FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE Release Notes
The FreeBSD Project
Copyright © 2012 The FreeBSD Documentation Project
2012-01-12 05:51:11Z hrs $
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The release notes for FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE contain a summary of the changes made to the FreeBSD base system on the 9.0-STABLE development line. This document lists applicable security advisories that were issued since the last release, as well as significant changes to the FreeBSD kernel and userland. Some brief remarks on upgrading are also presented.
- Table of Contents
- 1 Introduction
- 2 What's New
- 3 Upgrading from previous releases of FreeBSD
- 3.1 Upgrading using freebsd-update(8) or a source-based procedure
- 3.2 User-visible incompatibilities
This document contains the release notes for FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE. It describes recently added, changed, or deleted features of FreeBSD. It also provides some notes on upgrading from previous versions of FreeBSD.
This distribution of FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE is a release distribution. It can be found at http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/ or any of its mirrors. More information on obtaining this (or other) release distributions of FreeBSD can be found in the “Obtaining FreeBSD” appendix to the FreeBSD Handbook.
All users are encouraged to consult the release errata before installing FreeBSD. The errata document is updated with “late-breaking” information discovered late in the release cycle or after the release. Typically, it contains information on known bugs, security advisories, and corrections to documentation. An up-to-date copy of the errata for FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE can be found on the FreeBSD Web site.
This section describes the most user-visible new or changed features in FreeBSD since 8.2-RELEASE.
Typical release note items document recent security advisories issued after 8.2-RELEASE, new drivers or hardware support, new commands or options, major bug fixes, or contributed software upgrades. They may also list changes to major ports/packages or release engineering practices. Clearly the release notes cannot list every single change made to FreeBSD between releases; this document focuses primarily on security advisories, user-visible changes, and major architectural improvements.
Problems described in the following security advisories have been fixed. For more information, consult the individual advisories available from http://security.FreeBSD.org/.
|SA-11:01.mountd||20 April 2011||
Network ACL mishandling in mountd(8)
|SA-11:02.bind||28 May 2011||
BIND remote DoS with large RRSIG RRsets and negative caching
|SA-11:04.compress||28 September 2011|
|SA-11:05.unix||28 September 2011||
Buffer overflow in handling of UNIX socket addresses
|SA-11:06.bind||23 December 2011||
Remote packet Denial of Service against named(8) servers
|SA-11:07.chroot||23 December 2011||
Code execution via chrooted ftpd
|SA-11:08.telnetd||23 December 2011||
telnetd code execution vulnerability
|SA-11:09.pam_ssh||23 December 2011||
pam_ssh improperly grants access when user account has unencrypted SSH private keys
|SA-11:10.pam||23 December 2011||
The FreeBSD kernel now supports Capsicum Capability Mode. Capsicum is a set of features for sandboxing support, using a capability model in which the capabilities are file descriptors. Two new kernel options CAPABILITIES and CAPABILITY_MODE have been added to the GENERIC kernel. For more information about Capsicum, see http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/research/security/capsicum/.[r219129]
[amd64, i386] The FreeBSD dtrace(1) framework now supports systrace for system calls of linux32 and freebsd32 on FreeBSD/amd64. Two new systrace_linux32 and systrace_freebsd32 kernel modules provide support for tracing compat system calls in addition to the native system call tracing provided by the systrace module.[r219559, r219561]
[amd64, i386, powerpc] The FreeBSD ELF image activator now
supports the PT_GNU_STACK program header.
