FreeBSD 13.1-RELEASE Release Notes
The release notes for FreeBSD 13.1-RELEASE contain a summary of the changes made to the FreeBSD base system on the 13-STABLE development line. This document lists applicable security advisories that were issued since the last release, as well as significant changes to the FreeBSD kernel and userland. Some brief remarks on upgrading are also presented.
This document contains the release notes for FreeBSD 13.1-RELEASE. It describes recently added, changed, or deleted features of FreeBSD. It also provides some notes on upgrading from previous versions of FreeBSD.
The release distribution to which these release notes apply represents the latest point along the 13-STABLE development branch since 13-STABLE was created. Information regarding pre-built, binary release distributions along this branch can be found at https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/.
The release distribution to which these release notes apply represents a point along the 13-STABLE development branch between 13.0-RELEASE and the future 13.2-RELEASE. Information regarding pre-built, binary release distributions along this branch can be found at https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/.
This distribution of FreeBSD 13.1-RELEASE is a release distribution. It can be found at https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/ or any of its mirrors. More information on obtaining this (or other) release distributions of FreeBSD can be found in the Obtaining FreeBSD appendix to the FreeBSD Handbook.
All users are encouraged to consult the release errata before installing FreeBSD. The errata document is updated with "late-breaking" information discovered late in the release cycle or after the release. Typically, it contains information on known bugs, security advisories, and corrections to documentation. An up-to-date copy of the errata for FreeBSD 13.1-RELEASE can be found on the FreeBSD Web site.
This document describes the most user-visible new or changed features in FreeBSD since 13.0-RELEASE. In general, changes described here are unique to the 13-STABLE branch unless specifically marked as MERGED features.
Typical release note items document recent security advisories issued after 13.0-RELEASE, new drivers or hardware support, new commands or options, major bug fixes, or contributed software upgrades. They may also list changes to major ports/packages or release engineering practices. Clearly the release notes cannot list every single change made to FreeBSD between releases; this document focuses primarily on security advisories, user-visible changes, and major architectural improvements.
Upgrading from Previous Releases of FreeBSD
Binary upgrades between RELEASE versions (and snapshots of the various security branches) are supported using the freebsd-update(8) utility. The binary upgrade procedure will update unmodified userland utilities, as well as unmodified GENERIC kernels distributed as a part of an official FreeBSD release. The freebsd-update(8) utility requires that the host being upgraded have Internet connectivity.
Source-based upgrades (those based on recompiling the FreeBSD base system from source code) from previous versions are supported, according to the instructions in /usr/src/UPDATING.
Users of all powerpc architectures, after successful kernel and world installation, will need to run manually "kldxref /boot/kernel".
Upgrading FreeBSD should only be attempted after backing up all data and configuration files.
After upgrading, sshd (from OpenSSH 8.8p1) will not accept new
connections until it is restarted. After installing the new
userland, either reboot (as specified in the source update
procedure), or execute
This section covers changes and additions to userland applications, contributed software, and system utilities.
Userland Configuration Changes
-i flag is now added to
rtsold(8) by default in
(Sponsored by https://www.patreon.com/cperciva)
Userland Application Changes
-i option has been added to
rtsold(8) to disable the random delay between zero and one
seconds, speeding up the boot process. 8056b73ea163
(Sponsored by https://www.patreon.com/cperciva)
For 64-bit architectures, the base system is now built with
Position Independent Executable (PIE) support enabled by default.
It may be disabled using the
WITHOUT_PIE knob. A clean
build is required. 396e9f259d96
There is a new
rc(8) service script, which allows for automatic decryption of
ZFS datasets encrypted with ZFS native encryption during boot. See
rc.conf(5) manual page for more information. 33ff39796ffe,
(Sponsored by Modirum and Klara Inc.)
