FreeBSD Release 2.1.6 RELEASE
0. What is this release?
FreeBSD 2.1.6R is the follow-on release to 2.1.5R and focuses primarily
on fixing bugs, closing security holes and making the system easier to
install than 2.1.5.
For more information on our bleeding-edge development, please see
1. What's New since 2.1.0-RELEASE?
Quite a few things have changed since the last major release
of FreeBSD. To make it easier to identify specific changes,
we've broken them into several major categories:
Support for the Adaptec AIC7850 on-board SCSI adapter.
Support for Specialix SI and XIO serial cards.
Support for the Stallion EasyIO, EasyConnection 8/32 and
EasyConnection 8/64, as well as the older Onboard and Brumby serial
Support for the Intel EtherExpress Pro/100B PCI ethernet card.
Support for the 3COM 3C590 and 3C595 ethernet cards.
Real PCI Buslogic support (new driver and probing order).
Support for the ARNET (now Digiboard) Sync 570i high-speed serial card.
Better support for the Matrox Meteor frame grabber card.
Support for the Connectix Quickcam.
Various VM system enhancements and more than a few bugs fixed.
A concatenated disk driver for simple types of RAID applications.
See the man page for
for more information.
Real PCI bus probing (before ISA) and support for various PCI bridges.
The Linux emulation is now good enough to run the Linux version of
Netscape, with JAVA support (as well as a number of other Linux
Userland code updates:
XFree86 upgraded to new 3.2 release, with support for many new graphics
The system installation tool has been revamped with slightly different
menu behavior and a number of bugs have been fixed. It's hoped that
this installation will be more intuitive for new users than previous
ones (feedback welcomed, of course) as well as more useful in the
post-install scenario (I know, I keep saying this :-).
Many improvements to the NIS code.
The ncftp program is no longer part of the default system - it has been
replaced by a library (/usr/src/lib/libftpio) and a more powerful program
which uses it called ``fetch'' (/usr/src/usr.bin/fetch). You may find
ncftp as part of the ports collection (in /usr/ports/net/ncftp) if you
still wish to use it, though fetch is slightly more capable in that
it can fetch from both FTP and HTTP servers (ftp://... or http://... URLs).
See the man page for more details.
2. Technical overview
FreeBSD is a freely available, full source 4.4 BSD Lite based release
for Intel i386/i486/Pentium (or compatible) based PC's. It is based
primarily on software from U.C. Berkeley's CSRG group, with some
enhancements from NetBSD, 386BSD, and the Free Software Foundation.
Since our release of FreeBSD 2.0 over a year ago, the performance,
feature set and stability of FreeBSD has improved dramatically. The
largest change is a revamped VM system with a merged VM/file buffer
cache that not only increases performance but reduces FreeBSD's memory
footprint, making a 5MB configuration a more acceptable minimum.
Other enhancements include full NIS client and server support,
transaction TCP support, dial-on-demand PPP, an improved SCSI
subsystem, early ISDN support, support for FDDI and Fast Ethernet
(100Mbit) adapters, improved support for the Adaptec 2940 (WIDE and
narrow) and 3940 SCSI adaptors along with many hundreds of bug fixes.
We've taken the comments and suggestions of many of our users to
heart and have attempted to provide what we hope is a more sane and
easily understood installation process. Your feedback on this
(constantly evolving) process is especially welcome!
In addition to the base distributions, FreeBSD offers a new ported
software collection with over 470 commonly sought-after programs. The
list of ports ranges from http (WWW) servers, to games, languages,
editors and almost everything in between. The entire ports collection
requires only 10MB of storage, all ports being expressed as "deltas"
to their original sources. This makes it much easier for us to update
ports and greatly reduces the disk space demands made by the ports
collection. To compile a port, you simply change to the directory of
the program you wish to install, type make and let the system do the
rest. The full original distribution for each port you build is
retrieved dynamically off of CDROM or a local ftp site, so you need
only enough disk space to build the ports you want. (Almost) every
port is also provided as a pre-compiled "package" which can be
installed with a simple command (pkg_add). See also the new Packages
option in the Configuration menu for an especially convenient interface
to the package collection.
A number of additional documents which you may find helpful in the
process of installing and using FreeBSD may now also be found in the
/usr/share/doc directory. You may view the manuals with any HTML
capable browser by saying:
To read the handbook:
To read the FAQ:
You can also visit the master (and most frequently updated) copies at
The core of FreeBSD does not contain DES code which would inhibit its
being exported outside the United States. There is an add-on package
to the core distribution, for use only in the United States, that
contains the programs that normally use DES. The auxiliary packages
provided separately can be used by anyone. A freely (from outside the
U.S.) exportable distribution of DES for our non-U.S. users also
exists at ftp://ftp.internat.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD.