This is disabled by default. New
kern.elf64.nxstack allow enabling PT_GNU_STACK for the specified ABIs (e.g. elf32 for 32-bit ABI).[r217152, r217396]
The hhook(9) (Helper Hook) and khelp(9) (Kernel Helpers) KPIs have been implemented. These are a kind of superset of pfil(9) framework for more general use in the kernel. The hhook(9) KPI provides a way for kernel subsystems to export hook points that khelp(9) modules can hook to provide enhanced or new functionality to the kernel. The khelp(9) KPI provides a framework for managing khelp(9) modules, which indirectly use the hhook(9) KPI to register their hook functions with hook points of interest within the kernel. These allow a structured way to dynamically extend the kernel at runtime in an ABI preserving manner.[r216758, r216615]
A new resource accounting API has been implemented. It can keep per-process, per-jail, and per-loginclass resource accounting information. Note that this is not built nor installed by default. To build and install them, specify options RACCT in the kernel configuration file and rebuild the base system as described in the FreeBSD Handbook.[r220137]
A new resource-limiting API has been implemented. It works in conjunction with the RACCT resource accounting implementation and takes user-configurable actions based on the set of rules it maintains and the current resource usage. The rctl(8) utility has been added to manage the rules in userland. Note that this is not built nor installed by default. To build and install them, specify options RCTL in the kernel configuration file and rebuild the base system as described in the FreeBSD Handbook.[r220163]
The open(2) and fhopen(2) system calls now support the O_CLOEXEC flag, which allows setting the FD_CLOEXEC flag for the newly created file descriptor. This is standardized in IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (POSIX, Single UNIX Specification Version 4).[r219999]
Two new system calls
getloginclass(2) have been added. This makes it
possible for the kernel to track the login class a process is
assigned to, which is required for the RCTL resource limiting framework.[r219304]
[amd64] FreeBSD now supports executing FreeBSD 1/i386 a.out binaries on FreeBSD/amd64. Note that this is not built nor installed by default. To build and install them, specify options COMPAT_43 in the kernel configuration file and rebuild the base system as described in the FreeBSD Handbook.[r220238]
|sysctl(8) variable name||Description|
||ACL (Access Control List) support in UFS|
||journaling support through gjournal(8) for UFS|
||UFS disk quotas support|
||64-bit UFS disk quotas support|
||FFS soft-updates support|
||FFS snapshot support|
||NFS client (old implementation)|
||NFS client (new implementation)|
||NFS server (old implementation)|
||NFS server (new implementation)|
||Kernel DTrace hooks which are required to load DTrace kernel modules|
||Kernel support for KTR kernel tracing facility|
||Kernel support for system call tracing|
||Kernel support for HW PMC|
||System V message queues support|
||System V semaphores support|
||POSIX P1003.1B message queues support|
||POSIX P1003.1B semaphores support|
||POSIX P1003.1B real-time extensions|
||Support for capturing the kernel stack|
||System V shared memory segments support|
||Support usage of external PPS signal by kernel PLL|
||Kernel support for interfaces necessary for regression testing|
||Support for modules compiled with the INVARIANTS option|
||Zero copy sockets support|
||SCSI devices support|
||Mandatory Access Control Framework support|
||BSM audit support|
||GEOM Gate module|
||GEOM uzip read-only compressed disks support|
||GEOM cache module|
||GEOM mirroring support|
||GEOM striping support|
||GEOM concatenation support|
||GEOM RAID-3 functionality|
||GEOM FOX redundant path mitigation support|
||GEOM multipath support|
||GEOM virtual storage support|
||GEOM-based Disk Encryption|
||GEOM crypto module|
||GEOM journaling support|
||GEOM shared secret device support|
||GEOM support for volume names from UFS superblocks|
||GEOM labeling support|
||GEOM Sun/Solaris partitioning support|
||GEOM BSD disklabels support|
||GEOM NEC PC9800 partitioning support|
||GEOM Linux LVM partitioning support|
||GEOM partitioning class for PC-9800 disk partitions|
||GEOM partitioning class for SMI VTOC8 disk labels|
||GEOM partitioning class for BSD disklabels|
||GEOM partitioning class for extended boot records support|
||GEOM EBR partitioning class: backward-compatible partition names|
||GEOM partitioning class for GPT partitions support|
||GEOM partitioning class for Apple-style partitions|
||GEOM partitioning class for MBR support|
The default boot loader menu has been updated.[r222417]
[ia64] The loader(8) loader now supports PBVM (Pre-Boot Virtual Memory). This allows linking the kernel at a fixed virtual address without having to make any assumptions about the physical memory layout. The PBVM also allows fine control of the address where the kernel and its modules are to be loaded.[r219541]
[powerpc] FreeBSD/powerpc now supports Sony Playstation 3 using the OtherOS feature available on firmwares 3.15 and earlier.[r217044]
machdep.disable_tsc has been added. Setting this
to a non-zero value disables use of TSC (Time Stamp Counter) by
turning off boot-time CPU frequency calibration, DELAY(9) with TSC,
and using TSC as a CPU ticker. Another new
machdep.disable_tsc_calibration allows to skip the
TSC frequency calibration only. This is useful when one wants to