The NVMe emulation in bhyve(8) has been upgraded to version 1.4 of the NVMe specification. b7a2cf0d9102 - eae02d959363
NVMe iovec construction for large IOs in bhyve(8) has been fixed. The problem was exposed by the UEFI driver included with Rocky Linux 8.4. a7761d19dacd
Extra Alt Gr mappings for Brazillian Portuguese ABNT2 keyboards were added. 310623908c20
chroot facility now supports unprivileged
operation, and the
chroot(8) program now has a
-n option to enable
its use. 460b4b550dc9
(Sponsored by EPSRC)
The CAM library has been modified to use realpath(3) on device names before parsing them, which allows tools such as camcontrol(8) and smartctl(8) to be friendlier when symlinks are in use. e32acf95ea25
md5sum(1) and similar message-digest programs compatible with
those on Linux were added by having the corresponding BSD programs
run with the
-r option if the program name ends in
(Sponsored by Netflix)
svnlite(1) is disabled in the build by default. a4f99b3c2384
mpsutil(8) has been extended to show adapter information and to control NCQ. 395bc3598b47
Problems after downloading firmware to a device using camcontrol(8) were fixed by forcing a rescan of the LUN after the firmware download. 327da43602cc (Sponsored by Netflix)
A new mode has been added to the scripted partition editor for
variant disk names in
bsdinstall(8). If the disk parameter
set in place of an actual device name, or no disk is specified for
PARTITIONS parameter, the installer will follow
the logic used in the automatic-partitioning mode, in which it will
either provide a selection dialog for one of several disks if
several are present or automatically select it if there is only
one. This simplifies the creation of fully-automatic installation
media for hardware or VMs with varying disk names. 5ec4eb443e81
Building of LLDB has been enabled on all powerpc architectures. cb1bee9bd34
One True Awk has been updated to the latest from upstream (20210215). All the FreeBSD patches but one have now been either upstreamed or discarded. Notable changes include:
Locale is no longer used for ranges
Various bugs fixed
Better compatibility with
The one remaining FreeBSD change, likely to be removed in
FreeBSD 14, is that we still allow hex numbers, prefixed with
0x, to be parsed and interpreted as hex numbers, while
all other awks (now including One True Awk) interpret them as
0, in line with awk’s historic behavior.
zlib has been upgraded to version 1.2.12.
libarchive has been upgraded to verion 3.6.0 with
additional bug and security fixes from the upcoming patchlevel
release. Release notes are available at https://github.com/libarchive/libarchive/releases.
ssh package has been updated to OpenSSH v8.8p1,
including a security update and bug fixes. Other updates include
ssh(1): When prompting whether to record a new host key, accept that key’s fingerprint as a synonym for "yes."
ssh-keygen(1): When acting as a CA and signing certificates with an RSA key, default to using the
UpdateHostkeysis enabled by default, subject to some conservative preconditions.
scp(1): The behavior of remote to remote copies (e.g.
scp host-a:/path host-b:) has been changed to transfer through the local host by default.
scp(1) has experimental support for transfers using the SFTP protocol as a replacement for the venerable SCP/RCP protocol that it has traditionally used.
The use of FIDO/U2F hardware authenticators has been enabled in
ssh, using the new public key types
ed25519-sk, along with
corresponding certificate types. FIDO/U2F support is described in
(Sponsored by The FreeBSD Foundation)
Runtime Libraries and API
Assembly optimized code for OpenSSL has been added on powerpc, powerpc64 and powerpc64le. ce35a3bc852
The detection of CPU features accelerating crypto operations for
ARMv7 and ARM64 has been fixed, speeding up
(Sponsored by Ampere Computing LLC and Klara Inc.)
Building ASAN and UBSAN libraries has been enabled on riscv64 and riscv64sf. 8c56b338da7
OFED libraries are now built on riscv64 and riscv64sf. 2b978245733
OPENMP libraries are now built on riscv64 and riscv64sf. aaf56e35569
This section covers changes to kernel configurations, system tuning, and system control parameters that are not otherwise categorized.
