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ZSHZLE(1)               FreeBSD General Commands Manual              ZSHZLE(1)

NAME
       zshzle - zsh command line editor

DESCRIPTION
       If the ZLE option is set (which it is by default in interactive shells)
       and the shell input is attached to the terminal, the user is able to
       edit command lines.

       There are two display modes.  The first, multiline mode, is the
       default.  It only works if the TERM parameter is set to a valid
       terminal type that can move the cursor up.  The second, single line
       mode, is used if TERM is invalid or incapable of moving the cursor up,
       or if the SINGLE_LINE_ZLE option is set.  This mode is similar to ksh,
       and uses no termcap sequences.  If TERM is "emacs", the ZLE option will
       be unset by default.

       The parameters BAUD, COLUMNS, and LINES are also used by the line
       editor.  See Parameters Used By The Shell in zshparam(1).

KEYMAPS
       A keymap in ZLE contains a set of bindings between key sequences and
       ZLE commands.  The empty key sequence cannot be bound.

       There can be any number of keymaps at any time, and each keymap has one
       or more names.  If all of a keymap's names are deleted, it disappears.
       bindkey can be used to manipulate keymap names.

       Initially, there are four keymaps:

       emacs  EMACS emulation
       viins  vi emulation - insert mode
       vicmd  vi emulation - command mode
       .safe  fallback keymap

       The `.safe' keymap is special.  It can never be altered, and the name
       can never be removed.  However, it can be linked to other names, which
       can be removed.  In the future other special keymaps may be added;
       users should avoid using names beginning with `.' for their own
       keymaps.

       In addition to these four names, either `emacs' or `viins' is also
       linked to the name `main'.  If one of the VISUAL or EDITOR environment
       variables contain the string `vi' when the shell starts up then it will
       be `viins', otherwise it will be `emacs'.  bindkey's -e and -v options
       provide a convenient way to override this default choice.

       When the editor starts up, it will select the `main' keymap.  If that
       keymap doesn't exist, it will use `.safe' instead.

       In the `.safe' keymap, each single key is bound to self-insert, except
       for ^J (line feed) and ^M (return) which are bound to accept-line.
       This is deliberately not pleasant to use; if you are using it, it means
       you deleted the main keymap, and you should put it back.

   Reading Commands
       When ZLE is reading a command from the terminal, it may read a sequence
       that is bound to some command and is also a prefix of a longer bound
       string.  In this case ZLE will wait a certain time to see if more
       characters are typed, and if not (or they don't match any longer
       string) it will execute the binding.  This timeout is defined by the
       KEYTIMEOUT parameter; its default is 0.4 sec.  There is no timeout if
       the prefix string is not itself bound to a command.

       As well as ZLE commands, key sequences can be bound to other strings,
       by using `bindkey -s'.  When such a sequence is read, the replacement
       string is pushed back as input, and the command reading process starts
       again using these fake keystrokes.  This input can itself invoke
       further replacement strings, but in order to detect loops the process
       will be stopped if there are twenty such replacements without a real
       command being read.

ZLE BUILTINS
       The ZLE module contains three related builtin commands. The bindkey
       command manipulates keymaps and key bindings; the vared command invokes
       ZLE on the value of a shell parameter; and the zle command manipulates
       editing widgets and allows command line access to ZLE commands from
       within shell functions.

       bindkey [ options ] -l
       bindkey [ options ] -d
       bindkey [ options ] -D keymap ...
       bindkey [ options ] -A old-keymap new-keymap
       bindkey [ options ] -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
       bindkey [ options ] -m
       bindkey [ options ] -r in-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] -s in-string out-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] in-string command ...
       bindkey [ options ] [ in-string ]
              bindkey's options can be divided into three categories: keymap
              selection, operation selection, and others.  The keymap
              selection options are:

              -e     Selects keymap `emacs', and also links it to `main'.

              -v     Selects keymap `viins', and also links it to `main'.

              -a     Selects keymap `vicmd'.

              -M     The first non-option argument is used as a keymap name,
                     and does not otherwise count as an argument.

              If a keymap selection is required and none of the options above
              are used, the `main' keymap is used.  Some operations do not
              permit a keymap to be selected, namely:

              -l     List all existing keymap names.  If the -L option is also
                     used, list in the form of bindkey commands to create the
                     keymaps.

              -d     Delete all existing keymaps and reset to the default
                     state.

              -D keymap ...
                     Delete the named keymaps.

              -A old-keymap new-keymap
                     Make the new-keymap name an alias for old-keymap, so that
                     both names refer to the same keymap.  The names have
                     equal standing; if either is deleted, the other remains.
                     If there is already a keymap with the new-keymap name, it
                     is deleted.

              -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
                     Create a new keymap, named new-keymap.  If a keymap
                     already has that name, it is deleted.  If an old-keymap
                     name is given, the new keymap is initialized to be a
                     duplicate of it, otherwise the new keymap will be empty.

              To use a newly created keymap, it should be linked to main.
              Hence the sequence of commands to create and use a new keymap
              `mymap' initialized from the emacs keymap (which remains
              unchanged) is:

                     bindkey -N mymap emacs
                     bindkey -A mymap main

              Note that while `bindkey -A newmap main' will work when newmap
              is emacs or viins, it will not work for vicmd, as switching from
              vi insert to command mode becomes impossible.

