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ZSHOPTIONS(1)		    General Commands Manual		 ZSHOPTIONS(1)

       zshoptions - zsh	options

       Options are primarily referred to by name.  These names are case	insen-
       sitive and underscores are ignored.  For	example, `allexport' is	equiv-
       alent to	`A__lleXP_ort'.

       The  sense of an	option name may	be inverted by preceding it with `no',
       so `setopt No_Beep' is equivalent to `unsetopt beep'.   This  inversion
       can only	be done	once, so `nonobeep' is not a synonym for `beep'.  Sim-
       ilarly, `tify' is not a synonym for `nonotify' (the inversion  of  `no-

       Some  options also have one or more single letter names.	 There are two
       sets of single letter options: one used by default, and another used to
       emulate	sh/ksh	(used  when the	SH_OPTION_LETTERS option is set).  The
       single letter options can be used on the	shell command  line,  or  with
       the  set, setopt	and unsetopt builtins, as normal Unix options preceded
       by `-'.

       The sense of the	single letter options may be inverted by using `+' in-
       stead  of  `-'.	Some of	the single letter option names refer to	an op-
       tion being off, in which	case the inversion of that name	refers to  the
       option  being  on.   For	example, `+n' is the short name	of `exec', and
       `-n' is the short name of its inversion,	`noexec'.

       In strings of single letter options supplied to the shell  at  startup,
       trailing	 whitespace  will  be ignored; for example the string `-f    '
       will be treated just as `-f', but the string `-f	i' is an error.	  This
       is  because many	systems	which implement	the `#!' mechanism for calling
       scripts do not strip trailing whitespace.

       In the following	list, options set by default  in  all  emulations  are
       marked  <D>;  those  set	by default only	in csh,	ksh, sh, or zsh	emula-
       tions are marked	<C>, <K>, <S>, <Z> as appropriate.  When  listing  op-
       tions  (by `setopt', `unsetopt',	`set -o' or `set +o'), those turned on
       by default appear in  the  list	prefixed  with	`no'.	Hence  (unless
       KSH_OPTION_PRINT	is set), `setopt' shows	all options whose settings are
       changed from the	default.

   Changing Directories
       AUTO_CD (-J)
	      If a command is issued that can't	be executed as a  normal  com-
	      mand, and	the command is the name	of a directory,	perform	the cd
	      command to that directory.  This option is  only	applicable  if
	      the  option  SHIN_STDIN  is set, i.e. if commands	are being read
	      from standard input.  The	option	is  designed  for  interactive
	      use;  it is recommended that cd be used explicitly in scripts to
	      avoid ambiguity.

       AUTO_PUSHD (-N)
	      Make cd push the old directory onto the directory	stack.

       CDABLE_VARS (-T)
	      If the argument to a cd command  (or  an	implied	 cd  with  the
	      AUTO_CD  option set) is not a directory, and does	not begin with
	      a	slash, try to expand the expression as if it were preceded  by
	      a	`~' (see the section `Filename Expansion').

	      Never  print  the	working	directory after	a cd (whether explicit
	      or implied with the AUTO_CD option set). cd normally prints  the
	      working  directory  when the argument given to it	was -, a stack
	      entry, or	the name of a directory	found under CDPATH. Note  that
	      this is distinct from pushd's stack-printing behaviour, which is
	      controlled by PUSHD_SILENT. This	option	overrides  the	print-
	      ing-related effects of POSIX_CD.

	      When  changing  to  a  directory	containing a path segment `..'
	      which would otherwise be treated as canceling the	previous  seg-
	      ment in the path (in other words,	`foo/..' would be removed from
	      the path,	or if `..' is the first	part of	 the  path,  the  last
	      part of the current working directory would be removed), instead
	      resolve the path to the  physical	 directory.   This  option  is
	      overridden by CHASE_LINKS.

	      For  example,  suppose  /foo/bar	is  a  link  to	 the directory
	      /alt/rod.	 Without this option set, `cd /foo/bar/..' changes  to
	      /foo;  with it set, it changes to	/alt.  The same	applies	if the
	      current directory	is /foo/bar and	`cd ..'	is  used.   Note  that
	      all other	symbolic links in the path will	also be	resolved.

       CHASE_LINKS (-w)
	      Resolve symbolic links to	their true values when changing	direc-
	      tory.  This also has the effect of CHASE_DOTS, i.e. a `..'  path
	      segment  will  be	 treated  as referring to the physical parent,
	      even if the preceding path segment is a symbolic link.

       POSIX_CD	<K> <S>
	      Modifies the behaviour of	cd, chdir and pushd commands  to  make
	      them more	compatible with	the POSIX standard. The	behaviour with
	      the option unset is described in the documentation  for  the  cd
	      builtin in zshbuiltins(1).  If the option	is set,	the shell does
	      not test for directories beneath the local directory (`.') until
	      after all	directories in cdpath have been	tested,	and the	cd and
	      chdir commands do	not recognise arguments	of the	form  `{+|-}n'
	      as directory stack entries.

	      Also, if the option is set, the conditions under which the shell
	      prints the new directory after changing to it are	modified.   It
	      is no longer restricted to interactive shells (although printing
	      of the directory stack with pushd	is still limited  to  interac-
	      tive  shells); and any use of a component	of CDPATH, including a
	      `.' but excluding	an empty component that	is  otherwise  treated
	      as `.', causes the directory to be printed.

	      Don't push multiple copies of the	same directory onto the	direc-
	      tory stack.

	      Exchanges	the meanings of	`+' and	`-' when used with a number to
	      specify a	directory in the stack.

       PUSHD_SILENT (-E)
	      Do not print the directory stack after pushd or popd.

       PUSHD_TO_HOME (-D)
	      Have pushd with no arguments act like `pushd $HOME'.

	      If  unset,  key functions	that list completions try to return to
	      the last prompt if given a numeric argument. If set these	 func-
	      tions try	to return to the last prompt if	given no numeric argu-

	      If a completion is performed with	the cursor within a word,  and
	      a	full completion	is inserted, the cursor	is moved to the	end of
	      the word.	 That is, the cursor is	moved to the end of  the  word
	      if  either a single match	is inserted or menu completion is per-

       AUTO_LIST (-9) <D>
	      Automatically list choices on an ambiguous completion.

       AUTO_MENU <D>
	      Automatically use	menu completion	after the  second  consecutive
	      request  for completion, for example by pressing the tab key re-
	      peatedly.	This option is overridden by MENU_COMPLETE.

	      Any parameter that is set	to the absolute	name  of  a  directory
	      immediately becomes a name for that directory, that will be used
	      by the `%~' and related prompt sequences,	and will be  available
	      when completion is performed on a	word starting with `~'.	 (Oth-
	      erwise, the parameter must be used in the	form `~param' first.)

	      If a parameter name was  completed  and  a  following  character
	      (normally	 a space) automatically	inserted, and the next charac-
	      ter typed	is one of those	that have to come directly  after  the
	      name (like `}', `:', etc.), the automatically added character is
	      deleted, so that the character typed comes immediately after the
	      parameter	 name.	 Completion  in	 a brace expansion is affected
	      similarly: the added character is	a `,', which will  be  removed
	      if `}' is	typed next.

	      If  a  parameter is completed whose content is the name of a di-
	      rectory, then add	a trailing slash instead of a space.

	      When the last character resulting	from a completion is  a	 slash
	      and  the next character typed is a word delimiter, a slash, or a
	      character	that ends a command (such as a semicolon or an	amper-
	      sand), remove the	slash.

	      On  an ambiguous completion, automatically list choices when the
	      completion function is called twice in succession.   This	 takes
	      precedence over AUTO_LIST.  The setting of LIST_AMBIGUOUS	is re-
	      spected.	If AUTO_MENU is	set,  the  menu	 behaviour  will  then
	      start  with  the third press.  Note that this will not work with
	      MENU_COMPLETE, since repeated completion calls immediately cycle
	      through the list in that case.