use the nominal frequency of the chip in Intel processors, for
The FreeBSD usb(4) subsystem now supports USB packet filter. This allows to capture packets which go through each USB host controller. The implementation is almost based on bpf(4) code. The userland program usbdump(8) has been added.[r215649]
A bxe(4) driver for Broadcom NetXtreme II 10GbE controllers (BCM57710, BCM57711, BCM57711E) has been added.[r219647]
A rdcphy(4) driver for RDC Semiconductor R6040 10/100 PHY has been added.[r216828]
re(4) driver now supports another
mechanism for RX interrupt moderation because of performance
dev.re.N.int_rx_mod has been added to
control amount of time to delay RX interrupt processing, in units
of microsecond. Setting it to 0 completely
disables RX interrupt moderation. A
hw.re.intr_filter controls whether the old
mechanism utilizing MSI/MSI-X capability on supported controllers
is used or not. When set to a non-zero value, the
re(4) driver uses the old
mechanism. The default value is 0 and this
tunable has no effect on controllers without MSI/MSI-X
The re(4) driver now supports TSO (TCP Segmentation Offload) on RealTek RTL8168/8111 C or later controllers. Note that this is disabled by default because broken frames can be sent under certain conditions.[r217246, r217832]
The re(4) driver now supports enabling TX and/or RX checksum offloading independently from each other. Note that TX IP checksum is disabled on some RTL8168C-based network interfaces because it can generate an incorrect IP checksum when the packet contains IP options.[r217381, r218289]
The rlphy(4) driver now supports the Realtek RTL8201E 10/100 PHY found in RTL8105E controllers.[r217910]
A bug in the sis(4) driver has been fixed. It could prevent a proper reinitialization on DP83815, DP83816, and SiS 900/7016 controllers when the configuration of multicast packet handling and/or promiscuous mode is changed.[r217548]
A bug in the vlan(4) pseudo interface han been fixed. It could have a random interface identifier in an automatically configured IPv6 link-local address, instead of one generated with the parent interface's IEEE 802 48-bit MAC address and an algorithm described in RFC 4291.[r216650]
wpi0: could not map mbuf (error 12) wpi0: wpi_rx_intr: bus_dmamap_load failed, error 12
ipfw(8) now supports the call and return actions. Upon the call number action, the current rule number is saved in the internal stack and ruleset processing continues with the first rule numbered number or higher. The return action takes the rule number saved to internal stack by the latest call action and returns ruleset processing to the first rule with number greater than that saved number.[r223666]
FreeBSD's ipsec(4) support now uses half of the hash size as the authenticator hash size in Hashed Message Authentication Mode (HMAC-SHA-256, HMAC-SHA-384, and HMAC-SHA-512) as described in RFC 4868. This was a fixed 96-bit length in prior releases because the implementation was based on an old Internet draft draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-sha-256-00. Note that this means 9.0-RELEASE and later are no longer interoperable with the older FreeBSD releases.[r218794]
For Infiniband support, OFED (OpenFabrics Enterprise Distribution) version 1.5.3 has been imported into the base system. Note that this is not built nor installed by default. To build and install them, specify WITH_OFED=yes in /etc/src.conf and rebuild the base system as described in the FreeBSD Handbook.[r219820]
The FreeBSD TCP/IP network stack now supports IPv4 prefixes with /31 as described in RFC 3021, “Using 31-Bit Prefixes on IPv4 Point-to-Point Links”.[r226572]
A bug in the FreeBSD TCP/IP network stack has been fixed. Source address selection could not be performed when multicast options were present but without an interface being specified.[r217169]
The FreeBSD TCP/IP network stack now supports the
mod_cc(9) pluggable congestion
control framework. This allows TCP congestion control algorithms to
be implemented as dynamically loadable kernel modules. The
following kernel modules are available as of 9.0-RELEASE:
cc_chd(4) for the
cc_cubic(4) for the CUBIC
cc_hd(4) for the Hamilton-Delay
cc_htcp(4) for the H-TCP
cc_newreno(4) for the NewReno
cc_vegas(4) for the Vegas
algorithm. The default algorithm can be set by a new
net.inet.tcp.cc.algorithm. The value must be set
to one of the names listed by
net.inet.tcp.cc.available, and newreno is the default set at boot time. For more
detail, see the
mod_cc(9) manual pages.[r216109, r216114, r216115, r218152, r218153, r218155]
An h_ertt(4) (Enhanced Round Trip Time) khelp(9) module has been added. This module allows per-connection, low noise estimates of the instantaneous RTT in the TCP/IP network stack with a robust implementation even in the face of delayed acknowledgments and/or TSO (TCP Segmentation Offload) being in use for a connection.[r217806]
A new tcp(4) socket option TCP_CONGESTION has been added. This allows to select or query the congestion control algorithm that the TCP/IP network stack will use for connections on the socket.[r218912]
The ng_netflow(4) netgraph(4) node now supports NetFlow version 9. A new export9 hook has been added for NetFlow v9 data. Note that data export can be done simultaneously in both version 5 and version 9.[r219183]
ada(4) driver now supports write
cache control. A new
kern.cam.ada.write_cache determines whether the
write cache of
ada(4) devices is enabled or not.