              The following operations act on the `main' keymap if no keymap
              selection option was given:

              -m     Add the built-in set of meta-key bindings to the selected
                     keymap.  Only keys that are unbound or bound to
                     self-insert are affected.

              -r in-string ...
                     Unbind the specified in-strings in the selected keymap.
                     This is exactly equivalent to binding the strings to
                     undefined-key.

                     When -R is also used, interpret the in-strings as ranges.

                     When -p is also used, the in-strings specify prefixes.
                     Any binding that has the given in-string as a prefix, not
                     including the binding for the in-string itself, if any,
                     will be removed.  For example,

                            bindkey -rpM viins '^['

                     will remove all bindings in the vi-insert keymap
                     beginning with an escape character (probably cursor
                     keys), but leave the binding for the escape character
                     itself (probably vi-cmd-mode).  This is incompatible with
                     the option -R.

              -s in-string out-string ...
                     Bind each in-string to each out-string.  When in-string
                     is typed, out-string will be pushed back and treated as
                     input to the line editor.  When -R is also used,
                     interpret the in-strings as ranges.

              in-string command ...
                     Bind each in-string to each command.  When -R is used,
                     interpret the in-strings as ranges.

              [ in-string ]
                     List key bindings.  If an in-string is specified, the
                     binding of that string in the selected keymap is
                     displayed.  Otherwise, all key bindings in the selected
                     keymap are displayed.  (As a special case, if the -e or
                     -v option is used alone, the keymap is not displayed -
                     the implicit linking of keymaps is the only thing that
                     happens.)

                     When the option -p is used, the in-string must be
                     present.  The listing shows all bindings which have the
                     given key sequence as a prefix, not including any
                     bindings for the key sequence itself.

                     When the -L option is used, the list is in the form of
                     bindkey commands to create the key bindings.

       When the -R option is used as noted above, a valid range consists of
       two characters, with an optional `-' between them.  All characters
       between the two specified, inclusive, are bound as specified.

       For either in-string or out-string, the following escape sequences are
       recognised:

       \a     bell character
       \b     backspace
       \e, \E escape
       \f     form feed
       \n     linefeed (newline)
       \r     carriage return
       \t     horizontal tab
       \v     vertical tab
       \NNN   character code in octal
       \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
       \M[-]X character with meta bit set
       \C[-]X control character
       ^X     control character

       In all other cases, `\' escapes the following character.  Delete is
       written as `^?'.  Note that `\M^?' and `^\M?' are not the same, and
       that (unlike emacs), the bindings `\M-X' and `\eX' are entirely
       distinct, although they are initialized to the same bindings by
       `bindkey -m'.

       vared [ -Aache ] [ -p prompt ] [ -r rprompt ] name
              The value of the parameter name is loaded into the edit buffer,
              and the line editor is invoked.  When the editor exits, name is
              set to the string value returned by the editor.  When the -c
              flag is given, the parameter is created if it doesn't already
              exist.  The -a flag may be given with -c to create an array
              parameter, or the -A flag to create an associative array.  If
              the type of an existing parameter does not match the type to be
              created, the parameter is unset and recreated.

              If an array or array slice is being edited, separator characters
              as defined in $IFS will be shown quoted with a backslash, as
              will backslashes themselves.  Conversely, when the edited text
              is split into an array, a backslash quotes an immediately
              following separator character or backslash; no other special
              handling of backslashes, or any handling of quotes, is
              performed.

              Individual elements of existing array or associative array
              parameters may be edited by using subscript syntax on name.  New
              elements are created automatically, even without -c.

              If the -p flag is given, the following string will be taken as
              the prompt to display at the left.  If the -r flag is given, the
              following string gives the prompt to display at the right.  If
              the -h flag is specified, the history can be accessed from ZLE.
              If the -e flag is given, typing ^D (Control-D) on an empty line
              causes vared to exit immediately with a non-zero return value.

       zle -l [ -L | -a ] [ string ... ]
       zle -D widget ...
       zle -A old-widget new-widget
       zle -N widget [ function ]
       zle -C widget completion-widget function
       zle -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
       zle -M string
       zle -U string
       zle -I
       zle widget [ -n num ] [ -N ] args ...
       zle    The zle builtin performs a number of different actions
              concerning ZLE.  Which operation it performs depends on its
              options:

              -l [ -L | -a ]
                     List all existing user-defined widgets.  If the -L option
                     is used, list in the form of zle commands to create the
                     widgets.

                     When combined with the -a option, all widget names are
                     listed, including the builtin ones. In this case the -L
                     option is ignored.

                     If at least one string is given, nothing will be printed
                     but the return status will be zero if all strings are
                     names of existing widgets (or of user-defined widgets if
                     the -a flag is not given) and non-zero if at least one
                     string is not a name of an defined widget.

              -D widget ...
                     Delete the named widgets.

              -A old-widget new-widget
                     Make the new-widget name an alias for old-widget, so that
                     both names refer to the same widget.  The names have
                     equal standing; if either is deleted, the other remains.
                     If there is already a widget with the new-widget name, it
                     is deleted.

