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SENDMAIL(1)             FreeBSD General Commands Manual            SENDMAIL(1)

NAME
       sendmail - Postfix to Sendmail compatibility interface

SYNOPSIS
       sendmail [option ...] [recipient ...]

       mailq
       sendmail -bp

       newaliases
       sendmail -I

DESCRIPTION
       The Postfix sendmail(1) command implements the Postfix to Sendmail
       compatibility interface.  For the sake of compatibility with existing
       applications, some Sendmail command-line options are recognized but
       silently ignored.

       By default, Postfix sendmail(1) reads a message from standard input
       until EOF or until it reads a line with only a . character, and
       arranges for delivery.  Postfix sendmail(1) relies on the postdrop(1)
       command to create a queue file in the maildrop directory.

       Specific command aliases are provided for other common modes of
       operation:

       mailq  List the mail queue. Each entry shows the queue file ID, message
              size, arrival time, sender, and the recipients that still need
              to be delivered.  If mail could not be delivered upon the last
              attempt, the reason for failure is shown. The queue ID string is
              followed by an optional status character:

              *      The message is in the active queue, i.e. the message is
                     selected for delivery.

              !      The message is in the hold queue, i.e. no further
                     delivery attempt will be made until the mail is taken off
                     hold.

              This mode of operation is implemented by executing the
              postqueue(1) command.

       newaliases
              Initialize the alias database.  If no input file is specified
              (with the -oA option, see below), the program processes the
              file(s) specified with the alias_database configuration
              parameter.  If no alias database type is specified, the program
              uses the type specified with the default_database_type
              configuration parameter.  This mode of operation is implemented
              by running the postalias(1) command.

              Note: it may take a minute or so before an alias database update
              becomes visible. Use the "postfix reload" command to eliminate
              this delay.

       These and other features can be selected by specifying the appropriate
       combination of command-line options. Some features are controlled by
       parameters in the main.cf configuration file.

       The following options are recognized:

       -Am (ignored)

       -Ac (ignored)
              Postfix sendmail uses the same configuration file regardless of
              whether or not a message is an initial submission.

       -B body_type
              The message body MIME type: 7BIT or 8BITMIME.

       -bd    Go into daemon mode. This mode of operation is implemented by
              executing the "postfix start" command.

       -bh (ignored)

       -bH (ignored)
              Postfix has no persistent host status database.

       -bi    Initialize alias database. See the newaliases command above.

       -bl    Go into daemon mode. To accept only local connections as with
              Sendmail's -bl option, specify "inet_interfaces = loopback" in
              the Postfix main.cf configuration file.

       -bm    Read mail from standard input and arrange for delivery.  This is
              the default mode of operation.

       -bp    List the mail queue. See the mailq command above.

       -bs    Stand-alone SMTP server mode. Read SMTP commands from standard
              input, and write responses to standard output.  In stand-alone
              SMTP server mode, mail relaying and other access controls are
              disabled by default. To enable them, run the process as the
              mail_owner user.

              This mode of operation is implemented by running the smtpd(8)
              daemon.

       -bv    Do not collect or deliver a message. Instead, send an email
              report after verifying each recipient address.  This is useful
              for testing address rewriting and routing configurations.

              This feature is available in Postfix version 2.1 and later.

       -C config_file

       -C config_dir
              The path name of the Postfix main.cf file, or of its parent
              directory. This information is ignored with Postfix versions
              before 2.3.

              With all Postfix versions, you can specify a directory pathname
              with the MAIL_CONFIG environment variable to override the
              location of configuration files.

       -F full_name
              Set the sender full name. This overrides the NAME environment
              variable, and is used only with messages that have no From:
              message header.

       -f sender
              Set the envelope sender address. This is the address where
              delivery problems are sent to. With Postfix versions before 2.1,
              the Errors-To: message header overrides the error return
              address.

       -G     Gateway (relay) submission, as opposed to initial user
              submission.  Either do not rewrite addresses at all, or update
              incomplete addresses with the domain information specified with
              remote_header_rewrite_domain.

              This option is ignored before Postfix version 2.3.

       -h hop_count (ignored)
              Hop count limit. Use the hopcount_limit configuration parameter
              instead.

       -I     Initialize alias database. See the newaliases command above.

       -i     When reading a message from standard input, don't treat a line
              with only a . character as the end of input.

       -L label (ignored)
              The logging label. Use the syslog_name configuration parameter
              instead.