	      Prevents	aliases	on the command line from being internally sub-
	      stituted before completion is attempted.	The effect is to  make
	      the alias	a distinct command for completion purposes.

	      If unset,	the cursor is set to the end of	the word if completion
	      is started. Otherwise it stays there and completion is done from
	      both ends.

	      When  the	current	word has a glob	pattern, do not	insert all the
	      words resulting from the expansion but generate matches  as  for
	      completion  and  cycle  through  them  like  MENU_COMPLETE.  The
	      matches are generated as if a `*'	was added to the  end  of  the
	      word,  or	 inserted  at the cursor when COMPLETE_IN_WORD is set.
	      This actually uses pattern matching, not globbing, so  it	 works
	      not only for files but for any completion, such as options, user
	      names, etc.

	      Note that	when the pattern matcher  is  used,  matching  control
	      (for  example,  case-insensitive or anchored matching) cannot be
	      used.  This limitation only applies when the current  word  con-
	      tains a pattern; simply turning on the GLOB_COMPLETE option does
	      not have this effect.

       HASH_LIST_ALL <D>
	      Whenever a command completion  or	 spelling  correction  is  at-
	      tempted,	make  sure  the	 entire	 command path is hashed	first.
	      This makes the first completion slower but avoids	false  reports
	      of spelling errors.

	      This  option works when AUTO_LIST	or BASH_AUTO_LIST is also set.
	      If there is an unambiguous prefix	to insert on the command line,
	      that is done without a completion	list being displayed; in other
	      words, auto-listing behaviour  only  takes  place	 when  nothing
	      would  be	 inserted.   In	the case of BASH_AUTO_LIST, this means
	      that the list will be delayed to the third call of the function.

       LIST_BEEP <D>
	      Beep on an ambiguous completion.	More accurately,  this	forces
	      the  completion  widgets to return status	1 on an	ambiguous com-
	      pletion, which causes the	shell to beep if the  option  BEEP  is
	      also  set;  this	may be modified	if completion is called	from a
	      user-defined widget.

	      Try to make the completion list smaller (occupying  less	lines)
	      by printing the matches in columns with different	widths.

	      Lay  out	the  matches  in completion lists sorted horizontally,
	      that is, the second match	is to the right	of the first one,  not
	      under it as usual.

       LIST_TYPES (-X) <D>
	      When  listing files that are possible completions, show the type
	      of each file with	a trailing identifying mark.

	      On an ambiguous completion, instead of listing possibilities  or
	      beeping,	insert the first match immediately.  Then when comple-
	      tion is requested	again, remove the first	match and  insert  the
	      second  match,  etc.  When there are no more matches, go back to
	      the first	one again.  reverse-menu-complete may be used to  loop
	      through  the  list in the	other direction. This option overrides

       REC_EXACT (-S)
	      If the string on the command line	exactly	 matches  one  of  the
	      possible	completions,  it is accepted, even if there is another
	      completion (i.e. that string with	 something  else  added)  that
	      also matches.

   Expansion and Globbing
       BAD_PATTERN (+2)	<C> <Z>
	      If  a  pattern for filename generation is	badly formed, print an
	      error message.  (If this option is unset,	the  pattern  will  be
	      left unchanged.)

	      In  a  glob  pattern,  treat  a trailing set of parentheses as a
	      qualifier	list, if it contains no	`|', `(' or (if	 special)  `~'
	      characters.  See the section `Filename Generation'.

	      Expand  expressions  in braces which would not otherwise undergo
	      brace expansion to a lexically ordered list of all  the  charac-
	      ters.  See the section `Brace Expansion'.

       CASE_GLOB <D>
	      Make  globbing  (filename	 generation)  sensitive	to case.  Note
	      that other uses of patterns are always sensitive	to  case.   If
	      the option is unset, the presence	of any character which is spe-
	      cial to filename generation will cause  case-insensitive	match-
	      ing.   For  example, cvs(/) can match the	directory CVS owing to
	      the  presence  of	 the  globbing	 flag	(unless	  the	option
	      BARE_GLOB_QUAL is	unset).

       CASE_MATCH <D>
	      Make  regular  expressions using the zsh/regex module (including
	      matches with =~) sensitive to case.

       CSH_NULL_GLOB <C>
	      If a pattern for filename	generation has no matches, delete  the
	      pattern  from  the  argument list; do not	report an error	unless
	      all the patterns in a command have no  matches.	Overrides  NO-

       EQUALS <Z>
	      Perform =	filename expansion.  (See the section `Filename	Expan-

	      Treat the	`#', `~' and `^' characters as part  of	 patterns  for
	      filename	generation, etc.  (An initial unquoted `~' always pro-
	      duces named directory expansion.)

	      Constants	in arithmetic evaluation will be treated  as  floating
	      point even without the use of a decimal point; the values	of in-
	      teger variables will be converted	to floating point when used in
	      arithmetic expressions.  Integers	in any base will be converted.

       GLOB (+F, ksh: +f) <D>
	      Perform filename generation (globbing).  (See the	section	`File-
	      name Generation'.)

       GLOB_ASSIGN <C>
	      If this option is	set, filename generation  (globbing)  is  per-
	      formed on	the right hand side of scalar parameter	assignments of
	      the form `name=pattern (e.g. `foo=*').  If the result  has  more
	      than  one	 word  the  parameter  will become an array with those
	      words as arguments. This option is provided for  backwards  com-
	      patibility  only:	globbing is always performed on	the right hand
	      side of array  assignments  of  the  form	 `name=(value)'	 (e.g.
	      `foo=(*)')  and  this form is recommended	for clarity; with this
	      option set, it is	not possible to	 predict  whether  the	result
	      will be an array or a scalar.

       GLOB_DOTS (-4)
	      Do not require a leading `.' in a	filename to be matched explic-

	      When this	option is set and the default zsh-style	globbing is in
	      effect,  the  pattern  `**/*' can	be abbreviated to `**' and the
	      pattern `***/*' can be abbreviated to ***.  Hence	`**.c' finds a
	      file ending in .c	in any subdirectory, and `***.c' does the same
	      while also following symbolic links.  A /	immediately after  the
	      `**' or `***' forces the pattern to be treated as	the unabbrevi-
	      ated form.

       GLOB_SUBST <C> <K> <S>
	      Treat any	characters resulting from parameter expansion as being
	      eligible for filename expansion and filename generation, and any
	      characters resulting from	command	substitution as	being eligible
	      for  filename generation.	 Braces	(and commas in between)	do not
	      become eligible for expansion.

	      Substitutions using the :s and :&	 history  modifiers  are  per-
	      formed  with  pattern matching instead of	string matching.  This
	      occurs wherever history  modifiers  are  valid,  including  glob
	      qualifiers  and  parameters.   See the section Modifiers in zsh-

       IGNORE_BRACES (-I) <S>
	      Do not perform brace expansion.	For  historical	 reasons  this
	      also includes the	effect of the IGNORE_CLOSE_BRACES option.

	      When  neither this option	nor IGNORE_BRACES is set, a sole close
	      brace character `}' is syntactically significant at any point on
	      a	 command  line.	 This has the effect that no semicolon or new-
	      line is necessary	before the brace  terminating  a  function  or
	      current  shell  construct.  When either option is	set, a closing
	      brace is syntactically significant  only	in  command  position.
	      Unlike  IGNORE_BRACES, this option does not disable brace	expan-

	      For example, with	both options unset a function may  be  defined
	      in the following fashion:

		     args() { echo $# }

	      while  if	either option is set, this does	not work and something
	      equivalent to the	following is required:

		     args() { echo $#; }

       KSH_GLOB	<K>
	      In pattern matching, the interpretation of  parentheses  is  af-
	      fected  by  a preceding `@', `*',	`+', `?' or `!'.  See the sec-
	      tion `Filename Generation'.