General Kernel Changes
Output corruption on serial console on powerpc64 has been fixed. dca829138ca
CAS has been changed to support Radix MMU. cc8e726c85b
Running FreeBSD with HPT superpages enabled on QEMU with TCG has been fixed on powerpc64(le). f05174ed354
Superpages support has been added to pmap_mincore on powerpc64(le). 32b50b8520d
HWCAP/HWCAP2 aux args support was added on arm64 for 32-bit ARM
binaries. This fixes build/run of golang under
COMPAT32 emulation. 28e22482279f
(Sponsored by Rubicon Communications, LLC ("Netgate"))
Devices and Drivers
This section covers changes and additions to devices and device drivers since 13.0-RELEASE.
The igc(4) driver was introduced for the Intel I225 Ethernet controller. This controller supports 2.5G/1G/100Mb/10Mb speeds, and allows tx/rx checksum offload, TSO, LRO, and multi-queue operation. d7388d33b4dd (Sponsored by Rubicon Communications, LLC ("Netgate"))
A fix for VGA / HDMI console with AST2500 during boot on powerpc64(le) has been added. c41d129485e
PCI common read/write functions are fixed on big endian targets in virtio(4). 7e583075a41, 8d589845881
Big-endian support has been added to mpr(4). 7d45bf699dc, 2954aedb8e5, c80a1c1072d
Max I/O size has been reduced to avoid DMA issues in aacraid(4). 572e3575dba
A bug preventing a virtual guest using virtio_random(8) from shutting down or rebooting has been fixed. fa67c45842bb
The ice(4) driver has been updated to 1.34.2-k, adding firmware logging and initial DCB support. a0cdf45ea1d1 (Sponsored by Intel Corporation)
The mgb(4) network interface driver has been added, with support for Microchip devices LAN7430 PCIe Gigabit Ethernet controller with PHY and LAN7431 PCIe Gigabit Ethernet controller with RGMII interface. The driver has a number of caveats and limitations, but is functional. e0262ffbc6ae (Sponsored by The FreeBSD Foundation)
Support has been added for link status, media, and VLAN MTU with the cdce(4) device. 973fb85188ea
The iwlwifi(4) driver along with a LinuxKPI 802.11 compatibility layer was added to supplement iwm(4) for newer Intel Wireless chipsets. (Sponsored by The FreeBSD Foundation)
Kernel crash dumps can now be saved on SD cards and eMMC modules
dwmmc controller when the kernel is configured
MMCCAM option. 79c3478e76c3
Kernel crash dumps can now be saved on SD cards using an
sdhci controller when the kernel is configured with
MMCCAM option. 8934d3e7b9b9
Support has been added for the HiFive Unmatched RISC-V board.
This section covers changes and additions to file systems and other storage subsystems, both local and networked.
ZFS has been upgraded to OpenZFS release 2.1.4. OpenZFS release notes can be found at https://github.com/openzfs/zfs/releases.
Two new daemons, rpc.tlsclntd(8) and rpc.tlsservd(8), are now built by default on amd64 and arm64. They provide support for NFS-over-TLS as described in the Internet Draft entitled "Towards Remote Procedure Call Encryption By Default". These daemons are built when WITH_OPENSSL_KTLS is specified. They use KTLS to encrypt/decrypt all NFS RPC message traffic, and provide optional verification of machine identity via X.509 certificates. 2c76eebca71b 59f6f5e23c1a
The default minor version used for an NFSv4 mount has been
changed to the highest minor version supported by the NFSv4 server.
