list of implicit domain suffixes used during name lookup. If this option is specified, a search keyword will be added to /etc/resolv.conf.[r230597]

The dump(8) utility now uses 53 characters for the device names in /etc/dumpdates. This was previously limited to 32 characters.[r230047]

The fetch(1) utility now correctly supports a percent-encoded user and password part in a URL.[r235253]

The fdlopen(3) function has been implemented. This is an interface for rtld(1) to load a shared object by file descriptor.[r230410]

The fopen(3) function now supports the x (an exclusive create-and-open mode) option in the ISO/IEC 9899:2011 and C11 standards.[r229845]

A bug in the gcc(1) compiler has been fixed. It could lead to incorrect calculations when -ffast-math is specified.[r234023]

The hastd(8) daemon now supports specifying the filename of its process ID file in hast.conf(5).[r229509]

The ifconfig(8) utility now supports a vlanhwcsum parameter to set or reset checksum offloading capability on VLANs.[r231221]

A bug in the ifconfig(8) utility which could display an error message in a jail with no IPv6 support has been fixed.[r238872]

The ifconfig(8) utility now supports a carp state state parameter to set the state to backup or master forcibly.[r232486]

The jail(8) utility now supports a configuration file ( jail.conf(5)) for complex configurations.[r235839]

The kdump(1) utility now supports a -p pid option to accept either a process ID or a thread ID.[r237789]

The kenv(1) utility now supports a -v flag to display an entry in name=value format, and a -N flag to display only the name.[r236118]

The kldload(8) utility now supports a -n flag to ignore the error status when the specified module is already loaded.[r233560]

libedit has been updated to a NetBSD snapshot as of 28 December, 2009.[r237738]

libmap.conf(5) now supports include and includedir directives. They allow to include specified files for the configuration.[r236523]

Lock handling performance in the libthr pthread library has been improved. It now works 10 times faster especially under the condition that a mutex is heavily contested.[r234372]

A new C++ stack has been imported. This consists of libcxxrt, originally developed by a FreeBSD developer under contract by PathScale and open sourced by the FreeBSD and NetBSD foundations, and libc++ from the LLVM project. libcxxrt is a drop-in replacement for GNU libsupc++, which implements the C++ runtime support for features such as run-time type information, dynamic casting, thread-safe static initializer, and exceptions. libc++ implements the C++11 standard library, and will replace GNU libstdc++ in a future release. In 9.1-RELEASE, libstdc++ is still installed as standard and now dynamically links against libsupc++. This allows libraries linking libstdc++ and libc++ to both be used in the same program, to aid migration.[r235798]

The limits(1) utility now supports a -P pid option to control limits for the specified process.[r230919]

The pciconf(8) utility now supports a -e flag to display PCI error details in listing mode. When this is specified, the status of any error bits in the PCI status register and PCI-express device status register will be displayed. It also lists any errors indicated by version 1 of PCI-express Advanced Error Reporting (AER).[r237731]

The procstat(1) utility now shows the superpage mapping flag when displaying process virtual memory mappings.[r229710]

The procstat(1) utility now supports an -e flag to display process environment variables, an -x flag to display ELF auxiliary vectors, and an -l flag to display resource limits.[r230917, r230918]

A bug in the remquo(3) functions where the quotient did not always have the correct sign when the remainder was 0, and another bug that the remainder and quotient were both off by a bit in certain cases involving subnormal remainders, have been fixed. Note that these bugs affected all platforms except amd64 and i386.[r234535]

The rtld(1) run-time linker now supports GCC's RELRO (RElocation Read-Only). This prevents the GOT (Global Offset Table) from being overwritten.[r231579]

The rtld(1) run-time linker now supports a GNU hash section (DT_GNU_HASH), which is a replacement of optional ELF hash section.[r235396]

The setbuf(1) utility and libstdbuf library have been added. This controls the default buffering behavior of standard stdio streams.[r235139]

The top(1) utility now correctly supports per-thread I/O statistics of ZFS in the -m io option.[r227702]

The unzip(1) utility now supports a -Z option for zipinfo.[r234330]