	      All unquoted arguments of	the form `anything=expression' appear-
	      ing  after  the  command	name have filename expansion (that is,
	      where expression has a leading `~' or `=') performed on  expres-
	      sion  as if it were a parameter assignment.  The argument	is not
	      otherwise	treated	specially; it is passed	to the	command	 as  a
	      single argument, and not used as an actual parameter assignment.
	      For example, in echo  foo=~/bar:~/rod,  both  occurrences	 of  ~
	      would  be	 replaced.  Note that this happens anyway with typeset
	      and similar statements.

	      This option respects the setting of the KSH_TYPESET option.   In
	      other  words,  if	 both options are in effect, arguments looking
	      like assignments will not	undergo	word splitting.

       MARK_DIRS (-8, ksh: -X)
	      Append a trailing	`/' to	all  directory	names  resulting  from
	      filename generation (globbing).

       MULTIBYTE <D>
	      Respect  multibyte  characters when found	in strings.  When this
	      option is	set, strings are examined using	the system library  to
	      determine	how many bytes form a character, depending on the cur-
	      rent locale.  This affects the way  characters  are  counted  in
	      pattern matching,	parameter values and various delimiters.

	      The  option  is  on  by  default	if the shell was compiled with
	      MULTIBYTE_SUPPORT; otherwise it is off by	default	and has	no ef-
	      fect if turned on.

	      If the option is off a single byte is always treated as a	single
	      character.   This	 setting  is  designed	purely	for  examining
	      strings  known to	contain	raw bytes or other values that may not
	      be characters in the current locale.  It is not necessary	to un-
	      set  the option merely because the character set for the current
	      locale does not contain multibyte	characters.

	      The option does not affect the  shell's  editor,	 which	always
	      uses  the	locale to determine multibyte characters.  This	is be-
	      cause the	character set displayed	by the	terminal  emulator  is
	      independent of shell settings.

       NOMATCH (+3) <C>	<Z>
	      If  a  pattern  for filename generation has no matches, print an
	      error, instead of	leaving	it unchanged  in  the  argument	 list.
	      This also	applies	to file	expansion of an	initial	`~' or `='.

       NULL_GLOB (-G)
	      If  a pattern for	filename generation has	no matches, delete the
	      pattern from the argument	list instead of	 reporting  an	error.
	      Overrides	NOMATCH.

	      If  numeric  filenames are matched by a filename generation pat-
	      tern, sort the filenames numerically rather  than	 lexicographi-

	      Array  expansions	of the form `foo${xx}bar', where the parameter
	      xx is set	to (a b	c),  are  substituted  with  `fooabar  foobbar
	      foocbar'	instead	 of  the  default `fooa	b cbar'.  Note that an
	      empty array will therefore cause all arguments to	be removed.

	      If set, regular expression matching with the  =~	operator  will
	      use  Perl-Compatible  Regular Expressions	from the PCRE library.
	      (The zsh/pcre module must	be available.)	If  not	 set,  regular
	      expressions  will	use the	extended regexp	syntax provided	by the
	      system libraries.

       SH_GLOB <K> <S>
	      Disables the special meaning of `(', `|',	`)' and	'<' for	 glob-
	      bing  the	 result	of parameter and command substitutions,	and in
	      some other places	where the shell	accepts	patterns.  If  SH_GLOB
	      is  set but KSH_GLOB is not, the shell allows the	interpretation
	      of subshell expressions enclosed in parentheses  in  some	 cases
	      where  there  is	no  space before the opening parenthesis, e.g.
	      !(true) is interpreted as	if there were a	 space	after  the  !.
	      This option is set by default if zsh is invoked as sh or ksh.

       UNSET (+u, ksh: +u) <K> <S> <Z>
	      Treat  unset parameters as if they were empty when substituting,
	      and as if	they were zero when reading their values in arithmetic
	      expansion	 and  arithmetic commands.  Otherwise they are treated
	      as an error.

	      Print a warning message when a global parameter is created in  a
	      function	by an assignment or in math context.  This often indi-
	      cates that a parameter has  not  been  declared  local  when  it
	      should  have  been.   Parameters explicitly declared global from
	      within a function	using typeset -g do not	cause a	warning.  Note
	      that  there  is no warning when a	local parameter	is assigned to
	      in a nested function, which may also indicate an error.

	      Print a warning message when an existing parameter from  an  en-
	      closing  function	 scope,	 or global, is set in a	function by an
	      assignment or in math context.  Assignment to shell special  pa-
	      rameters	does  not  cause  a warning.  This is the companion to
	      WARN_CREATE_GLOBAL as in this case the warning is	 only  printed
	      when a parameter is not created.	Where possible,	use of typeset
	      -g to set	the parameter suppresses the error, but	note that this
	      needs  to	 be used every time the	parameter is set.  To restrict
	      the effect of this option	to a single function scope, use	`func-
	      tions -W'.

	      For  example,  the following code	produces a warning for the as-
	      signment inside the function nested as that overrides the	 value
	      within toplevel

		     toplevel()	{
		       local foo="in fn"
		     nested() {
			  foo="in nested"
		     setopt warn_nested_var

	      If  this	is set,	zsh sessions will append their history list to
	      the history file,	rather than replace it.	Thus, multiple	paral-
	      lel  zsh	sessions will all have the new entries from their his-
	      tory lists added to the history file, in	the  order  that  they
	      exit.  The file will still be periodically re-written to trim it
	      when the number of lines grows 20% beyond	the value specified by
	      $SAVEHIST	(see also the HIST_SAVE_BY_COPY	option).

       BANG_HIST (+K) <C> <Z>
	      Perform textual history expansion, csh-style, treating the char-
	      acter `!'	specially.

	      Save each	command's beginning timestamp (in  seconds  since  the
	      epoch)  and  the duration	(in seconds) to	the history file.  The
	      format of	this prefixed data is:

	      `: _beginning time_:_elapsed seconds_;_command_'.

	      Add `|' to output	redirections in	the history.  This allows his-
	      tory references to clobber files even when CLOBBER is unset.

       HIST_BEEP <D>
	      Beep  in	ZLE  when  a widget attempts to	access a history entry
	      which isn't there.

	      If the internal history needs to be trimmed to add  the  current
	      command  line, setting this option will cause the	oldest history
	      event that has a duplicate to be lost  before  losing  a	unique
	      event  from  the	list.	You should be sure to set the value of
	      HISTSIZE to a larger number than SAVEHIST	in order to  give  you
	      some  room for the duplicated events, otherwise this option will
	      behave just like HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS once the history fills  up
	      with unique events.

	      When  writing  out  the history file, by default zsh uses	ad-hoc
	      file locking to avoid known problems with	locking	on some	 oper-
	      ating systems.  With this	option locking is done by means	of the
	      system's fcntl call, where this method is	available.  On	recent
	      operating	 systems  this may provide better performance, in par-
	      ticular avoiding history corruption when	files  are  stored  on

	      When  searching  for  history entries in the line	editor,	do not
	      display duplicates of a line previously found, even if  the  du-
	      plicates are not contiguous.

	      If a new command line being added	to the history list duplicates
	      an older one, the	older command is removed from the  list	 (even
	      if it is not the previous	event).

       HIST_IGNORE_DUPS	(-h)
	      Do not enter command lines into the history list if they are du-
	      plicates of the previous event.

	      Remove command lines from	the history list when the first	 char-
	      acter  on	 the  line  is	a  space,  or when one of the expanded
	      aliases contains a leading  space.   Only	 normal	 aliases  (not
	      global  or  suffix  aliases) have	this behaviour.	 Note that the
	      command lingers in the internal history until the	 next  command
	      is  entered before it vanishes, allowing you to briefly reuse or
	      edit the line.  If you want to make it vanish right away without
	      entering another command,	type a space and press return.