This default can be overridden by using the
minorversion mount option. 8a04edfdcbd2
A new NFSv4.1/4.2 mount option
nconnect has been
added that can be used to specify the number of TCP connections
that will be used for the mount, up to a maximum of 16. The first
(default) TCP connection will be used for all RPCs that consist of
small RPC messages. The RPCs that can consist of large RPC messages
(Read/Readdir/ReaddirPlus/Write) will be sent on the additional TCP
connections in a round-robin fashion. If either the NFS client or
NFS server have multiple network interfaces aggregated together, or
a network interface that uses multiple queues, this can increase
NFS performance for the mount. 9ec7dbf46b0a
A sysctl called
vfs.nfsd.srvmaxio has been added
that can be used to increase the NFS server’s maximum I/O size from
128Kbytes to any power of 2 up to 1Mbyte. It can only be set when
the nfsd threads are not running, and will normally require an
kern.ipc.maxsockbuf to at least the value
recommended by the console log message generated when setting
vfs.nfsd.srvmaxio is first attempted. 9fb6e613373c
Following 5cc52631b3b8, fsck_ffs(8) did not work for background fsck in preen mode where UFS was tuned for soft updates without soft update journaling. Fixed: fb2feceac34c
Boot Loader Changes
This section covers the boot loader, boot menu, and other boot-related changes.
Boot Loader Changes
UEFI boot is improved for amd64. The loader detects whether the
loaded kernel can handle the in-place staging area (non-copying
mode). The default is
Auto-detection can be overridden, for example: with
copy_staging enable, the loader will unconditionally
copy the staging area to 2M, regardless of kernel capabilities.
Also, the code to grow the staging area is more robust; for growth
to occur, it’s no longer necessary to hand-tune and recompile the
loader. (Sponsored by The FreeBSD Foundation)
loader have been fixed on
Other Boot Changes
Performance improvements have been made to loader(8), nvme(4), random(4), rtsold(8), and x86 clock calibration, which collectively yield a significant speedup in system boot time. Configuration changes on the EC2 platform provide additional benefits, resulting in 13.1-RELEASE booting over twice as fast as 13.0-RELEASE. (Sponsored by https://www.patreon.com/cperciva)
EC2 images are now built by default to boot using UEFI instead of legacy BIOS. Note that UEFI is not supported by Xen-based EC2 instances or by "bare metal" EC2 instances. 65f22ccf8247 (Sponsored by https://www.patreon.com/cperciva)
Support was added for recording EC2 AMI Ids in the AWS Systems
Manager Parameter Store. FreeBSD will be using the public prefix
/aws/service/freebsd, resulting in parameter names
which look like
(Sponsored by https://www.patreon.com/cperciva)
This section describes changes that affect networking in FreeBSD.
The handling of the lowest address on an IPv4 (sub)net (host 0)
has been changed so that packets are not sent as a broadcast unless
this address has been set as the broadcast address. This makes the
lowest address usable for a host. The old behavior can be restored
net.inet.ip.broadcast_lowest sysctl. See
for background information. 3ee882bf21af
General Notes Regarding Future FreeBSD Releases
Starting with FreeBSD-13.0, the default
the i386 architecture will change from
This means that, by default, binaries produced will require a 686-class CPU, including but not limited to binaries provided by the FreeBSD Release Engineering team. FreeBSD 13.0 will continue to support older CPUs, however users needing this functionality will need to build their own releases for official support.
As the primary use for i486 and i586 CPUs is generally in the embedded market, the general end-user impact is expected to be minimal, as new hardware with these CPU types has long faded, and much of the deployed base of such systems is nearing retirement age, statistically.
There were several factors taken into account for this change. For example, i486 does not have 64-bit atomics, and while they can be emulated in the kernel, they cannot be emulated in the userland. Additionally, the 32-bit amd64 libraries have been i686 since their inception.
As the majority of 32-bit testing is done by developers using
the lib32 libraries on 64-bit hardware with the
COMPAT_FREEBSD32 option in the kernel, this change
ensures better coverage and user experience. This also aligns with
what the majority of Linux® distributions have been doing for quite
This is expected to be the final bump of the default
CPUTYPE in i386.
This change does not affect the FreeBSD 12.x series of releases.
Last modified on: October 3, 2022 by Glen Barber