Setting to 1 enables and 0 disables the write cache, and -1 leaves the device default behavior.
kern.cam.ada.N.write_cache can override the
configuration in a per-device basis (the default value is
-1, which means to use the global
setting). Note that the value can be changed at runtime, but it
takes effect only after a device reset.[r220412]
The geom_map(4) GEOM class has been added. This allows to generate multiple geom providers based on a hard-coded layout of a device with no explicit partition table such as embedded flash storage. For more information, see the geom_map(4) manual page.[r220559]
md(4) memory-backed pseudo disk
device driver now supports a
vm.md_malloc_wait to specify whether a
malloc-backed disk will use
malloc(9) calls. The
M_WAITOK setting can prevent memory allocation
failure under high load. If it is set to 0, a malloc-backed disk uses
M_NOWAIT for memory allocation. The default value
The FreeBSD Fast File System now supports softupdates
journaling. It introduces a intent log into a softupdates-enabled
file system which eliminates the need for background
fsck(8) even on unclean shutdown.
This can be enabled in a per-filesystem basis by using the
-j flag of the
newfs(8) utility or the
-j enable option of the
tunefs(8) utility. Note that the
9.0-RELEASE installer automatically enables softupdates journaling
for newly-created UFS file systems.[r207141, r218726]
The FreeBSD Fast File System now supports the TRIM command when freeing data blocks. A new flag
-t in the
tunefs(8) utilities sets the
TRIM-enable flag for a file system. The TRIM-enable flag makes the
file system send a delete request to the underlying device for each
freed block. The TRIM command is specified
as a Data Set Management Command in the ATA8-ACS2 standard to carry
the information related to deleted data blocks to a device,
especially for a SSD (Solid-State Drive) for optimization.[r216796]
A new flag
-E has been added to the
fsck_ffs(8) utilities. This
clears unallocated blocks, notifying the underlying device that
they are not used and that their contents may be discarded. This is
fsck_ffs(8) for file systems
which have been mounted on systems without TRIM support, or with TRIM
support disabled, as well as filesystems which have been copied
from one device to another.[r221233]
The FreeBSD NFS subsystem has been updated. The new
implementation supports NFS version 4 in addition to 2 and 3. The
kernel options for the NFS server and client are changed from
NFSSERVER and NFSCLIENT to NFSD and
sysctl(8) variables which start
vfs.nfssrv. have been renamed to
vfs.nfsd.. The NFS server now supports
sysctl(8) variables to specify
the maximum and the minimum NFS version number which the server
accepts. The default value is set to 3 and
To enable NFSv4, the following variables are needed on the server side in rc.conf(5):
nfsv_server_enable="YES" nfsv4_server_enable="YES" nfsuserd_enable="YES"
and the following line is needed in /etc/exports:
The FreeBSD NFS subsystem now supports a
nocto mount option. This disables the close-to-open
cache coherency check at open time. This option may improve
performance for read-only mounts, but should only be used only if
the data on the server changes rarely. The
mount_nfs(8) utility now also
supports this flag keyword.[r221436]
vfs.typenumhash has been added and set to
1 by default. This enables to use a hash
calculation on the file system identification number internally
used in the kernel. This fixes the “Stale NFS file handle” error on
NFS clients when upgrading or rebuilding the kernel on the NFS
server due to unexpected change of these identification number
The FreeBSD ZFS subsystem has been updated to the SPA (Storage
Pool Allocator, also known as zpool) version 28. It now supports
data deduplication, triple parity RAIDZ (raidz3), snapshot holds,
log device removal, zfs diff, zpool split, zpool import
-F, and read-only zpool
cpuset(1) utility now supports a
-C flag to create a new cpuset and
assign an existing process into that set, and an all keyword in the
cpu-list option to
specify all CPUs in the system.[r217416]
An implementation of
libraries and utilities which are standardized in Single UNIX
Specification has been imported. These are based on NetBSD's Citrus
implementation. Note that these are not built nor installed by
default. To build and install them, specify WITH_ICONV=yes in /etc/src.conf and rebuild the base system as
described in the FreeBSD Handbook.[r219019]
The netstat(1) utility now does not expose the internal scope address representation used in the FreeBSD kernel, which is derived from KAME IPv6 stack, in the results of netstat -ani and netstat -nr.[r217642]
pam_group(8) module now supports
luser options. The
ruser make it accept or reject based on the