	      By  default,  shell  history that	is read	in from	files is split
	      into words on all	white space.  This means that  arguments  with
	      quoted  whitespace  are  not  correctly handled, with the	conse-
	      quence that references to	words in history lines that have  been
	      read  from  a  file may be inaccurate.  When this	option is set,
	      words read in from a history file	are divided up	in  a  similar
	      fashion  to  normal  shell command line handling.	 Although this
	      produces more accurately delimited words,	if  the	 size  of  the
	      history file is large this can be	slow.  Trial and error is nec-
	      essary to	decide.

	      Remove function definitions from the history  list.   Note  that
	      the function lingers in the internal history until the next com-
	      mand is entered before it	vanishes, allowing you to briefly  re-
	      use or edit the definition.

	      Remove  the  history  (fc	-l) command from the history list when
	      invoked.	Note that the command lingers in the internal  history
	      until  the  next command is entered before it vanishes, allowing
	      you to briefly reuse or edit the line.

	      Remove superfluous blanks	from each command line being added  to
	      the history list.

	      When  the	 history  file	is re-written, we normally write out a
	      copy of the file named $ and then rename it over the
	      old  one.	 However, if this option is unset, we instead truncate
	      the old history file and write out the new version in-place.  If
	      one  of  the  history-appending  options is enabled, this	option
	      only has an effect when the enlarged history file	 needs	to  be
	      re-written  to  trim  it down to size.  Disable this only	if you
	      have special needs, as doing so makes it possible	to  lose  his-
	      tory entries if zsh gets interrupted during the save.

	      When  writing  out a copy	of the history file, zsh preserves the
	      old file's permissions and group information, but	will refuse to
	      write  out  a  new  file	if  it would change the	history	file's

	      When writing out the history file, older commands	that duplicate
	      newer ones are omitted.

	      Whenever	the  user  enters a line with history expansion, don't
	      execute the line directly; instead,  perform  history  expansion
	      and reload the line into the editing buffer.

	      This  option  works  like	APPEND_HISTORY except that new history
	      lines are	added to the $HISTFILE incrementally (as soon as  they
	      are  entered),  rather  than waiting until the shell exits.  The
	      file will	still be periodically re-written to trim it  when  the
	      number  of  lines	grows 20% beyond the value specified by	$SAVE-
	      HIST (see	also the HIST_SAVE_BY_COPY option).

	      This option is a variant of INC_APPEND_HISTORY in	 which,	 where
	      possible,	the history entry is written out to the	file after the
	      command is finished, so that the time taken by  the  command  is
	      recorded	correctly in the history file in EXTENDED_HISTORY for-
	      mat.  This means that the	history	entry will  not	 be  available
	      immediately from other instances of the shell that are using the
	      same history file.

	      This option is only useful if INC_APPEND_HISTORY and  SHARE_HIS-
	      TORY are turned off.  The	three options should be	considered mu-
	      tually exclusive.


	      This option both imports new commands from the history file, and
	      also  causes  your  typed	commands to be appended	to the history
	      file (the	latter is like	specifying  INC_APPEND_HISTORY,	 which
	      should  be turned	off if this option is in effect).  The history
	      lines are	 also  output  with  timestamps	 ala  EXTENDED_HISTORY
	      (which  makes it easier to find the spot where we	left off read-
	      ing the file after it gets re-written).

	      By default, history movement commands visit the  imported	 lines
	      as  well	as the local lines, but	you can	toggle this on and off
	      with the set-local-history zle binding.  It is also possible  to
	      create a zle widget that will make some commands ignore imported
	      commands,	and some include them.

	      If you find that you want	more control over  when	 commands  get
	      imported,	 you  may  wish	 to  turn  SHARE_HISTORY  off, INC_AP-
	      PEND_HISTORY or INC_APPEND_HISTORY_TIME (see above) on, and then
	      manually import commands whenever	you need them using `fc	-RI'.

       ALL_EXPORT (-a, ksh: -a)
	      All parameters subsequently defined are automatically exported.

	      If  this	option is set, passing the -x flag to the builtins de-
	      clare, float, integer, readonly and typeset (but not local) will
	      also set the -g flag;  hence parameters exported to the environ-
	      ment will	not be made local to the  enclosing  function,	unless
	      they  were  already  or the flag +g is given explicitly.	If the
	      option is	unset, exported	parameters will	be made	local in  just
	      the same way as any other	parameter.

	      This  option is set by default for backward compatibility; it is
	      not recommended that its behaviour be relied  upon.   Note  that
	      the  builtin  export  always  sets both the -x and -g flags, and
	      hence its	effect extends beyond the scope	of the enclosing func-
	      tion; this is the	most portable way to achieve this behaviour.

       GLOBAL_RCS (-d) <D>
	      If  this	option	is  unset,  the	 startup  files	/etc/zprofile,
	      /etc/zshrc, /etc/zlogin and /etc/zlogout will not	 be  run.   It
	      can be disabled and re-enabled at	any time, including inside lo-
	      cal startup files	(.zshrc, etc.).

       RCS (+f)	<D>
	      After /etc/zshenv	is sourced on  startup,	 source	 the  .zshenv,
	      /etc/zprofile, .zprofile,	/etc/zshrc, .zshrc, /etc/zlogin, .zlo-
	      gin, and .zlogout	files, as described in	the  section  `Files'.
	      If  this option is unset,	the /etc/zshenv	file is	still sourced,
	      but any of the others will not be; it can	be set at any time  to
	      prevent  the remaining startup files after the currently execut-
	      ing one from being sourced.

       ALIASES <D>
	      Expand aliases.

       CLOBBER (+C, ksh: +C) <D>
	      Allows `>' redirection to	truncate  existing  files.   Otherwise
	      `>!' or `>|' must	be used	to truncate a file.

	      If  the  option is not set, and the option APPEND_CREATE is also
	      not set, `>>!' or	`>>|' must be used to create a file.   If  ei-
	      ther option is set, `>>' may be used.

       CORRECT (-0)
	      Try  to  correct	the spelling of	commands.  Note	that, when the
	      HASH_LIST_ALL option is not set or when some directories in  the
	      path  are	 not readable, this may	falsely	report spelling	errors
	      the first	time some commands are used.

	      The shell	variable CORRECT_IGNORE	may be set  to	a  pattern  to
	      match words that will never be offered as	corrections.

       CORRECT_ALL (-O)
	      Try to correct the spelling of all arguments in a	line.

	      The  shell  variable CORRECT_IGNORE_FILE may be set to a pattern
	      to match file names that will never be offered as	corrections.

       DVORAK Use the Dvorak keyboard instead of the standard qwerty  keyboard
	      as  a  basis for examining spelling mistakes for the CORRECT and
	      CORRECT_ALL options and the spell-word editor command.

	      If this option is	unset,	output	flow  control  via  start/stop
	      characters  (usually  assigned  to  ^S/^Q)  is  disabled	in the
	      shell's editor.

       IGNORE_EOF (-7)
	      Do not exit on end-of-file.  Require the use of exit  or	logout
	      instead.	 However, ten consecutive EOFs will cause the shell to
	      exit anyway, to avoid the	shell hanging if its tty goes away.

	      Also, if this option is set and the Zsh  Line  Editor  is	 used,
	      widgets implemented by shell functions can be bound to EOF (nor-
	      mally Control-D) without printing	the  normal  warning  message.
	      This works only for normal widgets, not for completion widgets.

	      Allow comments even in interactive shells.

       HASH_CMDS <D>
	      Note the location	of each	command	the first time it is executed.
	      Subsequent invocations of	the same command will  use  the	 saved
	      location,	 avoiding  a path search.  If this option is unset, no
	      path hashing is done at all.  However, when CORRECT is set, com-
	      mands whose names	do not appear in the functions or aliases hash
	      tables are hashed	in order to avoid reporting them  as  spelling

       HASH_DIRS <D>
	      Whenever a command name is hashed, hash the directory containing
	      it, as well as all directories that occur	earlier	in  the	 path.
	      Has no effect if neither HASH_CMDS nor CORRECT is	set.