              -N widget [ function ]
                     Create a user-defined widget.  If there is already a
                     widget with the specified name, it is overwritten.  When
                     the new widget is invoked from within the editor, the
                     specified shell function is called.  If no function name
                     is specified, it defaults to the same name as the widget.
                     For further information, see the section Widgets in
                     zshzle(1).

              -C widget completion-widget function
                     Create a user-defined completion widget named widget. The
                     completion widget will behave like the built-in
                     completion-widget whose name is given as
                     completion-widget. To generate the completions, the shell
                     function function will be called.  For further
                     information, see zshcompwid(1).

              -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
                     Redisplay the command line; this is to be called from
                     within a user-defined widget to allow changes to become
                     visible.  If a display-string is given and not empty,
                     this is shown in the status line (immediately below the
                     line being edited).

                     If the optional strings are given they are listed below
                     the prompt in the same way as completion lists are
                     printed. If no strings are given but the -c option is
                     used such a list is cleared.

                     Note that this option is only useful for widgets that do
                     not exit immediately after using it because the strings
                     displayed will be erased immediately after return from
                     the widget.

                     This command can safely be called outside user defined
                     widgets; if zle is active, the display will be refreshed,
                     while if zle is not active, the command has no effect.
                     In this case there will usually be no other arguments.
                     The status is zero if zle was active, else one.

              -M string
                     As with the -R option, the string will be displayed below
                     the command line; unlike the -R option, the string will
                     not be put into the status line but will instead be
                     printed normally below the prompt.  This means that the
                     string will still be displayed after the widget returns
                     (until it is overwritten by subsequent commands).

              -U string
                     This pushes the characters in the string onto the input
                     stack of ZLE.  After the widget currently executed
                     finishes ZLE will behave as if the characters in the
                     string were typed by the user.

                     As ZLE uses a stack, if this option is used repeatedly
                     the last string pushed onto the stack will be processed
                     first.  However, the characters in each string will be
                     processed in the order in which they appear in the
                     string.

              -I     Unusually, this option is only useful outside ordinary
                     widget functions.  It invalidates the current zle display
                     in preparation for output; usually this will be from a
                     trap function.  It has no effect if zle is not active.
                     When a trap exits, the shell checks to see if the display
                     needs restoring, hence the following will print output in
                     such a way as not to disturb the line being edited:

                            TRAPUSR1() {
                                # Invalidate zle display
                              zle -I
                                # Show output
                              print Hello
                            }

                     Note that there are better ways of manipulating the
                     display from within zle widgets.  In general, the trap
                     function may need to test whether zle is loaded before
                     using this method; if it is not, there is no point in
                     loading it specially since the line editor will not be
                     active.

                     The status is zero if zle was active, else one.

              widget [ -n num ] [ -N ] args ...
                     Invoke the specified widget.  This can only be done when
                     ZLE is active; normally this will be within a
                     user-defined widget.

                     With the options -n and -N, the current numerical
                     argument will be saved and then restored after the call
                     to widget; `-n num' sets the numerical argument
                     temporarily to num, while `-N' sets it to the default,
                     i.e. as if there were none.

                     Any further arguments will be passed to the widget.  If
                     it is a shell function, these are passed down as
                     positional parameters; for builtin widgets it is up to
                     the widget in question what it does with them.  Currently
                     arguments are only handled by the incremental-search
                     commands, the history-search-forward and -backward and
                     the corresponding functions prefixed by vi-, and by
                     universal-argument.  No error is flagged if the command
                     does not use the arguments, or only uses some of them.

                     The return status reflects the success or failure of the
                     operation carried out by the widget, or if it is a
                     user-defined widget the return status of the shell
                     function.

                     A non-zero return status causes the shell to beep when
                     the widget exits, unless the BEEP options was unset or
                     the widget was called via the zle command.  Thus if a
                     user defined widget requires an immediate beep, it should
                     call the beep widget directly.

       With no options and no arguments, only the return status will be set.
       It is zero if ZLE is currently active and widgets could be invoked
       using this builtin command and non-zero if ZLE is not active.

WIDGETS
       All actions in the editor are performed by `widgets'.  A widget's job
       is simply to perform some small action.  The ZLE commands that key
       sequences in keymaps are bound to are in fact widgets.  Widgets can be
       user-defined or built in.

       The standard widgets built in to ZLE are listed in Standard Widgets
       below.  Other built-in widgets can be defined by other modules (see
       zshmodules(1)).  Each built-in widget has two names: its normal
       canonical name, and the same name preceded by a `.'.  The `.' name is
       special: it can't be rebound to a different widget.  This makes the
       widget available even when its usual name has been redefined.

       User-defined widgets are defined using `zle -N', and implemented as
       shell functions.  When the widget is executed, the corresponding shell
       function is executed, and can perform editing (or other) actions.  It
       is recommended that user-defined widgets should not have names starting
       with `.'.

USER-DEFINED WIDGETS
       User-defined widgets, being implemented as shell functions, can execute
       any normal shell command.  They can also run other widgets (whether
       built-in or user-defined) using the zle builtin command.  The standard
       input of the function is closed to prevent external commands from
       unintentionally blocking ZLE by reading from the terminal, but read -k
       or read -q can be used to read characters.  Finally, they can examine
       and edit the ZLE buffer being edited by reading and setting the special
       parameters described below.

