FreeBSD 7.3-RELEASE Release Notes
The FreeBSD Project
Copyright © 2010 The FreeBSD Documentation Project
2010-03-20 16:39:28Z hrs $
FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
IBM, AIX, EtherJet, Netfinity, OS/2, PowerPC, PS/2, S/390, and ThinkPad are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both.
IEEE, POSIX, and 802 are registered trademarks of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. in the United States.
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Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the “™” or the “®” symbol.
The release notes for FreeBSD 7.3-RELEASE contain a summary of the changes made to the FreeBSD base system on the 7.3-STABLE development line. This document lists applicable security advisories that were issued since the last release, as well as significant changes to the FreeBSD kernel and userland. Some brief remarks on upgrading are also presented.
- Table of Contents
- 1 Introduction
- 2 What's New
- 2.1 Security Advisories
- 2.2 Kernel Changes
- 2.3 Userland Changes
- 2.3.1 /etc/rc.d Scripts
- 2.4 Contributed Software
- 2.5 Ports/Packages Collection Infrastructure
- 2.6 Release Engineering and Integration
- 3 Upgrading from previous releases of FreeBSD
This document contains the release notes for FreeBSD 7.3-RELEASE. It describes recently added, changed, or deleted features of FreeBSD. It also provides some notes on upgrading from previous versions of FreeBSD.
This distribution of FreeBSD 7.3-RELEASE is a release distribution. It can be found at ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/ or any of its mirrors. More information on obtaining this (or other) release distributions of FreeBSD can be found in the “Obtaining FreeBSD” appendix to the FreeBSD Handbook.
All users are encouraged to consult the release errata before installing FreeBSD. The errata document is updated with “late-breaking” information discovered late in the release cycle or after the release. Typically, it contains information on known bugs, security advisories, and corrections to documentation. An up-to-date copy of the errata for FreeBSD 7.3-RELEASE can be found on http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/7.3R/errata.html.
This section describes the most user-visible new or changed features in FreeBSD since 7.2-RELEASE.
Typical release note items document recent security advisories issued after 7.2-RELEASE, new drivers or hardware support, new commands or options, major bug fixes, or contributed software upgrades. They may also list changes to major ports/packages or release engineering practices. Clearly the release notes cannot list every single change made to FreeBSD between releases; this document focuses primarily on security advisories, user-visible changes, and major architectural improvements.
Problems described in the following security advisories have been fixed. For more information, consult the individual advisories available from http://security.FreeBSD.org/.
|SA-09:09.pipe||10 June 2009||
Local information disclosure via direct pipe writes
|SA-09:10.ipv6||10 June 2009||
Missing permission check on SIOCSIFINFO_IN6 ioctl
|SA-09:11.ntpd||10 June 2009||
ntpd stack-based buffer-overflow vulnerability
|SA-09:12.bind||29 July 2009||
BIND named(8) dynamic update message remote DoS
|SA-09:14.devfs||2 Oct 2009||
Devfs / VFS NULL pointer race condition
|SA-09:15.ssl||3 Dec 2009||
SSL protocol flaw
|SA-09:16.rtld||3 Dec 2009||
Improper environment sanitization in rtld(1)
|SA-09:17.freebsd-update||3 Dec 2009||
Inappropriate directory permissions in freebsd-update(8)
|SA-10:01.bind||6 Jan 2010||
BIND named(8) cache poisoning with DNSSEC validation
|SA-10:02.ntpd||6 Jan 2010||
ntpd mode 7 denial of service
|SA-10:03.zfs||6 Jan 2010||
ZFS ZIL playback with insecure permissions
The closefrom(2) system call has been added. This closes any open file descriptors which are equal to or larger than the specified value. Note that this does not fail with any errors and this is not multi-thread safe.
jail(8) subsystem now supports
variables to control whether to use source address selection or the
primary jail address for unbound outgoing connections. The default
is that the source address selection is enabled. Also, the jail
ip6.saddrsel are boolean option to
enable the source address selection for IPv4 and IPv6,
respectively. If the boolean parameters
ip6.nosaddrsel are set, the child jails do not
inherit the address selection options of the parent.
kmem_map KVA space has
been increased to 512GB.