	      When  hashing commands because of	HASH_CMDS, check that the file
	      to be hashed is actually an executable.  This option is unset by
	      default  as  if the path contains	a large	number of commands, or
	      consists of many remote files, the additional tests can  take  a
	      long  time.  Trial and error is needed to	show if	this option is

       MAIL_WARNING (-U)
	      Print a warning message if a mail	file has been  accessed	 since
	      the shell	last checked.

       PATH_DIRS (-Q)
	      Perform  a  path	search	even  on command names with slashes in
	      them.  Thus if `/usr/local/bin' is in the	user's path, and he or
	      she  types  `X11/xinit',	the command `/usr/local/bin/X11/xinit'
	      will be executed (assuming it exists).  Commands explicitly  be-
	      ginning  with  `/',  `./'	 or  `../' are not subject to the path
	      search.  This also applies to the	`.' and	source builtins.

	      Note that	subdirectories of the  current	directory  are	always
	      searched	for  executables  specified  in	this form.  This takes
	      place before any search indicated	by this	option,	and regardless
	      of  whether  `.'	or the current directory appear	in the command
	      search path.

       PATH_SCRIPT <K> <S>
	      If this option is	not set, a script passed as the	first  non-op-
	      tion  argument to	the shell must contain the name	of the file to
	      open.  If	this option is set, and	the script does	not specify  a
	      directory	 path,	the  script is looked for first	in the current
	      directory, then in the command path.  See	the section INVOCATION
	      in zsh(1).

	      Print  eight  bit	characters literally in	completion lists, etc.
	      This option is not necessary if your  system  correctly  returns
	      the printability of eight	bit characters (see ctype(3)).

       PRINT_EXIT_VALUE	(-1)
	      Print  the  exit	value  of  programs with non-zero exit status.
	      This is only  available  at  the	command	 line  in  interactive

	      Allow  the  character  sequence  `'''  to	signify	a single quote
	      within singly quoted strings.   Note  this  does	not  apply  in
	      quoted strings using the format $'...', where a backslashed sin-
	      gle quote	can be used.

       RM_STAR_SILENT (-H) <K> <S>
	      Do not query the user before executing `rm *' or `rm path/*'.

	      If querying the user before executing `rm	 *'  or	 `rm  path/*',
	      first  wait  ten seconds and ignore anything typed in that time.
	      This avoids the problem of reflexively answering	`yes'  to  the
	      query  when  one	didn't really mean it.	The wait and query can
	      always be	avoided	by expanding the `*' in	ZLE (with tab).

       SHORT_LOOPS <C> <Z>
	      Allow the	short forms of for, repeat, select, if,	 and  function

	      If  a line ends with a backquote,	and there are an odd number of
	      backquotes on the	line, ignore the trailing backquote.  This  is
	      useful  on some keyboards	where the return key is	too small, and
	      the backquote key	lies annoyingly	close to it.  As  an  alterna-
	      tive the variable	KEYBOARD_HACK lets you choose the character to
	      be removed.

   Job Control
	      With this	option set, stopped jobs that are removed from the job
	      table  with  the disown builtin command are automatically	sent a
	      CONT signal to make them running.

       AUTO_RESUME (-W)
	      Treat single word	simple commands	without	redirection as	candi-
	      dates for	resumption of an existing job.

       BG_NICE (-6) <C>	<Z>
	      Run all background jobs at a lower priority.  This option	is set
	      by default.

       CHECK_JOBS <Z>
	      Report the status	of background and suspended jobs before	 exit-
	      ing a shell with job control; a second attempt to	exit the shell
	      will succeed.  NO_CHECK_JOBS is best used	 only  in  combination
	      with NO_HUP, else	such jobs will be killed automatically.

	      The  check is omitted if the commands run	from the previous com-
	      mand line	included a `jobs' command, since  it  is  assumed  the
	      user  is	aware  that there are background or suspended jobs.  A
	      `jobs' command run from one of the hook functions	defined	in the
	      section  SPECIAL FUNCTIONS in zshmisc(1) is not counted for this

	      Check for	both running and suspended jobs	when CHECK_JOBS	is en-
	      abled.   When  this option is disabled, zsh checks only for sus-
	      pended jobs, which matches the default behavior of bash.

	      This option has no effect	unless CHECK_JOBS is set.

       HUP <Z>
	      Send the HUP signal to running jobs when the shell exits.

       LONG_LIST_JOBS (-R)
	      Print job	notifications in the long format by default.

       MONITOR (-m, ksh: -m)
	      Allow job	control.  Set by default in interactive	shells.

       NOTIFY (-5, ksh:	-b) <Z>
	      Report the status	of background jobs  immediately,  rather  than
	      waiting until just before	printing a prompt.

       POSIX_JOBS <K> <S>
	      This  option  makes  job	control	 more compliant	with the POSIX

	      When the option is not set, the MONITOR option is	unset on entry
	      to subshells, so that job	control	is no longer active.  When the
	      option is	set, the MONITOR option	and job	control	remain	active
	      in  the  subshell,  but  note that the subshell has no access to
	      jobs in the parent shell.

	      When the option is not set, jobs put in the background or	 fore-
	      ground  with  bg	or  fg are displayed with the same information
	      that would be reported by	jobs.  When the	option	is  set,  only
	      the  text	 is  printed.	The output from	jobs itself is not af-
	      fected by	the option.

	      When the option is not set,  job	information  from  the	parent
	      shell is saved for output	within a subshell (for example,	within
	      a	pipeline).  When the option is set,  the  output  of  jobs  is
	      empty until a job	is started within the subshell.

	      In  previous  versions  of the shell, it was necessary to	enable
	      POSIX_JOBS in order for the builtin command wait to  return  the
	      status  of  background jobs that had already exited.  This is no
	      longer the case.

       PROMPT_BANG <K>
	      If set, `!' is treated specially in prompt expansion.   See  EX-
	      PANSION OF PROMPT	SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).

       PROMPT_CR (+V) <D>
	      Print  a	carriage  return  just before printing a prompt	in the
	      line editor.  This is on by default  as  multi-line  editing  is
	      only  possible  if  the editor knows where the start of the line

       PROMPT_SP <D>
	      Attempt to preserve a partial line (i.e. a line that did not end
	      with  a  newline)	that would otherwise be	covered	up by the com-
	      mand prompt due to the PROMPT_CR option.	 This  works  by  out-
	      putting  some  cursor-control  characters, including a series of
	      spaces, that should make the terminal wrap to the	next line when
	      a	 partial line is present (note that this is only successful if
	      your terminal has	automatic margins, which is typical).

	      When a partial line is preserved,	by default you will see	an in-
	      verse+bold  character at the end of the partial line:  a `%' for
	      a	normal user or a `#' for root.	If set,	 the  shell  parameter
	      PROMPT_EOL_MARK  can be used to customize	how the	end of partial
	      lines are	shown.

	      NOTE: if the PROMPT_CR option is not set,	enabling  this	option
	      will have	no effect.  This option	is on by default.

	      If  set,	`%' is treated specially in prompt expansion.  See EX-
	      PANSION OF PROMPT	SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).

       PROMPT_SUBST <K>	<S>
	      If set, parameter	expansion, command substitution	and arithmetic
	      expansion	  are  performed  in  prompts.	 Substitutions	within
	      prompts do not affect the	command	status.