       These special parameters are always available in widget functions, but
       are not in any way special outside ZLE.  If they have some normal value
       outside ZLE, that value is temporarily inaccessible, but will return
       when the widget function exits.  These special parameters in fact have
       local scope, like parameters created in a function using local.

       Inside completion widgets and traps called while ZLE is active, these
       parameters are available read-only.

       BUFFER (scalar)
              The entire contents of the edit buffer.  If it is written to,
              the cursor remains at the same offset, unless that would put it
              outside the buffer.

       BUFFERLINES
              The number of screen lines needed for the edit buffer currently
              displayed on screen (i.e. without any changes to the preceding
              parameters done after the last redisplay).

       CURSOR (integer)
              The offset of the cursor, within the edit buffer.  This is in
              the range 0 to $#BUFFER, and is by definition equal to
              $#LBUFFER.  Attempts to move the cursor outside the buffer will
              result in the cursor being moved to the appropriate end of the
              buffer.

       HISTNO (integer)
              The current history number.

       KEYS (scalar)
              The keys typed to invoke this widget, as a literal string.

       LASTWIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the last widget that was executed.

       LBUFFER (scalar)
              The part of the buffer that lies to the left of the cursor
              position.  If it is assigned to, only that part of the buffer is
              replaced, and the cursor remains between the new $LBUFFER and
              the old $RBUFFER.

       MARK (integer)
              Like CURSOR, but for the mark.

       NUMERIC (integer)
              The numeric argument. If no numeric argument was given, this
              parameter is unset. When this is set inside a widget function,
              builtin widgets called with the zle builtin command will use the
              value assigned. If it is unset inside a widget function, builtin
              widgets called behave as if no numeric argument was given.

       PENDING (integer)
              The number of bytes pending for input, i.e. the number of bytes
              which have already been typed and can immediately be read. On
              systems where the shell is not able to get this information,
              this parameter will always have a value of zero.

       PREBUFFER (scalar)
              In a multi-line input at the secondary prompt, this read-only
              parameter contains the contents of the lines before the one the
              cursor is currently in.

       RBUFFER (scalar)
              The part of the buffer that lies to the right of the cursor
              position.  If it is assigned to, only that part of the buffer is
              replaced, and the cursor remains between the old $LBUFFER and
              the new $RBUFFER.

       WIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the widget currently being executed.

STANDARD WIDGETS
       The following is a list of all the standard widgets, and their default
       bindings in emacs mode, vi command mode and vi insert mode (the
       `emacs', `vicmd' and `viins' keymaps, respectively).

       Note that cursor keys are bound to movement keys in all three keymaps;
       the shell assumes that the cursor keys send the key sequences reported
       by the terminal-handling library (termcap or terminfo).  The key
       sequences shown in the list are those based on the VT100, common on
       many modern terminals, but in fact these are not necessarily bound.  In
       the case of the viins keymap, the initial escape character of the
       sequences serves also to return to the vicmd keymap: whether this
       happens is determined by the KEYTIMEOUT parameter, see zshparam(1).

   Movement
       vi-backward-blank-word (unbound) (B) (unbound)
              Move backward one word, where a word is defined as a series of
              non-blank characters.

       backward-char (^B ESC-[D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move backward one character.

       vi-backward-char (unbound) (^H h ^?) (ESC-[D)
              Move backward one character, without changing lines.

       backward-word (ESC-B ESC-b) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       emacs-backward-word
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       vi-backward-word (unbound) (b) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word, vi-style.

       beginning-of-line (^A) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the beginning
              of the line, move to the beginning of the previous line, if any.

       vi-beginning-of-line
              Move to the beginning of the line, without changing lines.

       end-of-line (^E) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the line,
              move to the end of the next line, if any.

       vi-end-of-line (unbound) ($) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line.  If an argument is given to this
              command, the cursor will be moved to the end of the line
              (argument - 1) lines down.

       vi-forward-blank-word (unbound) (W) (unbound)
              Move forward one word, where a word is defined as a series of
              non-blank characters.

       vi-forward-blank-word-end (unbound) (E) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the current word, or, if at the end of the
              current word, to the end of the next word, where a word is
              defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       forward-char (^F ESC-[C) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-forward-char (unbound) (space l) (ESC-[C)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-find-next-char (^X^F) (f) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the next
              occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-next-char-skip (unbound) (t) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the position
              just before the next occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char (unbound) (F) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the previous
              occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char-skip (unbound) (T) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the position
              just after the previous occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-first-non-blank (unbound) (^) (unbound)
              Move to the first non-blank character in the line.

       vi-forward-word (unbound) (w) (unbound)
              Move forward one word, vi-style.

       forward-word (ESC-F ESC-f) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the next word.  The editor's idea of a
              word is specified with the WORDCHARS parameter.

       emacs-forward-word
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-forward-word-end (unbound) (e) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-goto-column (ESC-|) (|) (unbound)
              Move to the column specified by the numeric argument.

       vi-goto-mark (unbound) (`) (unbound)
              Move to the specified mark.

       vi-goto-mark-line (unbound) (') (unbound)
              Move to beginning of the line containing the specified mark.

       vi-repeat-find (unbound) (;) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command.

       vi-rev-repeat-find (unbound) (,) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command in the opposite direction.