The lindev(4) driver has been added. This is for Linux-specific pseudo devices and currently used only for /dev/full.
FreeBSD Linux emulation layer now supports
SO_PEERCRED socket option,
recvmsg(), and robust futex. The futex has been
reimplemented by using
sx(9) lock. Initial support of
ktr(4) tracing has also been
A lock handling error has been fixed in interaction between malloc(3) implementation and threading library. When a multi-threaded process calls the fork(2) system call in a thread and the malloc(3) function in another thread, it caused a deadlock in the child process.
PECOFF image activator support has been removed.
FreeBSD now supports POSIX semaphores (
P1003_1B_SEMAPHORES kernel option) by default.
The sglist(9) API to manage scatter/gather lists of physical addresses has been added.
FreeBSD ABI of some of the structures used by the System V IPC
API has been changed internally, and it now supports shared memory
segments for System V IPC which is larger than 2GB on 64-bit
platforms. For new kernel modules, the
kern_shmctl() functions will be transparently
renamed to the new
functions by using ABI shims. The old functions remain as the old
names to provide backward compatibility for older kernel
A new sysctl variable
security.bsd.map_at_zero has been added and set to
1 (allow) by default. This controls
whether FreeBSD allows to map an object at the address 0, which is part of the user-controlled portion of
the virtual address space. Disabling this has some effect on
preventing an attack which injects malicious code into that
location and triggers a NULL pointer dereference in the kernel.
A new boot loader gptzfsboot, which supports GPT and ZFS has been added.
The boot loader zfsboot now always uses 64-bit LBAs and supports more than seven drives in the ZFS pools.
A bug in zfsboot has been fixed. A /boot.config smaller than 512 bytes was ignored.
zfsloader, the final boot loader similar to loader(8) which supports ZFS has been added.
A bug in the boot loader has been fixed. It failed to recognize GPT correctly when the system supports both of MBR and GPT and they are synchronized with each other.
[pc98] The boot2 program has been reimplemented based on the latest version for i386.
The amdsbwd(4) driver for AMD SB600/SB7xx watchdog timer has been added.
cpuctl(4) driver now supports
atomically setting/clearing individual bits of a MSR register. Two
new ioctl calls
CPUCTL_MSRCBIT treat the data field of
struct in the argument passed as a mask and set/clear bits of the
MSR register according to the mask value. The
cpucontrol(8) utility also
supports this feature. For more details, see Userland Changes
The cpufreq(4) driver now supports Phenom (Family 10h).
[amd64, i386] CPU cache flushing has been optimized when
changing caching attributes of pages by doing nothing for CPUs that
support self-snooping and using CLFLUSH
instead of a full cache invalidate when possible. FreeBSD does not
use CLFLUSH on Intel CPUs due to problems
with flushing the local APIC range by default. This can be
controlled via the
loader tunable. A setting of 1 disables
the use of CLFLUSH. A setting of
0 allows CLFLUSH
to be used for Intel CPUs when CPUID_SS is
not present. This fixes a kernel panic occurred on Xen which
[sparc64] The epic(4) driver for the front panel LEDs in Sun Fire V215/V245 has been added.
[sparc64] The fire(4) driver for “Fire” JBus to PCIe bridges found in at least the Sun Fire V215/V245 and Sun Ultra 25/45 machines has been added.
[amd64, i386] The hwpmc(4) driver for Hardware Performance Monitoring Counter support has been added. This consists of the kernel driver, pmc(3) interface library, and userland utilities pmcannotate(8), pmccontrol(8), and pmcstat(8), and allows applications to use hardware performance counters to gather performance data about specific processes or for the system as a whole.
Several bugs in the ipmi(4) driver which prevents the watchdog timeout setting from working, have been fixed.
A loader tunable
been added. This can be used to enable/disable the machine check
code. Disabled by default.
A sysctl variable
been added. This reports all of the supported page sizes on the
PCI Express memory-mapped configuration space access, ACPI MCFG
table support, and BAR (Base Address Register) handling in the
pci(4) subsystem has been
improved. This is disabled by default and can be enabled by setting
a loader tunable
1. This value can be queried via a sysctl
variable of the same name.