supplicant's group membership and this is the default behavior. The
luser checks the target user's group
membership instead of the supplicant's one. If neither option was
ruser and issues a warning.[r219563]
# shutdown -p now
The ppp(8) utility now supports iface name name and iface description description commands. These have the same functionalities as the name and description subcommands of the ifconfig(8) utility.[r218397]
ps(1) utility now supports an
-o class option to display the login
class information of each process, and
-o systime options
for accumulated system and user CPU time, respectively.[r219307, r219713]
The rtadvd(8) daemon now supports a noifprefix keyword to disable gathering on-link prefixes from interfaces when no addr keyword is specified. An entry in /etc/rtadvd.conf with noifprefix and no addr generates an RA message with no prefix information option.[r222732]
The rtsold(8) and rtadvd(8) daemons now support the RDNSS and DNSSL options described in RFC 6106, “IPv6 Router Advertisement Options for DNS Configuration”. A rtadvctl(8) utility to control the rtadvd(8) daemon has been added.[r222732, r224006]
rtld(1) runtime linker now
supports shared objects as filters in ELF shared libraries. Both
standard and auxiliary filtering have been supported. The
rtld(1) linker's processing of a
filter defers loading a filtee until a filter symbol is referenced
variable is defined or a -z loadfltr
option was specified when the filter was created.[r216695]
The sh(1) program now supports kill as a built-in command. This allows specifying %job which is equivalent to the corresponding process group. Note that this built-in command returns the exit status 2 instead of 1 if a fatal error occurs as other built-in commands do.[r216629]
A bug in the sh(1) program has been fixed for POSIX conformance. It could return an incorrect exit status when an exit command with no parameter is specified in the EXIT trap handler, which is triggered when the shell terminates. In trap actions for other signals, an exit command with no parameter returns an exit status corresponding to the received signal.[r217176, r217472]
A bug in the sh(1) program has been fixed. When a foreground job exits on a signal, a message is printed to stdout about this. The buffer was not flushed after printing which could result in the message being written to the wrong file if the next command was a built-in and had stdout redirected.[r217557]
Arithmetic expression handling code in the sh(1) program has been updated by importing code from dash. It now supports the conditional operator (?:) and a bug in evaluation of && and || around an arithmetic expression has been fixed.[r218466]
The utmp(5) user accounting database has been replaced by utmpx(3). User accounting utilities will now use utmpx database files exclusively. The wtmpcvt(1) utility can be used to convert wtmp files to the new format, making it possible to read them using the updated utilities.[r202188]
A utxrm(8) utility has been added. This allows one to remove an entry from the utmpx database by hand. This is useful when a login daemon crashes or fails to remove the entry during shutdown.[r218847]
ACPI CA has been updated to version 20110527.[r222544]
The awk has been updated to the 7 August 2011 release.[r224731]
ISC BIND has been updated to version 9.8.1-P1.[r228189]
GNU binutils has been updated to 2.17.50 (as of 3 July 2007), which is the last available version under GPLv2.[r218822]
The compiler-rt library, which provides low-level target-specific interfaces such as functions in libgcc, has been imported.[r222656]
dialog has been updated to version 1.1-20110707.[r224014]
The netcat utility has been updated to version 4.9.[r221793]
The tnftp (formerly known as lukemftp) has been updated to tnftp-20100108.[r223328]
GNU GCC and libstdc++ have been updated to rev 127959 of gcc-4_2-branch (the last GPLv2-licensed version).[r220150]
gdtoa, a set of binary from/to decimal number conversion routines used in FreeBSD's libc library has been updated to a snapshot as of 4 March, 2011.[r219557]
The LESS program has been updated to version v444.[r222906]
The LLVM compiler infrastructure and
clang, a C language family front-end,
version 3.0 have been imported. Note that it is not used for
building the FreeBSD base system by default. In the FreeBSD build
clang-cpp(1) utilities can be
The pf packet filter has been updated to version 4.5.[r223637]
sendmail has been updated to version 8.14.5.[r223067]
The timezone database has been updated to the tzdata2011m release.[r226750]
The xz program has been updated from 5.0.0 to a snapshot as of 11 July, 2011.[r223935]
The supported version of the KDE desktop environment (x11/kde4) has been updated from 4.5.5 to 4.7.3.