	      Remove any right prompt from display when	 accepting  a  command
	      line.   This  may	 be useful with	terminals with other cut/paste

   Scripts and Functions
	      By default, zsh does not allow the definition of functions using
	      the  `name  ()'  syntax  if  name	was expanded as	an alias: this
	      causes an	error.	This is	usually	the desired behaviour, as oth-
	      erwise  the  combination of an alias and a function based	on the
	      same definition can easily cause problems.

	      When this	option is set, aliases can be used for defining	 func-

	      For  example,  consider  the following definitions as they might
	      occur in a startup file.

		     alias foo=bar
		     foo() {
		       print This probably does	not do what you	expect.

	      Here, foo	is expanded as an alias	to bar before the  ()  is  en-
	      countered,  so  the function defined would be named bar.	By de-
	      fault this is instead an error in	native mode.  Note that	 quot-
	      ing  any	part  of the function name, or using the keyword func-
	      tion, avoids the problem,	so is recommended  when	 the  function
	      name can also be an alias.

	      Output hexadecimal numbers in the	standard C format, for example
	      `0xFF' instead of	the usual `16#FF'.  If the option OCTAL_ZEROES
	      is  also	set  (it  is  not  by  default), octal numbers will be
	      treated similarly	and hence appear as `077' instead  of  `8#77'.
	      This  option has no effect on the	choice of the output base, nor
	      on the output of bases other than	hexadecimal and	 octal.	  Note
	      that  these  formats will	be understood on input irrespective of
	      the setting of C_BASES.

	      This alters the precedence of arithmetic operators  to  be  more
	      like  C  and other programming languages;	the section ARITHMETIC
	      EVALUATION in zshmisc(1) has an explicit list.

	      Run the DEBUG trap before	each command; otherwise	it is run  af-
	      ter  each	 command.  Setting this	option mimics the behaviour of
	      ksh 93; with the option unset the	behaviour is that of ksh 88.

       ERR_EXIT	(-e, ksh: -e)
	      If a command has a non-zero exit status, execute the ZERR	 trap,
	      if set, and exit.	 This is disabled while	running	initialization

	      The behaviour is also disabled inside DEBUG traps.  In this case
	      the  option  is  handled	specially: it is unset on entry	to the
	      trap.  If	the option DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set, as it  is  by  de-
	      fault,  and  the	option	ERR_EXIT  is found to have been	set on
	      exit, then the command for which the DEBUG trap  is  being  exe-
	      cuted is skipped.	 The option is restored	after the trap exits.

	      Non-zero status in a command list	containing && or || is ignored
	      for commands not at the end of the list.	Hence

		     false && true

	      does not trigger exit.

	      Exiting due to ERR_EXIT has certain interactions with  asynchro-
	      nous jobs	noted in the section JOBS in zshmisc(1).

	      If a command has a non-zero exit status, return immediately from
	      the enclosing function.	The  logic  is	similar	 to  that  for
	      ERR_EXIT,	 except	 that an implicit return statement is executed
	      instead of an exit.  This	will trigger an	exit at	the  outermost
	      level of a non-interactive script.

	      Normally	this  option  inherits	the behaviour of ERR_EXIT that
	      code followed by `&&' `||' does not trigger a return.  Hence  in
	      the following:

		     summit || true

	      no return	is forced as the combined effect always	has a zero re-
	      turn status.

	      Note. however, that if summit in the above example is  itself  a
	      function,	 code inside it	is considered separately: it may force
	      a	return from summit (assuming the  option  remains  set	within
	      summit),	but not	from the enclosing context.  This behaviour is
	      different	from ERR_EXIT which is unaffected by function scope.

       EVAL_LINENO <Z>
	      If set, line numbers of expressions evaluated using the  builtin
	      eval  are	tracked	separately of the enclosing environment.  This
	      applies both to the parameter LINENO and the line	number	output
	      by  the  prompt escape %i.  If the option	is set,	the prompt es-
	      cape %N will output the string `(eval)' instead of the script or
	      function	name  as  an indication.   (The	two prompt escapes are
	      typically	used in	the parameter PS4 to be	output when the	option
	      XTRACE is	set.)  If EVAL_LINENO is unset,	the line number	of the
	      surrounding script or function is	retained  during  the  evalua-

       EXEC (+n, ksh: +n) <D>
	      Do execute commands.  Without this option, commands are read and
	      checked for syntax errors, but not executed.  This option	cannot
	      be  turned off in	an interactive shell, except when `-n' is sup-
	      plied to the shell at startup.

	      When executing a shell function or sourcing  a  script,  set  $0
	      temporarily  to the name of the function/script.	Note that tog-
	      gling FUNCTION_ARGZERO from on to	off (or	off to	on)  does  not
	      change  the  current  value of $0.  Only the state upon entry to
	      the function or script has an effect.  Compare POSIX_ARGZERO.

	      When this	option is not set, the effect of  break	 and  continue
	      commands	may  propagate outside function	scope, affecting loops
	      in calling functions.  When the option is	set in a calling func-
	      tion,  a	break or a continue that is not	caught within a	called
	      function (regardless of the setting of the  option  within  that
	      function)	produces a warning and the effect is cancelled.

	      If  this option is set at	the point of return from a shell func-
	      tion, most options (including this one) which were in force upon
	      entry  to	 the  function	are restored; options that are not re-
	      stored are PRIVILEGED and	RESTRICTED.  Otherwise,	only this  op-
	      tion,  and  the LOCAL_LOOPS, XTRACE and PRINT_EXIT_VALUE options
	      are restored.  Hence if this is  explicitly  unset  by  a	 shell
	      function	the other options in force at the point	of return will
	      remain so.  A shell function can also guarantee itself  a	 known
	      shell  configuration  with  a formulation	like `emulate -L zsh';
	      the -L activates LOCAL_OPTIONS.

	      If this option is	set at the point of return from	a shell	 func-
	      tion,  the  state	 of  pattern disables, as set with the builtin
	      command `disable -p', is restored	to what	it was when the	 func-
	      tion  was	 entered.   The	behaviour of this option is similar to
	      the effect of LOCAL_OPTIONS on options; hence  `emulate  -L  sh'
	      (or indeed any other emulation with the -L option) activates LO-

       LOCAL_TRAPS <K>
	      If this option is	set when a signal trap is set inside  a	 func-
	      tion,  then the previous status of the trap for that signal will
	      be restored when the function exits.  Note that this option must
	      be  set  prior to	altering the trap behaviour in a function; un-
	      like LOCAL_OPTIONS, the value on exit from the function  is  ir-
	      relevant.	 However, it does not need to be set before any	global
	      trap for that to be correctly restored by	a function.  For exam-

		     unsetopt localtraps
		     trap - INT
		     fn() { setopt localtraps; trap '' INT; sleep 3; }

	      will restore normal handling of SIGINT after the function	exits.

	      Allow definitions	of multiple functions at once in the form `fn1
	      fn2...()'; if the	option is not set, this	causes a parse	error.
	      Definition  of  multiple	functions with the function keyword is
	      always allowed.  Multiple	function  definitions  are  not	 often
	      used and can cause obscure errors.

       MULTIOS <Z>
	      Perform implicit tees or cats when multiple redirections are at-
	      tempted (see the section `Redirection').

	      Interpret	any integer constant beginning with a 0	as octal,  per
	      IEEE  Std	1003.2-1992 (ISO 9945-2:1993).	This is	not enabled by
	      default as it causes problems with parsing of, for example, date
	      and time strings with leading zeroes.

	      Sequences	 of  digits indicating a numeric base such as the `08'
	      component	in `08#77' are always interpreted as decimal,  regard-
	      less of leading zeroes.

	      By  default,  when  a pipeline exits the exit status recorded by
	      the shell	and returned by	the shell variable $? reflects that of
	      the rightmost element of a pipeline.  If this option is set, the
	      exit status instead reflects the status of the rightmost element
	      of  the  pipeline	that was non-zero, or zero if all elements ex-
	      ited with	zero status.