[amd64, i386] FreeBSD now supports VIA Nano processor family.
DRM now supports Radeon HD 4200 (RS880), 4770 (RV740), and R6/7xx 3D, and Intel G41 chips.
The vgapci(4) driver for PCI VGA display devices which can attach devices as the children now supports proxying of PCI MSI/MSI-X (Message Signaled Interrupt) requests and bus interrupt requests for the child devices. This allows child devices to use MSI/MSI-X interrupts.
The alc(4) driver for Atheros AR8131/AR8132 PCIe Ethernet controller has been added.
A bug in the bce(4) driver has been fixed. When adding a bce(4) interface on the system as a lagg(4) member with the LACP aggregation protocol enabled network communication via the bce(4) interface stopped completely. Although the bce(4) interface worked if it was not a lagg(4) member, the incoming traffic statistics which can be found in netstat(1) output was incorrect because every packet was recognized as full-sized one.
Several bugs in the bge(4) driver have been fixed. It caused a panic when a lot of traffic is being handled on the interface while the system is shutting down, and had a DMA issue when buffer address crosses a multiple of the 4GB boundaries.
The bge(4) driver now supports TSO (TCP segmentation offloading) for BCM5755 or newer chips.
[sparc64] The cas(4) driver has been added to provide support for Sun Cassini/Cassini+ and National Semiconductor DP83065 Saturn Gigabit Ethernet devices.
The cxgb(4) driver has been upgraded to the latest version. The firmware version is 7.8.0.
The et(4) driver now supports IPv4/TCP/UDP Tx checksum offloading.
The fxp(4) driver has been improved. The multicast filter re-programming is now more robust. A bug which caused incorrect IP packet length in the header when TSO (TCP segmentation offloading) is enabled has been fixed. This fixes poor performance when TSO is enabled in the previous releases.
The msk(4) driver has been improved for robust operation. Also, it now supports Yukon FE+ A0 including 88E8040, 88E8040T, 88E8042, 88E8048, 88E8057, and 88E8070.
Several bugs in the mxge(4) driver have been fixed and the firmware version is now 1.4.48b. It could lose the promiscuous flag on resetting and cause a kernel panic on the hardware fault.
A bug in the nfe(4) driver has been fixed. It caused buffer allocation failure for jumbo frames.
nge(4) driver has been improved
and now works on all supported platforms. It now supports
altq(4), hardware checksum
vlan(4) tagged frames, WoL
(Wake-on-Lan), jumbo frames, and PCI MWI (Memory Write and
Invalidate) commands. Hardware MAC statistics can be obtained via a
new sysctl variable
dev.nge.N.stats. Another new sysctl
dev.nge.N.int_holdoff has been added to
control interrupt moderation. The valid ranges are 1 (100us) to 255, and the
actual delivery of interrupt would be delayed based on this value.
The default is 1. For more details, see
nge(4) manual page.
ste(4) driver has been improved
and now works on all supported platforms. It now supports
suspend/resume and WoL (Wake-on-Lan). Hardware MAC statistics can
be obtained via a new sysctl variable
dev.ste.N.stats. Another new sysctl
dev.ste.N.int_rx_mod has been added to
control RX interrupt moderation time. The default value is
150 (150us). For more details, see
ste(4) manual page.
vge(4) driver has been improved.
It now supports hardware checksum offloading for
vlan(4) tagged frames and WoL
(Wake-on-Lan). Hardware MAC statistics can be obtained via a new
dev.vge.N.stats. Another new sysctl
dev.nge.N.tx_coal_pkt has been added to
control interrupt moderation. For more details, see
vge(4) manual page.
A bug in the xl(4) driver which caused occasional watchdog timeouts has been fixed.
A bug in the gif(4) that EtherIP packets sent by combination of if_bridge(4) and gif(4) have a reversed version field has been fixed. If you need to communicate with older FreeBSD releases via EtherIP, use new flags accept_rev_ethip_ver and send_rev_ethip_ver to control handling the reversed version field. These can be set by ifconfig(8) utility to gif(4) interfaces. The EtherIP implementation found on FreeBSD 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.0, 7.1, and 7.2 had an interoperability issue because it sent the incorrect EtherIP packets and discarded the correct ones. For more details, see gif(4) manual page.