   History Control
       beginning-of-buffer-or-history (ESC-<) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the buffer, or if already there, move
              to the first event in the history list.

       beginning-of-line-hist
              Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the beginning
              of the buffer, move to the previous history line.

       beginning-of-history
              Move to the first event in the history list.

       down-line-or-history (^N ESC-[B) (j) (ESC-[B)
              Move down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom
              line, move to the next event in the history list.

       vi-down-line-or-history (unbound) (+) (unbound)
              Move down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom
              line, move to the next event in the history list.  Then move to
              the first non-blank character on the line.

       down-line-or-search
              Move down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom
              line, search forward in the history for a line beginning with
              the first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as the string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       down-history (unbound) (^N) (unbound)
              Move to the next event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-backward
              Search backward in the history for a line beginning with the
              current line up to the cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its
              original position.

       end-of-buffer-or-history (ESC->) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the buffer, or if already there, move to the
              last event in the history list.

       end-of-line-hist
              Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the
              buffer, move to the next history line.

       end-of-history
              Move to the last event in the history list.

       vi-fetch-history (unbound) (G) (unbound)
              Fetch the history line specified by the numeric argument.  This
              defaults to the current history line (i.e. the one that isn't
              history yet).

       history-incremental-search-backward (^R ^Xr) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search backward incrementally for a specified string.  The
              search is case-insensitive if the search string does not have
              uppercase letters and no numeric argument was given.  The string
              may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the
              line.

              A restricted set of editing functions is available in the
              mini-buffer.  An interrupt signal, as defined by the stty
              setting, will stop the search and go back to the original line.
              An undefined key will have the same effect. The supported
              functions are: backward-delete-char, vi-backward-delete-char,
              clear-screen, redisplay, quoted-insert, vi-quoted-insert,
              accept-and-hold, accept-and-infer-next-history, accept-line and
              accept-line-and-down-history.

              magic-space just inserts a space.  vi-cmd-mode toggles between
              the `main' and `vicmd' keymaps; the `main' keymap (insert mode)
              will be selected initially.  history-incremental-search-backward
              will get the next occurrence of the contents of the mini-buffer.
              history-incremental-search-forward inverts the sense of the
              search.  vi-repeat-search and vi-rev-repeat-search are similarly
              supported.  The direction of the search is indicated in the
              mini-buffer.

              Any multi-character string that is not bound to one of the above
              functions will beep and interrupt the search, leaving the last
              found line in the buffer. Any single character that is not bound
              to one of the above functions, or self-insert or
              self-insert-unmeta, will have the same effect but the function
              will be executed.

              When called from a widget function by the zle command, the
              incremental search commands can take a string argument.  This
              will be treated as a string of keys, as for arguments to the
              bindkey command, and used as initial input for the command.  Any
              characters in the string which are unused by the incremental
              search will be silently ignored.  For example,

                     zle history-incremental-search-backward forceps

              will search backwards for forceps, leaving the minibuffer
              containing the string `forceps'.

       history-incremental-search-forward (^S ^Xs) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search forward incrementally for a specified string.  The search
              is case-insensitive if the search string does not have uppercase
              letters and no numeric argument was given.  The string may begin
              with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.  The
              functions available in the mini-buffer are the same as for
              history-incremental-search-backward.

       history-search-backward (ESC-P ESC-p) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search backward in the history for a line beginning with the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as the string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-backward (unbound) (/) (unbound)
              Search backward in the history for a specified string.  The
              string may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning
              of the line.

              A restricted set of editing functions is available in the
              mini-buffer.  An interrupt signal, as defined by the stty
              setting,  will stop the search.  The functions available in the
              mini-buffer are: accept-line, backward-delete-char,
              vi-backward-delete-char, backward-kill-word,
              vi-backward-kill-word, clear-screen, redisplay, quoted-insert
              and vi-quoted-insert.

              vi-cmd-mode is treated the same as accept-line, and magic-space
              is treated as a space.  Any other character that is not bound to
              self-insert or self-insert-unmeta will beep and be ignored. If
              the function is called from vi command mode, the bindings of the
              current insert mode will be used.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as the string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       history-search-forward (ESC-N ESC-n) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search forward in the history for a line beginning with the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as the string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-forward (unbound) (?) (unbound)
              Search forward in the history for a specified string.  The
              string may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning
              of the line. The functions available in the mini-buffer are the
              same as for vi-history-search-backward.  Argument handling is
              also the same as for that command.

       infer-next-history (^X^N) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search in the history list for a line matching the current one
              and fetch the event following it.

       insert-last-word (ESC-_ ESC-.) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the last word from the previous history event at the
              cursor position.  If a positive numeric argument is given,
              insert that word from the end of the previous history event.  If
              the argument is zero or negative insert that word from the left
              (zero inserts the previous command word).  Repeating this
              command replaces the word just inserted with the last word from
              the history event prior to the one just used; numeric arguments
              can be used in the same way to pick a word from that event.

       vi-repeat-search (unbound) (n) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search.

       vi-rev-repeat-search (unbound) (N) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search, but in reverse.

       up-line-or-history (^P ESC-[A) (k) (ESC-[A)
              Move up a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line,
              move to the previous event in the history list.

       vi-up-line-or-history (unbound) (-) (unbound)
              Move up a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line,
              move to the previous event in the history list.  Then move to
              the first non-blank character on the line.

       up-line-or-search
              Move up a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line,
              search backward in the history for a line beginning with the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as the string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       up-history (unbound) (^P) (unbound)
              Move to the previous event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-forward
              Search forward in the history for a line beginning with the
              current line up to the cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its
              original position.