[amd64, i386] Beginning with FreeBSD 6.2-RELEASE, binary upgrades between RELEASE versions (and snapshots of the various security branches) are supported using the freebsd-update(8) utility. The binary upgrade procedure will update unmodified userland utilities, as well as a unmodified GENERIC kernel distributed as a part of an official FreeBSD release. The freebsd-update(8) utility requires that the host being upgraded have Internet connectivity.
Source-based upgrades (those based on recompiling the FreeBSD base system from source code) from previous versions are supported, according to the instructions in /usr/src/UPDATING.
For more specific information about upgrading instructions, see http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/9.0R/installation.html.
Important: Upgrading FreeBSD should, of course, only be attempted after backing up all data and configuration files.
This section describes notable incompatibilities which you might want to know before upgrading your system. Please read this section and the Errata document carefully before submitting a problem report and/or posting a question to the FreeBSD mailing lists.
The dialog library is used in FreeBSD's new installer and the FreeBSD Ports Collection to display a dialog window and allow users to select various options. Note that it is updated in 9.0-RELEASE and there are several differences in key operations which might confuse users who are familiar with releases prior to 9.0-RELEASE. For example, pushing the enter key in a checklist window will no longer check an item. The new version consistently uses space bar for selecting an item and the enter key for OK/Cancel selection.
FreeBSD now checks the integrity of partition metadata when a partition table is found on a disk though the GEOM PART subsystem. This detection is automatically performed when a disk device is ready. The GEOM PART class in the kernel verifies all generic partition parameters obtained from the disk metadata, and if some inconsistency is detected, the partition table will be rejected with the following diagnostic message:
GEOM_PART: Integrity check failed
This integrity check is enabled by default. On a system prior to 9.0-RELEASE, the inconsistencies were silently ignored. Therefore, there is a possibility that this prevents a system from booting after upgrading it to 9.0-RELEASE. More specifically, the kernel cannot mount the system partition at boot time in some cases.
set kern.geom.part.check_integrity="0" boot
These commands temporarily disable the integrity check. If it was the cause of the boot failure, the FreeBSD kernel should detect the partitions as the prior release did, after entering the commands. This configuration can be added into /boot/loader.conf as follows:
To check inconsistent metadata after booting on the system, use the gpart(8) utility on the system. A corrupted entry will be displayed like the following:
% gpart show => 63 1953525104 mirror/gm0 MBR (931G) [CORRUPT] 63 1953525105 1 freebsd [active] (931G)
For more information, see the gpart(8) manual page.
In 9.0-RELEASE, the FreeBSD ATA/SATA disk subsystem has been replaced with a new cam(4)-based implementation. cam(4) stands for Common Access Method, which is an implementation of an API set originally for SCSI-2 and standardized as "SCSI-2 Common Access Method Transport and SCSI Interface Module". FreeBSD has used the cam(4) subsystem to handle SCSI devices since 3.X.
An ATA/SATA disk is now recognized as a device node with a name ada0 instead of ad0. Currently, a symbolic link /dev/ad0 is automatically generated for /dev/ada0 to keep backward compatibility. This symbolic link generation can be controlled by a
kern.cam.ada.legacy_aliases(enabled by default). You might want to update /etc/fstab and/or consider using volume labels (see glabel(8) for more details) for specifying each file system to be mounted.
ataraid(4) software RAID is now supported by the graid(8) GEOM class. It generates a device node with a name /dev/raid/r0 if you previously had /dev/ar0. Note that this is not enabled by default. To enable it, enter the following line in the loader(8) prompt:
set geom_raid_load="YES" boot
or add the following line to /boot/loader.conf:
and reboot the system. A symbolic link like /dev/ar0 will NOT be generated for /dev/raid/r0. Therefore, if your system used /dev/ar0 as the root partition, mounting local file systems will fail because it is renamed to /dev/raid/r0. You need to update /etc/fstab manually in that case.