IPcomp protocol is now enabled by default. This can be
controlled by a sysctl variable
A kernel option
IPFW_DEFAULT_TO_ACCEPT has been replaced with a
new loader tunable
net.inet.ip.fw.default_to_accept. The value can be
queried via a sysctl variable of the same name.
tap(4) software network interface
supports a new ioctl
is convenient shortcut ported from NetBSD to obtain network
interface name using file descriptor for character device.
The vlan(4) driver is now enabled in the GENERIC kernel.
The aac(4) driver has been synchronized with the latest official vendor driver.
The ahc(4) driver now supports Adaptec 39320LPE adapters.
ATA command timeout in the
ata(4) driver has been increased.
This value can be set by using a kernel option
A bug in the ata(4) driver has been fixed. It could generate an I/O request larger than controller's maximum I/O size and caused a kernel panic.
An algorithm for load balancing mode in the gmirror(8) GEOM class has been changed and this mode is now set by default instead of split. The load mode uses averaged number of requests, running on each drive instead of measuring last request execution time for each drive and choosing one with smallest time.
A bug in the gpart(8) GEOM class has been fixed. It could not handle a GPT header whose size is greater than 92 bytes which is written by OpenSolaris.
The default stripe size of
gstripe(8) GEOM class has been
changed from 4KB to 64KB. This change will affect users preferring
the create command over the label command, which will now need to explicitly
specify the old stripe size (
4096) in order to use their old
hptrr(4) driver now supports a
new loader tunable
hw.hptrr.attach_generic to prevent the driver from
being attached to some Marvell chips which have no HPT RAID
The mfi(4) driver now supports LSI MegaRAID SAS 1078 and Dell PERC6.
The ext2fs(5) file system has been improved. A bug when the inode size is other than 128 has been fixed.
FreeBSD Network File System now supports caching of negative pathname lookup in the NFS client, and uses 3 seconds timeout (30 seconds in the prior releases) for caching attributes of a directory in the client.
UFS_DIRHASH (enabled by default) now
supports removing the cache data when the system memory is low (via
vm_lowmem event handler). A bug that
the system caused a panic when decreasing a sysctl variable
vfs.ufs.dirhash_maxmem below the
current amount of memory used by UFS_DIRHASH, has been fixed.
A new sysctl variable for the
vfs.flushbufqtarget has been added. This can fix
issues in bufdaemon, a kernel process
responsible for flushing dirty buffers, which can cause the process
to deadlock in a certain workload. The value of the variable
determines the number of buffers will be flushed before allocating
a new buffer. The default value of the variable on 7.3-RELEASE is
-1 (disabled). The FreeBSD 8.0-RELEASE
uses 100 by default.
ZFS has been updated from version 6 to version 13. This update includes numerous new ZFS features, such as permitting non-root users to perform some administrative functions, supporting additional disks for caching or the ZFS Intent Log, and partial chflags(2) support. It also includes some FreeBSD-specific additions, such as booting from ZFS file systems, removal of ARC size limitations, ARC back pressure (which allows ZFS to work without tunables on amd64), and many bugfixes.
The acpidump(8) utility now supports parsing SRAT (System Resource Affinity Table used to describe affinity relationships between CPUs and memory.
apropos(1) command no longer sets
the necessary directories to
variable. This means if the caller does not have /bin and /usr/bin in
PATH, then it does not work.
The bluetooth(3) library now supports Bluetooth HCI API.
btpand(8) daemon now supports
Bluetooth device node names in a
A bug in the
-h option has been fixed. It used link target's
flags as the original one.
cp(1) command now preserves file
flags on symbolic links when options
-Rp are specified. It reported an error “function
The cpucontrol(8) command now allows user to perform atomic bitwise AND and OR operations on MSR registers. Two new operations (&= and |=) have been added. The first one applies bitwise AND operation between the current contents of the MSR register and the mask, and the second performs bitwise OR. The argument can be optionally prefixed with ~ inversion operator. The following is an example to clear the second bit of TSC MSR:
# cpucontrol -m 0x10&=~0x02
cpuset(1) command now supports
interrupt binding by a new option
crontab(5) file no longer define
df(1) command now uses
human-readable output for inode counts when an
A bug in the dhclient(8) utility when appending a NUL-terminated text provided by a DHCP server, has been fixed.