   Modifying Text
       vi-add-eol (unbound) (A) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-add-next (unbound) (a) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode after the current cursor position, without
              changing lines.

       backward-delete-char (^H ^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-delete-char (unbound) (X) (^H)
              Delete the character behind the cursor, without changing lines.
              If in insert mode, this won't delete past the point where insert
              mode was last entered.

       backward-delete-word
              Delete the word behind the cursor.

       backward-kill-line
              Kill from the beginning of the line to the cursor position.

       backward-kill-word (^W ESC-^H ESC-^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the word behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-kill-word (unbound) (unbound) (^W)
              Kill the word behind the cursor, without going past the point
              where insert mode was last entered.

       capitalize-word (ESC-C ESC-c) (unbound) (unbound)
              Capitalize the current word and move past it.

       vi-change (unbound) (c) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and kill from the
              cursor position to the endpoint of the movement.  Then enter
              insert mode.  If the command is vi-change, change the current
              line.

       vi-change-eol (unbound) (C) (unbound)
              Kill to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-change-whole-line (unbound) (S) (unbound)
              Kill the current line and enter insert mode.

       copy-region-as-kill (ESC-W ESC-w) (unbound) (unbound)
              Copy the area from the cursor to the mark to the kill buffer.

       copy-prev-word (ESC-^_) (unbound) (unbound)
              Duplicate the word to the left of the cursor.

       copy-prev-shell-word (ESC-^_) (unbound) (unbound)
              Like copy-prev-word, but the word is found by using shell
              parsing, whereas copy-prev-word looks for blanks. This makes a
              difference when the word is quoted and contains spaces.

       vi-delete (unbound) (d) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and kill from the
              cursor position to the endpoint of the movement.  If the command
              is vi-delete, kill the current line.

       delete-char
              Delete the character under the cursor.

       vi-delete-char (unbound) (x) (unbound)
              Delete the character under the cursor, without going past the
              end of the line.

       delete-word
              Delete the current word.

       down-case-word (ESC-L ESC-l) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all lowercase and move past it.

       kill-word (ESC-D ESC-d) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current word.

       gosmacs-transpose-chars
              Exchange the two characters behind the cursor.

       vi-indent (unbound) (>) (unbound)
              Indent a number of lines.

       vi-insert (unbound) (i) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode.

       vi-insert-bol (unbound) (I) (unbound)
              Move to the first non-blank character on the line and enter
              insert mode.

       vi-join (^X^J) (J) (unbound)
              Join the current line with the next one.

       kill-line (^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.  If already on the
              end of the line, kill the newline character.

       vi-kill-line (unbound) (unbound) (^U)
              Kill from the cursor back to wherever insert mode was last
              entered.

       vi-kill-eol (unbound) (D) (unbound)
              Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.

       kill-region
              Kill from the cursor to the mark.

       kill-buffer (^X^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the entire buffer.

       kill-whole-line (^U) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current line.

       vi-match-bracket (^X^B) (%) (unbound)
              Move to the bracket character (one of {}, () or []) that matches
              the one under the cursor.  If the cursor is not on a bracket
              character, move forward without going past the end of the line
              to find one, and then go to the matching bracket.

       vi-open-line-above (unbound) (O) (unbound)
              Open a line above the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-open-line-below (unbound) (o) (unbound)
              Open a line below the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-oper-swap-case
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and swap the case of
              all characters from the cursor position to the endpoint of the
              movement.  If the movement command is vi-oper-swap-case, swap
              the case of all characters on the current line.

       overwrite-mode (^X^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Toggle between overwrite mode and insert mode.

       vi-put-before (unbound) (P) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer before the cursor.  If
              the kill buffer contains a sequence of lines (as opposed to
              characters), paste it above the current line.

       vi-put-after (unbound) (p) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer after the cursor.  If the
              kill buffer contains a sequence of lines (as opposed to
              characters), paste it below the current line.

       quoted-insert (^V) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the next character typed into the buffer literally.  An
              interrupt character will not be inserted.

       vi-quoted-insert (unbound) (unbound) (^Q ^V)
              Display a `^' at the cursor position, and insert the next
              character typed into the buffer literally.  An interrupt
              character will not be inserted.

       quote-line (ESC-') (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote the current line; that is, put a `'' character at the
              beginning and the end, and convert all `'' characters to `'\'''.

       quote-region (ESC-") (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote the region from the cursor to the mark.

       vi-replace (unbound) (R) (unbound)
              Enter overwrite mode.