If password security for FreeBSD is all you need and you have no
requirement for copying encrypted passwords from different hosts
(Suns, DEC machines, etc) into FreeBSD password entries, then
FreeBSD's MD5 based security may be all you require! We feel that our
default security model is more than a match for DES, and without any
messy export issues to deal with. If you're outside (or even inside)
the U.S., give it a try! This snapshot also includes support for
mixed password files - either DES or MD5 passwords will be accepted,
making it easier to transition from one scheme to the other.
3. Supported Configurations
FreeBSD currently runs on a wide variety of ISA, VLB, EISA and PCI bus
based PC's, ranging from 386sx to Pentium class machines (though the
386sx is not recommended). Support for generic IDE or ESDI drive
configurations, various SCSI controller, network and serial cards is
What follows is a list of all disk controllers and ethernet cards
currently known to work with FreeBSD. Other configurations may also
work, but we have simply not received any confirmation of this.
3.1. Disk Controllers
WD1003 (any generic MFM/RLL)
WD1007 (any generic IDE/ESDI)
Adaptec 152x series ISA SCSI controllers
Adaptec 154x series ISA SCSI controllers
Adaptec 174x series EISA SCSI controller in standard and enhanced mode.
Adaptec 274X/284X/2940/3940 (Narrow/Wide/Twin) series ISA/EISA/PCI SCSI
Adaptec AIC-6260 and AIC-6360 based boards, which includes
Adaptec AIC7850 on-board SCSI controllers.
the AHA-152x and SoundBlaster SCSI cards.
** Note: You cannot boot from the SoundBlaster cards as they have no
on-board BIOS, such being necessary for mapping the boot device into the
system BIOS I/O vectors. They're perfectly usable for external tapes,
CDROMs, etc, however. The same goes for any other AIC-6x60 based card
without a boot ROM. Some systems DO have a boot ROM, which is generally
indicated by some sort of message when the system is first powered up
or reset, and in such cases you *will* also be able to boot from them.
Check your system/board documentation for more details.
[Note that Buslogic was formerly known as "Bustec"]
Buslogic 545S & 545c
Buslogic 445S/445c VLB SCSI controller
Buslogic 742A, 747S, 747c EISA SCSI controller.
Buslogic 946c PCI SCSI controller
Buslogic 956c PCI SCSI controller
NCR 53C810 and 53C825 PCI SCSI controller.
NCR5380/NCR53400 ("ProAudio Spectrum") SCSI controller.
DTC 3290 EISA SCSI controller in 1542 emulation mode.
UltraStor 14F, 24F and 34F SCSI controllers.
Seagate ST01/02 SCSI controllers.
Future Domain 8xx/950 series SCSI controllers.
WD7000 SCSI controller.
With all supported SCSI controllers, full support is provided for
SCSI-I & SCSI-II peripherals, including Disks, tape drives (including
DAT) and CD ROM drives.
The following CD-ROM type systems are supported at this time:
(cd) SCSI interface (also includes ProAudio Spectrum and
(mcd) Mitsumi proprietary interface (all models)
(matcd) Matsushita/Panasonic (Creative SoundBlaster) proprietary
interface (562/563 models)
(scd) Sony proprietary interface (all models)
(wcd) ATAPI IDE interface (experimental and should be considered ALPHA
3.2. Ethernet cards
Allied-Telesis AT1700 and RE2000 cards
SMC Elite 16 WD8013 ethernet interface, and most other WD8003E,
WD8003EBT, WD8003W, WD8013W, WD8003S, WD8003SBT and WD8013EBT
based clones. SMC Elite Ultra is also supported.
DEC EtherWORKS III NICs (DE203, DE204, and DE205)
DEC EtherWORKS II NICs (DE200, DE201, DE202, and DE422)
DEC DC21040, DC21041, or DC21140 based NICs (SMC???? DE???)
DEC FDDI (DEFPA/DEFEA) NICs
Intel EtherExpress (not recommended due to driver instability)
Intel EtherExpress Pro/100B PCI Fast Ethernet
Isolan AT 4141-0 (16 bit)
Isolink 4110 (8 bit)
Novell NE1000, NE2000, and NE2100 ethernet interface.
3Com 3C501 cards
3Com 3C503 Etherlink II
3Com 3c505 Etherlink/+
3Com 3C507 Etherlink 16/TP
3Com 3C509, 3C579, 3C589 (PCMCIA), 3C590 & 3C595 (PCI) Etherlink III
Toshiba ethernet cards
PCMCIA ethernet cards from IBM and National Semiconductor are also
Note that NO token ring cards are supported at this time as we're
still waiting for someone to donate a driver for one of them. Any
AST 4 port serial card using shared IRQ.