The dhclient(8) utility now uses 68 (bootpc) as the source port for unicast DHCPREQUEST packets instead of allowing the protocol stack to pick a random source port. This fixes the behavior where dhclient(8) would never transition from RENEWING to BOUND without going through REBINDING in some networks which has a tight policy on DHCP spoofing.
The fdisk(8) utility now supports size qualifiers (K, M, and G) and * for automatic calculation in the p command.
The fetch(1) command now supports HTTP digest authentication.
A bug in the
fetch(1) command that
HTTP_TIMEOUT environment variables were ignored,
has been fixed.
A bug in the fetch(1) command that default parameters such as connection timeout were not set for HTTPS protocol, has been fixed. It now uses the same parameters as HTTP.
A bug in the
find(1) command has been fixed.
It ignored an
-L option when
-delete is specified. The following
command can be safely used to remove broken links:
find -L . -type l -print0 | xargs rm -0
The gzip(1) command now supports uncompressing files compressed by pack(1), which is found in some commercial Unix systems.
FreeBSD libc library now includes fdopendir(3) function.
FreeBSD libc library now includes
feature_present(3) function which
checks to see if a named kernel feature is present by checking the
kern.features sysctl MIB.
FreeBSD libc library now includes getpagesize(3) function that returns either the number of page sizes supported by the system or a specified subset of the supported page sizes.
The libradius(3) now supports simple embedded RADIUS server.
lp(1) command now supports
-m option to send an email after the
files have been printed, and
-t title option to write title on the banner page of the output.
These are required by POSIX standard.
The lpq(1) command now correctly translates remote host names which contain non-standard end-of-line characters.
The man(1) command now supports manual pages in UTF-8.
mergemaster(8) utility now
variable in mergemaster.rc file to delete
stale rc.d scripts automatically.
A userland utility mfiutil(8) for the mfi(4) devices has been added. This includes basic features to monitor controller, array, and drive status, change basic attributes, create/delete arrays and spares, and flush the controller firmware. Note that this is a small utility, not a replacement of MegaCLI in the Ports Collection which is supported officially and provides more functionality.
A userland utility mptutil(8) for the mpt(4) devices has been added. This includes basic features to monitor controller, array, and drive status, change basic attributes, and create/delete arrays and spares.
The newfs_msdos(8) command now supports media which have no CHS parameter.
The ntpd(8) daemon no longer tries to bind an IPv6 anycast address.
pkill(1) command now ignores
itself and the ancestors when finding processes. An
-a option has been added for backward compatible
A race condition in the ppp(8) daemon has been fixed.
ps(1) command now supports a new
-p. This displays descendant info
with the output similar to Linux's
The pwait(1) command, which waits for any process to terminate has been added.
pwd_mkdb(8) now verifies login
name length is shorter than
-C option is specified. Note
that entries with oversized login names are still allowed in the
passwd database, and
getpwuid*() functions return them
MAXLOGNAME - 1 when reading
the database. The
su(1) utility fails for the long
The FreeBSD runtime linker, rtld(1) has been improved. The changes include:
The dynamic string token substitution in the rpath and soname has been implemented. This can be enabled by setting
-z originoption of ld(1). Currently, it recognizes
$ORIGINtokens. This translation is unconditionally disabled for setuid/setgid processes.
PIE (Position Independent Executables) support has been improved. The runtime linker now calculates relocation base for the main object, and applies the relocation adjustment for all virtual addresses encoded into the ELF structures of it in order to make it possible to load PIE binaries at a non-zero base address.
The way the mapping of the ELF objects has been changed to make wiring of the address space possible. It now maps PROT_NONE anonymous memory over the whole range first, and then mapping the segments of the object over it. It allocates .bss by changing the protection of the range instead of remapping, and unnecessary clearing of the text segment when its end is not page-aligned has been eliminated.