	      If set, zsh will print an	informational message  announcing  the
	      name of each file	it loads.  The format of the output is similar
	      to that for the XTRACE option, with the  message	<sourcetrace>.
	      A	 file  may be loaded by	the shell itself when it starts	up and
	      shuts down  (Startup/Shutdown  Files)  or	 by  the  use  of  the
	      `source' and `dot' builtin commands.

	      If  this is unset, executing any of the `typeset'	family of com-
	      mands with no options and	a list of parameters that have no val-
	      ues  to  be assigned but already exist will display the value of
	      the parameter.  If the option is set, they will  only  be	 shown
	      when  parameters	are selected with the `-m' option.  The	option
	      `-p' is available	whether	or not the option is set.

       VERBOSE (-v, ksh: -v)
	      Print shell input	lines as they are read.

       XTRACE (-x, ksh:	-x)
	      Print commands and their arguments as they  are  executed.   The
	      output  is preceded by the value of $PS4,	formatted as described
	      in the section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).

   Shell Emulation
       APPEND_CREATE <K> <S>
	      This option only applies when NO_CLOBBER (-C) is in effect.

	      If this option is	not set, the shell will	report an error	when a
	      append  redirection (>>) is used on a file that does not already
	      exists (the traditional zsh behaviour of	NO_CLOBBER).   If  the
	      option is	set, no	error is reported (POSIX behaviour).

	      When  set,  matches  performed with the =~ operator will set the
	      BASH_REMATCH array variable, instead of the  default  MATCH  and
	      match  variables.	  The  first element of	the BASH_REMATCH array
	      will contain the entire matched  text  and  subsequent  elements
	      will contain extracted substrings.  This option makes more sense
	      when KSH_ARRAYS is also set, so that the entire matched  portion
	      is  stored  at  index  0	and the	first substring	is at index 1.
	      Without this option, the	MATCH  variable	 contains  the	entire
	      matched text and the match array variable	contains substrings.

       BSD_ECHO	<S>
	      Make  the	 echo builtin compatible with the BSD echo(1) command.
	      This disables backslashed	escape sequences in echo  strings  un-
	      less the -e option is specified.

	      If  a fatal error	is encountered (see the	section	ERRORS in zsh-
	      misc(1)),	and the	code is	running	in a script,  the  shell  will
	      resume  execution	at the next statement in the script at the top
	      level, in	other words outside all	functions or shell  constructs
	      such  as loops and conditions.  This mimics the behaviour	of in-
	      teractive	shells,	where the shell	returns	to the line editor  to
	      read  a  new command; it was the normal behaviour	in versions of
	      zsh before 5.0.1.

	      A	history	reference without an event specifier will always refer
	      to  the  previous	 command.  Without this	option,	such a history
	      reference	refers to the same event as the	previous history  ref-
	      erence  on  the current command line, defaulting to the previous

	      Allow loop bodies	to take	the form `list;	end'  instead  of  `do
	      list; done'.

	      Changes  the  rules  for single- and double-quoted text to match
	      that of csh.  These require that embedded	newlines  be  preceded
	      by  a backslash; unescaped newlines will cause an	error message.
	      In double-quoted strings,	it is made impossible to  escape  `$',
	      ``'  or  `"' (and	`\' itself no longer needs escaping).  Command
	      substitutions are	only expanded once, and	cannot be nested.

       CSH_NULLCMD <C>
	      Do not use the values of NULLCMD and  READNULLCMD	 when  running
	      redirections  with no command.  This make	such redirections fail
	      (see the section `Redirection').

       KSH_ARRAYS <K> <S>
	      Emulate ksh array	handling as closely as possible.  If this  op-
	      tion is set, array elements are numbered from zero, an array pa-
	      rameter without subscript	refers to the first element instead of
	      the  whole array,	and braces are required	to delimit a subscript
	      (`${path[2]}' rather than	just `$path[2]') or to apply modifiers
	      to any parameter (`${PWD:h}' rather than `$PWD:h').

       KSH_AUTOLOAD <K>	<S>
	      Emulate  ksh function autoloading.  This means that when a func-
	      tion is autoloaded, the corresponding file is  merely  executed,
	      and  must	define the function itself.  (By default, the function
	      is defined to the	contents of the	file.  However,	the most  com-
	      mon  ksh-style case - of the file	containing only	a simple defi-
	      nition of	the function - is always handled in the	ksh-compatible

	      Alters the way options settings are printed: instead of separate
	      lists of set and unset options, all options  are	shown,	marked
	      `on' if they are in the non-default state, `off' otherwise.

	      This  option is now obsolete: a better appropximation to the be-
	      haviour of other shells is obtained with the reserved  word  in-
	      terface  to declare, export, float, integer, local, readonly and
	      typeset.	Note that the option is	only applied when the reserved
	      word interface is	not in use.

	      Alters  the way arguments	to the typeset family of commands, in-
	      cluding declare, export, float, integer, local and readonly, are
	      processed.   Without  this  option, zsh will perform normal word
	      splitting	after command and parameter expansion in arguments  of
	      an  assignment;  with  it, word splitting	does not take place in
	      those cases.

	      Treat use	of a subscript of value	zero in	array  or  string  ex-
	      pressions	 as a reference	to the first element, i.e. the element
	      that usually has the subscript 1.	 Ignored if KSH_ARRAYS is also

	      If neither this option nor KSH_ARRAYS is set, accesses to	an el-
	      ement of an array	or string with subscript zero return an	 empty
	      element  or string, while	attempts to set	element	zero of	an ar-
	      ray or string are	treated	as an error.  However, attempts	to set
	      an  otherwise valid subscript range that includes	zero will suc-
	      ceed.  For example, if KSH_ZERO_SUBSCRIPT	is not set,


	      is an error, while


	      is not and will replace the first	element	of the array.

	      This option is for compatibility	with  older  versions  of  the
	      shell and	is not recommended in new code.

       POSIX_ALIASES <K> <S>
	      When  this  option is set, reserved words	are not	candidates for
	      alias expansion:	it is still possible to	declare	any of them as
	      an  alias, but the alias will never be expanded.	Reserved words
	      are described in the section RESERVED WORDS in zshmisc(1).

	      Alias expansion takes place while	text is	being read; hence when
	      this  option is set it does not take effect until	the end	of any
	      function or other	piece of shell code parsed as one unit.	  Note
	      this  may	 cause differences from	other shells even when the op-
	      tion is in effect.  For example, when  running  a	 command  with
	      `zsh  -c',  or even `zsh -o posixaliases -c', the	entire command
	      argument is parsed as one	unit, so aliases  defined  within  the
	      argument	are  not  available even in later lines.  If in	doubt,
	      avoid use	of aliases in non-interactive code.

	      This option may be used to temporarily disable  FUNCTION_ARGZERO
	      and  thereby  restore the	value of $0 to the name	used to	invoke
	      the shell	(or as set by the -c command line option).   For  com-
	      patibility  with	previous versions of the shell,	emulations use
	      NO_FUNCTION_ARGZERO instead of POSIX_ARGZERO, which  may	result
	      in unexpected scoping of $0 if the emulation mode	is changed in-
	      side a function or script.  To  avoid  this,  explicitly	enable
	      POSIX_ARGZERO in the emulate command:

		     emulate sh	-o POSIX_ARGZERO

	      Note that	NO_POSIX_ARGZERO has no	effect unless FUNCTION_ARGZERO
	      was already enabled upon entry to	the function or	script.

	      When this	option is set the command builtin can be used to  exe-
	      cute  shell  builtin  commands.  Parameter assignments specified
	      before shell functions and special builtins are kept  after  the
	      command  completes  unless  the special builtin is prefixed with
	      the command builtin.  Special builtins are  .,  :,  break,  con-
	      tinue,  declare,	eval,  exit, export, integer, local, readonly,
	      return, set, shift, source, times, trap and unset.