       -m (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       -N dsn (default: 'delay, failure')
              Delivery status notification control. Specify either a
              comma-separated list with one or more of failure (send
              notification when delivery fails), delay (send notification when
              delivery is delayed), or success (send notification when the
              message is delivered); or specify never (don't send any
              notifications at all).

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.3 and later.

       -n (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       -oAalias_database
              Non-default alias database. Specify pathname or type:pathname.
              See postalias(1) for details.

       -O option=value (ignored)
              Set the named option to value. Use the equivalent configuration
              parameter in main.cf instead.

       -o7 (ignored)

       -o8 (ignored)
              To send 8-bit or binary content, use an appropriate MIME
              encapsulation and specify the appropriate -B command-line
              option.

       -oi    When reading a message from standard input, don't treat a line
              with only a . character as the end of input.

       -om (ignored)
              The sender is never eliminated from alias etc. expansions.

       -o x value (ignored)
              Set option x to value. Use the equivalent configuration
              parameter in main.cf instead.

       -r sender
              Set the envelope sender address. This is the address where
              delivery problems are sent to. With Postfix versions before 2.1,
              the Errors-To: message header overrides the error return
              address.

       -R return
              Delivery status notification control.  Specify "hdrs" to return
              only the header when a message bounces, "full" to return a full
              copy (the default behavior).

              The -R option specifies an upper bound; Postfix will return only
              the header, when a full copy would exceed the bounce_size_limit
              setting.

              This option is ignored before Postfix version 2.10.

       -q     Attempt to deliver all queued mail. This is implemented by
              executing the postqueue(1) command.

              Warning: flushing undeliverable mail frequently will result in
              poor delivery performance of all other mail.

       -qinterval (ignored)
              The interval between queue runs. Use the queue_run_delay
              configuration parameter instead.

       -qIqueueid
              Schedule immediate delivery of mail with the specified queue ID.
              This option is implemented by executing the postqueue(1)
              command, and is available with Postfix version 2.4 and later.

       -qRsite
              Schedule immediate delivery of all mail that is queued for the
              named site. This option accepts only site names that are
              eligible for the "fast flush" service, and is implemented by
              executing the postqueue(1) command.  See flush(8) for more
              information about the "fast flush" service.

       -qSsite
              This command is not implemented. Use the slower "sendmail -q"
              command instead.

       -t     Extract recipients from message headers. These are added to any
              recipients specified on the command line.

              With Postfix versions prior to 2.1, this option requires that no
              recipient addresses are specified on the command line.

       -U (ignored)
              Initial user submission.

       -V envid
              Specify the envelope ID for notification by servers that support
              DSN.

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.3 and later.

       -XV (Postfix 2.2 and earlier: -V)
              Variable Envelope Return Path. Given an envelope sender address
              of the form owner-listname@origin, each recipient user@domain
              receives mail with a personalized envelope sender address.

              By default, the personalized envelope sender address is
              owner-listname+user=domain@origin. The default + and =
              characters are configurable with the default_verp_delimiters
              configuration parameter.

       -XVxy (Postfix 2.2 and earlier: -Vxy)
              As -XV, but uses x and y as the VERP delimiter characters,
              instead of the characters specified with the
              default_verp_delimiters configuration parameter.

       -v     Send an email report of the first delivery attempt (Postfix
              versions 2.1 and later). Mail delivery always happens in the
              background. When multiple -v options are given, enable verbose
              logging for debugging purposes.

       -X log_file (ignored)
              Log mailer traffic. Use the debug_peer_list and debug_peer_level
              configuration parameters instead.

SECURITY
       By design, this program is not set-user (or group) id. However, it must
       handle data from untrusted, possibly remote, users.  Thus, the usual
       precautions need to be taken against malicious inputs.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Problems are logged to syslogd(8) and to the standard error stream.

ENVIRONMENT

       MAIL_CONFIG
              Directory with Postfix configuration files.

       MAIL_VERBOSE (value does not matter)
              Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes.

       MAIL_DEBUG (value does not matter)
              Enable debugging with an external command, as specified with the
              debugger_command configuration parameter.

       NAME   The sender full name. This is used only with messages that have
              no From: message header. See also the -F option above.

CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS
       The following main.cf parameters are especially relevant to this
       program.  The text below provides only a parameter summary. See
       postconf(5) for more details including examples.

COMPATIBILITY CONTROLS
       Available with Postfix 2.9 and later:

       sendmail_fix_line_endings (always)
              Controls how the Postfix sendmail command converts email message
              line endings from <CR><LF> into UNIX format (<LF>).