A new environment variable
LD_ELF_HINTS_PATHfor overriding the rtld hints file has been supported. This feature gives a convenient way of using a custom set of shared library that is not located in the default location and switch back. This environment variable is automatically unset if the process is tainted with setuid/setgid.
The strptime(3) function now supports %z format specifier.
sysinstall(8) utility now
supports a comma-separated list of network interfaces in
netDev option in install.cfg.
[ia64] The sysinstall(8) utility now uses 400MB for the EFI partition instead of 100MB in the previous releases.
-F flag now persists in trying to open files rather
than giving up when it encounters an error. ENOENT errors are not reported. This behavior is
consistent with the GNU version.
The tftp(1) command now returns a correct exit status in the case of successful file transfer.
traceroute6(8) now support an
-a flag to display AS number
corresponding to the lookup IP address on each hop. It will query
the number to WHOIS server specified in
-A option. If no
specified, whois.radb.net will be used as
the default value.
tzsetup(8) command now supports
-s option to skip the initial
question about adjusting the clock if not set to UTC.
whois(1) utility has been
-d option has been removed
because whois.nic.mil no longer exists, and
it supports searching for IPv6 addresses just like it can do for
IPv4 addresses without having to explicitly specify that the ARIN
server should be used to get the initial information.
The yp(8) utilities now support shadow.byname and shadow.byuid maps. These requires privileged port access.
The service(8) command as an easy interface for the rc.d scripts has been added.
rc.conf(5) file now supports
create_args_IF for interfaces created via
rc.conf(5) file now supports
vlans_IF for creating
vlan(4) interfaces. If a vlan
interface is a number, then that number is treated as the vlan tag
for the interface and the interface will be named “IF.N”. Otherwise, the vlan tag must be
provided via a
vlan parameter in a
The rc.d/fsck script now supports
The rc.d/named script now supports zone file check by named-checkconf(8) before the startup and the following options:
named_waithas the script loop until a specified hostname in
named_wait_host(localhost by default) can be successfully looked up. This is disabled by default.
named_auto_forwardcreates a forwarder configuration file based on the contents of /etc/resolv.conf. This allows you to utilize a local resolver for better performance, less network traffic, custom zones, etc. while still relying on the benefits of your local network resolver. This is disabled by default.
The rc.d/savecore script now supports
crashinfo(8) automatically during
boot. A new variable
has been added to enable it.
The rc.d/static_arp script has been added. This allows the administrator to statically bind MAC to IPv4 address at boot time. An example is as follows:
static_arp_pairs="gw" static_arp_gw="192.168.1.1 00:01:02:03:04:05"
ISC BIND has been updated to version 9.4-ESV.
sendmail has been updated from version 8.14.3 to version 8.14.4.
The timezone database has been updated to the tzdata2010b release.
unifdef has been updated to version 1.188.
A bug in the pkg_info(1) command which caused a segmentation fault when an invalid long option is specified, has been fixed.
FreeBSD release ISO images now have “FreeBSD-” at the beginning of the filenames.
The supported version of the GNOME desktop environment (x11/gnome2) has been updated to 2.28.2.
The supported version of the KDE desktop environment (x11/kde4) has been updated to 4.3.5.
[amd64, i386] Beginning with FreeBSD 6.2-RELEASE, binary upgrades between RELEASE versions (and snapshots of the various security branches) are supported using the freebsd-update(8) utility. The binary upgrade procedure will update unmodified userland utilities, as well as unmodified GENERIC or SMP kernels distributed as a part of an official FreeBSD release. The freebsd-update(8) utility requires that the host being upgraded has Internet connectivity.
An older form of binary upgrade is supported through the Upgrade option from the main sysinstall(8) menu on CDROM distribution media. This type of binary upgrade may be useful on non-i386, non-amd64 machines or on systems with no Internet connectivity.
Source-based upgrades (those based on recompiling the FreeBSD base system from source code) from previous versions are supported, according to the instructions in /usr/src/UPDATING.
Important: Upgrading FreeBSD should, of course, only be attempted after backing up all data and configuration files.
This file, and other release-related documents, can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/.
All users of FreeBSD 7.3-STABLE should subscribe to the <stable@FreeBSD.org> mailing list.
For questions about this documentation, e-mail <doc@FreeBSD.org>.