The xlocale(3) API has been implemented. This consists of _l-suffixed versions of various standard library functions that use the global locale, making them take an explicit locale parameter and allowing thread-safe extended locale support. Most of these APIs are required for IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (POSIX.1-2008 or ISO/IEC 9945:2009) compatibility, and are required by libc++ and recent versions of GNOME. This implementation also supports several extensions for compatibility with Apple Darwin.[r235785]

2.3.1 periodic(8) Scripts

A new variable daily_status_zfs_zpool_list_enable has been added. It controls whether or not to list all of the ZFS pools in periodic/daily/404.status-zfs. The default value is YES.[r231721]

The default value of daily_scrub_zfs_default_threshold used in periodic/daily/800.scrub-zfs is now set to 35 days.[r229381]

2.3.2 rc(8) Scripts

The rc.d/nfsd script now sets the vfs.nfsd.server_max_nfsvers sysctl(8) variable to 4 when nfsv4_server_enable is set to YES.[r227607]

A backwards compatibility issue when both ipv6_enable=YES and ipv6_gateway_enable=YES are defined at the same time has been fixed.[r242189]

2.4 Contributed Software

ISC BIND has been updated to version 9.8.3-P4.[r241417]

The compiler-rt library, which provides low-level target-specific interfaces such as functions in libgcc, has been updated to revision 147467.[r236018]

file ( file(1)) has been updated to version 5.11.[r237983]

GNU gperf(1) has been updated to version 3.0.3 (the latest GPLv2-licensed version).[r230237]

libarchive, bsdtar(1), and cpio(1) have been updated to version 2.8.5.[r229588]

The libpcap library has been updated to 1.2.1.[r236167]

libstdc++ has been updated to revision 135556 of the gcc-4_2-branch (the last LGPLv2-licensed version).[r229551]

The LLVM compiler infrastructure and clang, a C language family front-end, version 3.1 have been imported. Note that it is not used for building the FreeBSD base system by default.[r236144]

The netcat utility has been updated to version 5.1.[r235971]

OpenSSL has been updated to version 0.9.8x.[r237998]

The tcpdump ( tcpdump(1)) utility has been updated to version 4.2.1.[r236192]

The TENEX C shell ( tcsh(1)) has been updated to version 6.18.01.[r232633]

The timezone database has been updated to the tzdata2012a release.[r233447]

The zlib library has been updated to version 1.2.7.[r237691]

2.5 Release Engineering and Integration

The supported version of the KDE desktop environment (x11/kde4) has been updated to 4.8.4.

[powerpc] Issues where the FreeBSD installation CDROM image caused a panic, and was not recognized on OpenBIOS-based environments like QEMU, have been fixed.[r234055]

3 Upgrading from previous releases of FreeBSD

3.1 Upgrading using freebsd-update(8) or a source-based procedure

[amd64, i386] Beginning with FreeBSD 6.2-RELEASE, binary upgrades between RELEASE versions (and snapshots of the various security branches) are supported using the freebsd-update(8) utility. The binary upgrade procedure will update unmodified userland utilities, as well as an unmodified GENERIC kernel, distributed as a part of an official FreeBSD release. The freebsd-update(8) utility requires that the host being upgraded have Internet connectivity.

Source-based upgrades (those based on recompiling the FreeBSD base system from source code) from previous versions are supported using to the instructions in /usr/src/UPDATING.

For more specific information about upgrading instructions, see

Important: Upgrading FreeBSD should, of course, only be attempted after backing up all data and configuration files.

3.2 User-visible incompatibilities

FreeBSD 9.0 and later have several incompatibilities in system configuration which you might want to know before upgrading your system. Please read this section and the Upgrading Section in 9.0-RELEASE Release Notes carefully before submitting a problem report and/or posting a question to the FreeBSD mailing lists.

This file, and other release-related documents, can be downloaded from

For questions about FreeBSD, read the documentation before contacting <>.

All users of FreeBSD 9.1-STABLE should subscribe to the <> mailing list.

For questions about this documentation, e-mail <>.