       vi-repeat-change (unbound) (.) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi mode text modification.  If a count was used
              with the modification, it is remembered.  If a count is given to
              this command, it overrides the remembered count, and is
              remembered for future uses of this command.  The cut buffer
              specification is similarly remembered.

       vi-replace-chars (unbound) (r) (unbound)
              Replace the character under the cursor with a character read
              from the keyboard.

       self-insert (printable characters) (unbound) (printable characters and
       some control characters)
              Insert a character into the buffer at the cursor position.

       self-insert-unmeta (ESC-^I ESC-^J ESC-^M) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert a character into the buffer after stripping the meta bit
              and converting ^M to ^J.

       vi-substitute (unbound) (s) (unbound)
              Substitute the next character(s).

       vi-swap-case (unbound) (~) (unbound)
              Swap the case of the character under the cursor and move past
              it.

       transpose-chars (^T) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the two characters to the left of the cursor if at end
              of line, else exchange the character under the cursor with the
              character to the left.

       transpose-words (ESC-T ESC-t) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the current word with the one before it.

       vi-unindent (unbound) (<) (unbound)
              Unindent a number of lines.

       up-case-word (ESC-U ESC-u) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all caps and move past it.

       yank (^Y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer at the cursor position.

       yank-pop (ESC-y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Remove the text just yanked, rotate the kill-ring, and yank the
              new top.  Only works following yank or yank-pop.

       vi-yank (unbound) (y) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and copy the region
              from the cursor position to the endpoint of the movement into
              the kill buffer.  If the command is vi-yank, copy the current
              line.

       vi-yank-whole-line (unbound) (Y) (unbound)
              Copy the current line into the kill buffer.

       vi-yank-eol
              Copy the region from the cursor position to the end of the line
              into the kill buffer.  Arguably, this is what Y should do in vi,
              but it isn't what it actually does.

   Arguments
       digit-argument (ESC-0..ESC-9) (1-9) (unbound)
              Start a new numeric argument, or add to the current one.  See
              also vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line.  This only works if bound to
              a key sequence ending in a decimal digit.

              Inside a widget function, a call to this function treats the
              last key of the key sequence which called the widget as the
              digit.

       neg-argument (ESC--) (unbound) (unbound)
              Changes the sign of the following argument.

       universal-argument
              Multiply the argument of the next command by 4.  Alternatively,
              if this command is followed by an integer (positive or
              negative), use that as the argument for the next command.  Thus
              digits cannot be repeated using this command.  For example, if
              this command occurs twice, followed immediately by forward-char,
              move forward sixteen spaces; if instead it is followed by -2,
              then forward-char, move backward two spaces.

              Inside a widget function, if passed an argument, i.e. `zle
              universal-argument num', the numerical argument will be set to
              num; this is equivalent to `NUMERIC=num'.

   Completion
       accept-and-menu-complete
              In a menu completion, insert the current completion into the
              buffer, and advance to the next possible completion.

       complete-word
              Attempt completion on the current word.

       delete-char-or-list (^D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character under the cursor.  If the cursor is at the
              end of the line, list possible completions for the current word.

       expand-cmd-path
              Expand the current command to its full pathname.

       expand-or-complete (TAB) (unbound) (TAB)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word.  If that fails,
              attempt completion.

       expand-or-complete-prefix
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word up to cursor.

       expand-history (ESC-space ESC-!) (unbound) (unbound)
              Perform history expansion on the edit buffer.

       expand-word (^X*) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word.

       list-choices (ESC-^D) (^D =) (^D)
              List possible completions for the current word.

       list-expand (^Xg ^XG) (^G) (^G)
              List the expansion of the current word.

       magic-space
              Perform history expansion and insert a space into the buffer.
              This is intended to be bound to space.

       menu-complete
              Like complete-word, except that menu completion is used.  See
              the MENU_COMPLETE option.

       menu-expand-or-complete
              Like expand-or-complete, except that menu completion is used.

       reverse-menu-complete
              Perform menu completion, like menu-complete, except that if a
              menu completion is already in progress, move to the previous
              completion rather than the next.

       end-of-list
              When a previous completion displayed a list below the prompt,
              this widget can be used to move the prompt below the list.

   Miscellaneous
       accept-and-hold (ESC-A ESC-a) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the contents of the buffer on the buffer stack and execute
              it.

       accept-and-infer-next-history
              Execute the contents of the buffer.  Then search the history
              list for a line matching the current one and push the event
              following onto the buffer stack.

       accept-line (^J ^M) (^J ^M) (^J ^M)
              Finish editing the buffer.  Normally this causes the buffer to
              be executed as a shell command.

       accept-line-and-down-history (^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Execute the current line, and push the next history event on the
              the buffer stack.

       beep   Beep, unless the BEEP option is unset.

       vi-cmd-mode (^X^V) (unbound) (^[)
              Enter command mode; that is, select the `vicmd' keymap.  Yes,
              this is bound by default in emacs mode.

       vi-caps-lock-panic
              Hang until any lowercase key is pressed.  This is for vi users
              without the mental capacity to keep track of their caps lock key
              (like the author).

       clear-screen (^L ESC-^L) (^L) (^L)
              Clear the screen and redraw the prompt.