ARNET 8 port serial card using shared IRQ.
ARNET (now Digiboard) Sync 570/i high-speed serial.
Boca BB1004 4-Port serial card (Modems NOT supported)
Boca IOAT66 6-Port serial card (Modems supported)
Boca BB1008 8-Port serial card (Modems NOT supported)
Boca BB2016 16-Port serial card (Modems supported)
Cyclades Cyclom-y Serial Board.
STB 4 port card using shared IRQ.
SDL Communications Riscom/8 Serial Board.
Adlib, SoundBlaster, SoundBlaster Pro, ProAudioSpectrum, Gravis UltraSound
and Roland MPU-401 sound cards.
FreeBSD currently does NOT support IBM's microchannel (MCA) bus.
4. Obtaining FreeBSD
You may obtain FreeBSD in a variety of ways:
You can ftp FreeBSD and any or all of its optional packages from
`ftp.FreeBSD.org' - the official FreeBSD release site.
For other locations that mirror the FreeBSD software see the file
MIRROR.SITES. Please ftp the distribution from the site closest (in
networking terms) to you. Additional mirror sites are always welcome!
Contact admin@FreeBSD.org for more details if you'd like to become an
official mirror site.
If you do not have access to the internet and electronic mail is your
only recourse, then you may still fetch the files by sending mail to
`firstname.lastname@example.org' - putting the keyword "help" in your message
to get more information on how to fetch files using this mechanism.
Please do note, however, that this will end up sending many *tens of
megabytes* through the mail and should only be employed as an absolute
FreeBSD 2.1.6-RELEASE & 2.2-RELEASE CDs may be ordered on CDROM from:
Walnut Creek CDROM
4041 Pike Lane, Suite D
Concord CA 94520
1-800-786-9907, +1-510-674-0783, +1-510-674-0821 (fax)
Or via the internet from email@example.com or http://www.cdrom.com.
Their current catalog can be obtained via ftp as:
Cost per -RELEASE CD is $39.95 or $24.95 with a FreeBSD subscription.
With a subscription, you will automatically receive updates as they
are released. Your credit card will be billed when each disk is
shipped and you may cancel your subscription at any time without
Shipping (per order not per disc) is $5 in the US, Canada or Mexico
and $9.00 overseas. They accept Visa, Mastercard, Discover, American
Express or checks in U.S. Dollars and ship COD within the United
States. California residents please add 8.25% sales tax.
Should you be dissatisfied for any reason, the CD comes with an
unconditional return policy.
Reporting problems, making suggestions, submitting code
Your suggestions, bug reports and contributions of code are always
valued - please do not hesitate to report any problems you may find
(preferably with a fix attached, if you can!).
The preferred method to submit bug reports from a machine with
internet mail connectivity is to use the send-pr command. Bug reports
will be dutifully filed by our faithful bugfiler program and you can
be sure that we'll do our best to respond to all reported bugs as soon
as possible. Bugs filed in this way are also visible on our WEB site
in the support section and are therefore valuable both as bug reports
and as "signposts" for other users concerning potential problems to
watch out for.
If, for some reason, you are unable to use the send-pr command to
submit a bug report, you can try to send it to:
Otherwise, for any questions or suggestions, please send mail to:
Additionally, being a volunteer effort, we are always happy to have
extra hands willing to help - there are already far more desired
enhancements than we'll ever be able to manage by ourselves! To
contact us on technical matters, or with offers of help, please send
Please note that these mailing lists can experience *significant*
amounts of traffic and if you have slow or expensive mail access and
are only interested in keeping up with significant FreeBSD events, you
may find it preferable to subscribe instead to:
All but the freebsd-bugs groups can be freely joined by anyone wishing
to do so. Send mail to MajorDomo@FreeBSD.org and include the keyword
`help' on a line by itself somewhere in the body of the message. This
will give you more information on joining the various lists, accessing
archives, etc. There are a number of mailing lists targeted at
special interest groups not mentioned here, so send mail to majordomo
and ask about them!
FreeBSD represents the cumulative work of many dozens, if not
hundreds, of individuals from around the world who have worked very
hard to bring you this release. It would be very difficult, if not
impossible, to enumerate everyone who's contributed to FreeBSD, but
nonetheless we shall try (in alphabetical order, of course). If you've
contributed something substantive to us and your name is not mentioned
here, please be assured that its omission is entirely accidental.
Please contact hackers@FreeBSD.org for any desired updates to the
lists that follow:
The Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG), U.C. Berkeley.
Bill Jolitz, for his initial work with 386BSD.