An address configuration now always needs an address family keyword. For example, the following line
ifconfig_em0="192.168.2.1 netmask 255.255.255.0"
ifconfig_em0="inet 192.168.2.1 netmask 255.255.255.0"
Although the old convention is still supported in the existing variables for backward compatibility, some new variables do not support it.
ifconfig_IF_alias0variable now requires an address family keyword to support non-IPv4 address families. For instance,
ifconfig_em0_alias0="192.168.2.10 netmask 255.255.255.255"
ifconfig_em0_alias0="inet 192.168.2.10 netmask 255.255.255.255"
Different address families can coexist like the following:
ifconfig_em0_alias0="inet 192.168.2.10 netmask 255.255.255.255" ifconfig_em0_alias1="inet6 2001:db8:1::1 prefixlen 64"
Note that IPv6 alias configurations in
ifconfig_IF_aliasNwill be ignored when no
ifconfig_IF_ipv6variable is defined because it determines whether IPv6 functionality is enabled on that interface or not (this variable will be explained later).
# service netif stop em0
stops the interface em0.
# service routing stop
deactivates all static route configurations.
Releases prior to FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE did not support this functionality properly for non-IPv4 protocols.
IPv6 configuration handling has been changed in the following way. Before in-depth explanations, here is a before-and-after example. What was previously:
ifconfig_em0="192.168.2.1 netmask 255.255.255.0" ifconfig_em0_alias0="192.168.2.2 netmask 255.255.255.255" ipv6_enable="YES" ipv6_ifconfig_em0="2001:db8:1::1 prefixlen 64" ipv6_ifconfig_em0_alias0="2001:db8:2::1 prefixlen 64" # em1 uses SLAAC for IPv6 address configuration
should be in 9.0-RELEASE:
ifconfig_em0="inet 192.168.2.1 netmask 255.255.255.0" ifconfig_em0_ipv6="inet6 2001:db8:1::1 prefixlen 64 accept_rtadv" ifconfig_em0_alias0="inet 192.168.2.2 netmask 255.255.255.255" ifconfig_em0_alias1="inet6 2001:db8:2::1 prefixlen 64" ifconfig_em1_ipv6="inet6 accept_rtadv"
More specific explanations of the changes are as follows:
ipv6_enablevariable is deprecated. IPv6 functionality on the system is enabled by default. No IPv6 communication will happen if you configure no IPv6 address.
9.0-RELEASE now supports intermediate configurations between a host and a router IPv6 node. The
ipv6_enablevariable assumed that the system was a host node when
ipv6_gateway_enablewas set to NO (default), and a router node if not. A host node always accepted ICMPv6 Router Advertise messages, and a router did not.
In 9.0-RELEASE, this model is still applied but on a per-interface basis, not a system-wide basis. Specifically, if an interface has an ACCEPT_RTADV flag, RA messages will be accepted on that interface for SLAAC (StateLess Address AutoConfiguration) regardless of whether the packet forwarding is enabled or not.
In addition to them, a per-interface flag NO_RADR and a sysctl(8) variable
net.inet6.ip6.rfc6204w3have been added. This controls whether default router list information via RA messages on an RA-accepting interface should be ignored or not. In an IPv6 router model, it is not supposed to accept RA messages as an information source for the default router list. Because of that, FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE ignores the default router list part when IPv6 packet forwarding is enabled, even if the interface has an ACCEPT_RTADV flag. However, this can make for a difficult situation when the system has to work as a CPE (Customer Premises Equipment) which needs RA messages from the upstream network for network configuration and acts as a router for the LAN simultaneously. For more information about this kind of configuration, see RFC 6204.
To support this kind of configuration, the
ipv6_cpe_wanifvariable in rc.conf(5) can be used.
means the em0 interface accepts RA messages and the default router information in them, and the other interfaces ignore the default router information part even when the ACCEPT_RTADV flag is set on them.
ipv6_cpe_wanifhandling internally sets the
net.inet6.ip6.no_radrsysctl(8) variables to 1. Note that both are set to 0 by default. When the former is set to 1, FreeBSD accepts the default router list even when IPv6 packet forwarding is enabled. Note that a system administrator needs to set a NO_RADR flag on the other RA-accepting interfaces, if any, to prevent it from accepting unexpected default router information. The latter variable means the NO_RADR flag is automatically set on them.
If ipv6_enable="YES" is defined in FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE, it sets ipv6_activate_all_interfaces="YES" in /etc/rc.conf and the inet6 accept_rtadv ifconfig(8) option on all network interfaces. Note that this is only for backward compatibility. The
ipv6_enableshould not be used in FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE.
ipv6_ifconfig_IFvariable is renamed to
ifconfig_IF_ipv6. This variable controls whether IPv6 functionality should be enabled on that interface or not. If
ifconfig_IF_ipv6, is not set, there is no IPv6 functionality on the interface IF.