TROUBLE SHOOTING CONTROLS
       The DEBUG_README file gives examples of how to trouble shoot a Postfix
       system.

       debugger_command (empty)
              The external command to execute when a Postfix daemon program is
              invoked with the -D option.

       debug_peer_level (2)
              The increment in verbose logging level when a remote client or
              server matches a pattern in the debug_peer_list parameter.

       debug_peer_list (empty)
              Optional list of remote client or server hostname or network
              address patterns that cause the verbose logging level to
              increase by the amount specified in $debug_peer_level.

ACCESS CONTROLS
       Available in Postfix version 2.2 and later:

       authorized_flush_users (static:anyone)
              List of users who are authorized to flush the queue.

       authorized_mailq_users (static:anyone)
              List of users who are authorized to view the queue.

       authorized_submit_users (static:anyone)
              List of users who are authorized to submit mail with the
              sendmail(1) command (and with the privileged postdrop(1) helper
              command).

RESOURCE AND RATE CONTROLS

       bounce_size_limit (50000)
              The maximal amount of original message text that is sent in a
              non-delivery notification.

       fork_attempts (5)
              The maximal number of attempts to fork() a child process.

       fork_delay (1s)
              The delay between attempts to fork() a child process.

       hopcount_limit (50)
              The maximal number of Received:  message headers that is allowed
              in the primary message headers.

       queue_run_delay (300s)
              The time between deferred queue scans by the queue manager;
              prior to Postfix 2.4 the default value was 1000s.

FAST FLUSH CONTROLS
       The ETRN_README file describes configuration and operation details for
       the Postfix "fast flush" service.

       fast_flush_domains ($relay_domains)
              Optional list of destinations that are eligible for
              per-destination logfiles with mail that is queued to those
              destinations.

VERP CONTROLS
       The VERP_README file describes configuration and operation details of
       Postfix support for variable envelope return path addresses.

       default_verp_delimiters (+=)
              The two default VERP delimiter characters.

       verp_delimiter_filter (-=+)
              The characters Postfix accepts as VERP delimiter characters on
              the Postfix sendmail(1) command line and in SMTP commands.

MISCELLANEOUS CONTROLS

       alias_database (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The alias databases for local(8) delivery that are updated with
              "newaliases" or with "sendmail -bi".

       command_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of all postfix administrative commands.

       config_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The default location of the Postfix main.cf and master.cf
              configuration files.

       daemon_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The directory with Postfix support programs and daemon programs.

       default_database_type (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The default database type for use in newaliases(1), postalias(1)
              and postmap(1) commands.

       delay_warning_time (0h)
              The time after which the sender receives a copy of the message
              headers of mail that is still queued.

       mail_owner (postfix)
              The UNIX system account that owns the Postfix queue and most
              Postfix daemon processes.

       queue_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of the Postfix top-level queue directory.

       remote_header_rewrite_domain (empty)
              Don't rewrite message headers from remote clients at all when
              this parameter is empty; otherwise, rewrite message headers and
              append the specified domain name to incomplete addresses.

       syslog_facility (mail)
              The syslog facility of Postfix logging.

       syslog_name (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The mail system name that is prepended to the process name in
              syslog records, so that "smtpd" becomes, for example,
              "postfix/smtpd".

FILES
       /var/spool/postfix, mail queue
       /usr/local/etc/postfix, configuration files

SEE ALSO
       pickup(8), mail pickup daemon
       qmgr(8), queue manager
       smtpd(8), SMTP server
       flush(8), fast flush service
       postsuper(1), queue maintenance
       postalias(1), create/update/query alias database
       postdrop(1), mail posting utility
       postfix(1), mail system control
       postqueue(1), mail queue control
       syslogd(8), system logging

README_FILES
       Use "postconf readme_directory" or "postconf html_directory" to locate
       this information.
       DEBUG_README, Postfix debugging howto
       ETRN_README, Postfix ETRN howto
       VERP_README, Postfix VERP howto

LICENSE
       The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.

AUTHOR(S)
       Wietse Venema
       IBM T.J. Watson Research
       P.O. Box 704
       Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA

                                                                   SENDMAIL(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | SECURITY | DIAGNOSTICS | ENVIRONMENT | CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS | COMPATIBILITY CONTROLS | TROUBLE SHOOTING CONTROLS | ACCESS CONTROLS | RESOURCE AND RATE CONTROLS | FAST FLUSH CONTROLS | VERP CONTROLS | MISCELLANEOUS CONTROLS | FILES | SEE ALSO | README_FILES | LICENSE | AUTHOR(S)

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