       describe-key-briefly
              Reads a key sequence, then prints the function bound to that
              sequence.

       exchange-point-and-mark (^X^X) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the cursor position with the position of the mark.

       execute-named-cmd (ESC-x) (unbound) (unbound)
              Read the name of an editor command and execute it.  A restricted
              set of editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.  An
              interrupt signal, as defined by the stty setting, will abort the
              function. The allowed functions are: backward-delete-char,
              vi-backward-delete-char, clear-screen, redisplay, quoted-insert,
              vi-quoted-insert, backward-kill-word, vi-backward-kill-word,
              kill-whole-line, vi-kill-line, backward-kill-line, list-choices,
              delete-char-or-list, complete-word, accept-line,
              expand-or-complete and expand-or-complete-prefix.

              kill-region kills the last word, and vi-cmd-mode is treated the
              same as accept-line.  The space and tab characters, if not bound
              to one of these functions, will complete the name and then list
              the possibilities if the AUTO_LIST option is set.  Any other
              character that is not bound to self-insert or self-insert-unmeta
              will beep and be ignored.  The bindings of the current insert
              mode will be used.

       execute-last-named-cmd (ESC-z) (unbound) (unbound)
              Redo the last function executed with execute-named-cmd.

       get-line (ESC-G ESC-g) (unbound) (unbound)
              Pop the top line off the buffer stack and insert it at the
              cursor position.

       pound-insert (unbound) (#) (unbound)
              If there is no # character at the beginning of the buffer, add
              one to the beginning of each line.  If there is one, remove a #
              from each line that has one.  In either case, accept the current
              line.  The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option must be set for this to
              have any usefulness.

       vi-pound-insert
              If there is no # character at the beginning of the current line,
              add one.  If there is one, remove it.  The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS
              option must be set for this to have any usefulness.

       push-input
              Push the entire current multiline construct onto the buffer
              stack and return to the top-level (PS1) prompt.  If the current
              parser construct is only a single line, this is exactly like
              push-line.  Next time the editor starts up or is popped with
              get-line, the construct will be popped off the top of the buffer
              stack and loaded into the editing buffer.

       push-line (^Q ESC-Q ESC-q) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the current buffer onto the buffer stack and clear the
              buffer.  Next time the editor starts up, the buffer will be
              popped off the top of the buffer stack and loaded into the
              editing buffer.

       push-line-or-edit
              At the top-level (PS1) prompt, equivalent to push-line.  At a
              secondary (PS2) prompt, move the entire current multiline
              construct into the editor buffer.  The latter is equivalent to
              push-input followed by get-line.

       redisplay (unbound) (^R) (^R)
              Redisplays the edit buffer.

       send-break (^G ESC-^G) (unbound) (unbound)
              Abort the current editor function, e.g. execute-named-command,
              or the editor itself, e.g. if you are in vared. Otherwise abort
              the parsing of the current line.

       run-help (ESC-H ESC-h) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute the command
              `run-help cmd', where cmd is the current command.  run-help is
              normally aliased to man.

       vi-set-buffer (unbound) (") (unbound)
              Specify a buffer to be used in the following command.  There are
              35 buffers that can be specified: the 26 `named' buffers "a to
              "z and the nine `queued' buffers "1 to "9.  The named buffers
              can also be specified as "A to "Z.

              When a buffer is specified for a cut command, the text being cut
              replaces the previous contents of the specified buffer.  If a
              named buffer is specified using a capital, the newly cut text is
              appended to the buffer instead of overwriting it.

              If no buffer is specified for a cut command, "1 is used, and the
              contents of "1 to "8 are each shifted along one buffer; the
              contents of "9 is lost.

       vi-set-mark (unbound) (m) (unbound)
              Set the specified mark at the cursor position.

       set-mark-command (^@) (unbound) (unbound)
              Set the mark at the cursor position.

       spell-word (ESC-$ ESC-S ESC-s) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt spelling correction on the current word.

       undefined-key
              This command is executed when a key sequence that is not bound
              to any command is typed.  By default it beeps.

       undo (^_ ^Xu ^X^U) (unbound) (unbound)
              Incrementally undo the last text modification.

       redo   Incrementally redo undone text modifications.

       vi-undo-change (unbound) (u) (unbound)
              Undo the last text modification.  If repeated, redo the
              modification.

       what-cursor-position (^X=) (unbound) (unbound)
              Print the character under the cursor, its code as an octal,
              decimal and hexadecimal number, the current cursor position
              within the buffer and the column of the cursor in the current
              line.

       where-is
              Read the name of an editor command and and print the listing of
              key sequences that invoke the specified command.

       which-command (ESC-?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute the command
              `which-command cmd'. where cmd is the current command.
              which-command is normally aliased to whence.

       vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line (unbound) (0) (unbound)
              If the last command executed was a digit as part of an argument,
              continue the argument.  Otherwise, execute vi-beginning-of-line.

zsh 4.0.6                       August 14, 2002                      ZSHZLE(1)

NAME | DESCRIPTION | KEYMAPS | ZLE BUILTINS | WIDGETS | USER-DEFINED WIDGETS | STANDARD WIDGETS

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