Note that the
ifconfig_IF_ipv6variable always needs the address family keyword inet6. If you need an automatic link-local address only, the following line is enough:
If you need full-blown IPv6 functionality on all interfaces like prior releases with ipv6_enable="YES", including ones with no
ifconfig_IF_ipv6 line, you might want to use the
ipv6_activate_all_interfacesvariable as explained later.
If ipv6_ifconfig_IF="..." is defined in FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE, it means ifconfig_IF_ipv6="inet6 ...". Note that this is only for backward compatibility. The inet6 address family keyword is required for
ifconfig_IF_ipv6, but was NOT required for
ipv6_ifconfig_IFvariables should not be used in 9.0-RELEASE.
An interface with no corresponding
ifconfig_IF_ipv6variable is marked with an IFDISABLED flag by devd(8) daemon. This flag means IPv6 communication is disabled on that interface. This can also be found in output of ifconfig(8):
% ifconfig em0 em0: flags=8843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> metric 0 mtu 1500 options=9b<RXCSUM,TXCSUM,VLAN_MTU,VLAN_HWTAGGING,VLAN_HWCSUM> ether xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx inet 192.168.2.1 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.2.255 nd6 options=3<PERFORMNUD,IFDISABLED,ACCEPT_RTADV> media: Ethernet autoselect (1000baseT <full-duplex>) status: active
To enable IPv6 functionality, this flag should be removed first. There are several ways to do so. Adding an IPv6 address automatically removes this flag. It is possible to remove this flag explicitly by using the following command:
# ifconfig em0 inet6 -ifdisabled
Note that defining an
ifconfig_IF_ipv6is the most reasonable way to activate IPv6 functionality on that interface. This IFDISABLED flag is to prevent unintended IPv6 communications in an IPv4-only environment even when the interface has an IPv6 link-local address. If you need full-blown IPv6 functionality on all interfaces, you might want to use the
ipv6_activate_all_interfacesvariable as explained later.
The sysctl(8) variable
net.inet6.ip6.accept_rtadvhas been changed. It was a system-wide configuration knob which controlled whether the system accepts ICMPv6 Router Advertisement messages or not. In FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE, this knob is converted into a per-interface inet6 accept_rtadv ifconfig(8) option. Although the sysctl(8) variable is available still in FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE, it now controls whether the per-interface option is set by default or not. The default value is 0 (not accept the RA messages).
The sysctl(8) variable
net.inet6.ip6.auto_linklocalhas been changed. It was a system-wide configuration knob which controlled whether an IPv6 link-local address was generated on a network interface when it became up. In FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE, this knob is converted into a per-interface inet6 auto_linklocal ifconfig(8) option. Although the sysctl(8) variable is still available in FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE, it now controls whether the per-interface option is set by default or not. The default value is 1 (generate a link-local automatically).
The functionality of
ipv6_ifconfig_IF_alias0is integrated into
ifconfig_IF_alias0. Note that address family keywords are always required:
ifconfig_em0_alias0="inet 192.168.2.10 netmask 255.255.255.255" ifconfig_em0_alias1="inet6 2001:db8:1::1 prefixlen 64
ipv6_ifconfig_IF_aliasNis still usable in FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE, it is only for backward compatibility.
ipv6_activate_all_interfacesvariable has been added. If this variable is set to YES, the IFDISABLED option will not be added even if
ifconfig_IF_ipv6variables are not defined. This can prevent IFDISABLED on dynamically-added interfaces such as ppp(4), tap(4), and ng_iface(4) where defining
ifconfig_IF_ipv6in advance is difficult.
The resolvconf(8) utility has been added and it now handles updating the resolv.conf(5) file. Direct modifications to /etc/resolv.conf can be overwritten by network configuration utilities such as dhclient(8) and rtsold(8).
In earlier releases various utilities were available to manage disk partition information. They are deprecated in favor of the gpart(8) utility. Specifically, the fdisk(8), disklabel(8) bsdlabel(8), and sunlabel(8) utilities are no longer supported actively though these are still available for backward compatibility.
This file, and other release-related documents, can be downloaded from http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/.
All users of FreeBSD 9.0-STABLE should subscribe to the <stable@FreeBSD.org> mailing list.
For questions about this documentation, e-mail <doc@FreeBSD.org>.
Last modified on: May 15, 2021 by Allan Jude