The FreeBSD Core Team
(in alphabetical order by last name):
Satoshi Asami <asami@FreeBSD.org>
Andrey A. Chernov <ache@FreeBSD.org>
John Dyson <dyson@FreeBSD.org>
Bruce Evans <bde@FreeBSD.org>
Justin Gibbs <gibbs@FreeBSD.org>
David Greenman <davidg@FreeBSD.org>
Jordan K. Hubbard <jkh@FreeBSD.org>
Poul-Henning Kamp <phk@FreeBSD.org>
Rich Murphey <rich@FreeBSD.org>
Gary Palmer <gpalmer@FreeBSD.org>
Søren Schmidt <sos@FreeBSD.org>
Peter Wemm <peter@FreeBSD.org>
Garrett A. Wollman <wollman@FreeBSD.org>
Jörg Wunsch <joerg@FreeBSD.org>
The FreeBSD Development Team, excluding core team members
(in alphabetical order by last name):
Torsten Blum <torstenb@FreeBSD.org>
Gary Clark II <gclarkii@FreeBSD.org>
Adam David <adam@FreeBSD.org>
Peter Dufault <dufault@FreeBSD.org>
Frank Durda IV <uhclem@FreeBSD.org>
Julian Elischer <julian@FreeBSD.org>
Sean Eric Fagan <sef@FreeBSD.org>
Stefan Esser <se@FreeBSD.org>
Bill Fenner <fenner@FreeBSD.org>
John Fieber <jfieber@FreeBSD.org>
Lars Fredriksen <lars@freeBSD.org>
Thomas Gellekum <tg@FreeBSD.org>
Thomas Graichen <graichen@FreeBSD.org>
Rod Grimes <rgrimes@FreeBSD.org>
James FitzGibbon <jfitz@FreeBSD.org>
John Hay <jhay@FreeBSD.org>
Jeffrey Hsu <hsu@FreeBSD.org>
Ugen J.S. Antsilevich <ugen@FreeBSD.org>
Gary Jennejohn <gj@FreeBSD.org>
Andreas Klemm <andreas@FreeBSD.org>
Warner Losh <imp@FreeBSD.org>
L Jonas Olsson <ljo@FreeBSD.org>
Eric L. Hernes <erich@FreeBSD.org>
Scott Mace <smace@FreeBSD.org>
Atsushi Murai <amurai@FreeBSD.org>
Mark Murray <markm@FreeBSD.org>
Alex Nash <alex@FreeBSD.org>
Masafumi NAKANE <max@FreeBSD.org>
David E. O'Brien <obrien@FreeBSD.org>
Andras Olah <olah@FreeBSD.org>
Steve Passe <smp@FreeBSD.org>
Sujal Patel <smpatel@FreeBSD.org>
Bill Paul <wpaul@FreeBSD.org>
Joshua Peck Macdonald <jmacd@FreeBSD.org>
John Polstra <jdp@FreeBSD.org>
Steve Price <steve@FreeBSD.org>
Mike Pritchard <mpp@FreeBSD.org>
Doug Rabson <dfr@FreeBSD.org>
James Raynard <jraynard@FreeBSD.org>
Geoff Rehmet <csgr@FreeBSD.org>
Martin Renters <martin@FreeBSD.org>
Paul Richards <paul@FreeBSD.org>
Ollivier Robert <roberto@FreeBSD.org>
Chuck Robey <chuckr@FreeBSD.org>
Dima Ruban <dima@FreeBSD.org>
Wolfram Schneider <wosch@FreeBSD.org>
Andreas Schulz <ats@FreeBSD.org>
Karl Strickland <karl@FreeBSD.org>
Michael Smith <msmith@FreeBSD.org>
Paul Traina <pst@FreeBSD.org>
Guido van Rooij <guido@FreeBSD.org>
Steven Wallace <swallace@FreeBSD.org>
Nate Williams <nate@FreeBSD.org>
Jean-Marc Zucconi <jmz@FreeBSD.org>
Additional FreeBSD helpers and beta testers:
Coranth Gryphon Dave Rivers
Kaleb S. Keithley Don Lewis
Terry Lambert David Dawes
Special mention to:
Walnut Creek CDROM, without whose help (and continuing support)
this release would never have been possible.
Dermot McDonnell for his donation of a Toshiba XM3401B CDROM
Chuck Robey for his donation of a floppy tape streamer for
Larry Altneu and Wilko Bulte for providing us with Wangtek
and Archive QIC-02 tape drives for testing and driver hacking.
CalWeb Internet Services for the loan of a P6/200 machine for
speedy package building.
Everyone at Montana State University for their initial support.
And to the many thousands of FreeBSD users and testers all over the
world, without whom this release simply would not have been possible.
We sincerely hope you enjoy this release of FreeBSD!
The FreeBSD Core Team