	      In addition, various error conditions associated with the	 above
	      builtins	or  exec  cause	a non-interactive shell	to exit	and an
	      interactive shell	to return to its top-level processing.

	      Furthermore, functions and shell builtins	are not	executed after
	      an  exec	prefix;	the command to be executed must	be an external
	      command found in the path.

	      Furthermore, the getopts builtin behaves in  a  POSIX-compatible
	      fashion in that the associated variable OPTIND is	not made local
	      to functions.

	      Moreover,	the warning and	special	exit code from [[ -o non_exis-
	      tent_option ]] are suppressed.

	      When  this option	is set,	only the ASCII characters a to z, A to
	      Z, 0 to 9	and _ may be used in identifiers (names	of  shell  pa-
	      rameters and modules).

	      In  addition, setting this option	limits the effect of parameter
	      substitution with	no  braces,  so	 that  the  expression	$#  is
	      treated  as the parameter	$# even	if followed by a valid parame-
	      ter name.	 When it is unset, zsh allows expressions of the  form
	      $#name  to  refer	to the length of $name,	even for special vari-
	      ables, for example in expressions	such as	$#- and	$#*.

	      Another difference is that with the option set assignment	to  an
	      unset  variable  in arithmetic context causes the	variable to be
	      created as a scalar rather than a	numeric	type.  So after	`unset
	      t;  ((  t	 =  3 ))'. without POSIX_IDENTIFIERS set t has integer
	      type, while with it set it has scalar type.

	      When the option is unset and multibyte character support is  en-
	      abled  (i.e. it is compiled in and the option MULTIBYTE is set),
	      then additionally	any alphanumeric characters in the local char-
	      acter  set  may  be  used	in identifiers.	 Note that scripts and
	      functions	written	with this feature are not portable,  and  also
	      that  both  options must be set before the script	or function is
	      parsed; setting them during execution is not sufficient  as  the
	      syntax  variable=value  has  already  been  parsed  as a command
	      rather than an assignment.

	      If multibyte character support is	not compiled  into  the	 shell
	      this  option  is ignored;	all octets with	the top	bit set	may be
	      used in identifiers.  This is non-standard  but  is  the	tradi-
	      tional zsh behaviour.

       POSIX_STRINGS <K> <S>
	      This  option affects processing of quoted	strings.  Currently it
	      only affects the behaviour of null characters, i.e. character  0
	      in the portable character	set corresponding to US	ASCII.

	      When  this  option  is  not set, null characters embedded	within
	      strings of the form $'...' are treated as	 ordinary  characters.
	      The  entire  string is maintained	within the shell and output to
	      files where necessary, although owing to restrictions of the li-
	      brary interface the string is truncated at the null character in
	      file names, environment variables, or in arguments  to  external

	      When  this  option is set, the $'...' expression is truncated at
	      the null character.  Note	 that  remaining  parts	 of  the  same
	      string beyond the	termination of the quotes are not truncated.

	      For example, the command line argument a$'b\0c'd is treated with
	      the option off as	the characters a, b, null, c, d, and with  the
	      option on	as the characters a, b,	d.

       POSIX_TRAPS <K> <S>
	      When  this  option  is set, the usual zsh	behaviour of executing
	      traps for	EXIT on	exit from shell	functions is  suppressed.   In
	      that case, manipulating EXIT traps always	alters the global trap
	      for exiting the shell; the LOCAL_TRAPS option is ignored for the
	      EXIT  trap.   Furthermore, a return statement executed in	a trap
	      with no argument passes back from	the function  the  value  from
	      the surrounding context, not from	code executed within the trap.

	      Perform  filename	expansion (e.g., ~ expansion) before parameter
	      expansion, command substitution, arithmetic expansion and	 brace
	      expansion.  If this option is unset, it is performed after brace
	      expansion, so things like	`~$USERNAME' and `~{pfalstad,rc}' will

       SH_NULLCMD <K> <S>
	      Do  not  use  the	 values	 of NULLCMD and	READNULLCMD when doing
	      redirections, use	`:' instead (see the section `Redirection').

	      If this option is	set the	shell tries to interpret single	letter
	      options  (which  are  used  with	set and	setopt)	like ksh does.
	      This also	affects	the value of the - special parameter.

       SH_WORD_SPLIT (-y) <K> <S>
	      Causes field splitting to	be performed on	unquoted parameter ex-
	      pansions.	  Note	that  this  option has nothing to do with word
	      splitting.  (See zshexpn(1).)

	      While waiting for	a program to  exit,  handle  signals  and  run
	      traps  immediately.   Otherwise  the  trap  is run after a child
	      process has exited.  Note	this does  not	affect	the  point  at
	      which  traps  are	 run for any case other	than when the shell is
	      waiting for a child process.

   Shell State
       INTERACTIVE (-i,	ksh: -i)
	      This is an interactive shell.  This option is set	upon initiali-
	      sation  if  the  standard	 input is a tty	and commands are being
	      read from	standard input.	 (See the discussion  of  SHIN_STDIN.)
	      This  heuristic may be overridden	by specifying a	state for this
	      option on	the command line.  The value of	this option  can  only
	      be  changed  via	flags supplied at invocation of	the shell.  It
	      cannot be	changed	once zsh is running.

       LOGIN (-l, ksh: -l)
	      This is a	login shell.  If this option is	 not  explicitly  set,
	      the  shell  becomes  a login shell if the	first character	of the
	      argv[0] passed to	the shell is a `-'.

       PRIVILEGED (-p, ksh: -p)
	      Turn on privileged mode. Typically this is used when  script  is
	      to  be run with elevated privileges. This	should be done as fol-
	      lows directly with the -p	option to zsh so that it takes	effect
	      during startup.

		     #!/bin/zsh	-p

	      The  option is enabled automatically on startup if the effective
	      user (group) ID is not equal to the real	user  (group)  ID.  In
	      this  case, turning the option off causes	the effective user and
	      group IDs	to be set to the real user and	group  IDs.  Be	 aware
	      that  if	that fails the shell may be running with different IDs
	      than was intended	so a script should check for failure  and  act
	      accordingly, for example:

		     unsetopt privileged || exit

	      The  PRIVILEGED option disables sourcing user startup files.  If
	      zsh  is  invoked	as  `sh'  or  `ksh'  with  this	 option	  set,
	      /etc/suid_profile	 is sourced (after /etc/profile	on interactive
	      shells). Sourcing	~/.profile is disabled and the contents	of the
	      ENV variable is ignored. This option cannot be changed using the
	      -m option	of setopt and unsetopt,	and changing it	inside a func-
	      tion  always changes it globally regardless of the LOCAL_OPTIONS

       RESTRICTED (-r)
	      Enables restricted mode.	This option cannot  be	changed	 using
	      unsetopt,	 and  setting  it  inside a function always changes it
	      globally regardless of the LOCAL_OPTIONS option.	See  the  sec-
	      tion `Restricted Shell'.

       SHIN_STDIN (-s, ksh: -s)
	      Commands	are  being read	from the standard input.  Commands are
	      read from	standard input if no command is	specified with -c  and
	      no  file of commands is specified.  If SHIN_STDIN	is set explic-
	      itly on the command line,	any argument that would	otherwise have
	      been  taken as a file to run will	instead	be treated as a	normal
	      positional parameter.  Note that setting or unsetting  this  op-
	      tion  on	the command line does not necessarily affect the state
	      the option will have while the shell is running -	that is	purely
	      an  indicator of whether or not commands are actually being read
	      from standard input.  The	value  of  this	 option	 can  only  be
	      changed  via flags supplied at invocation	of the shell.  It can-
	      not be changed once zsh is running.

       SINGLE_COMMAND (-t, ksh:	-t)
	      If the shell is reading from standard input, it  exits  after  a
	      single  command  has  been  executed.  This also makes the shell
	      non-interactive, unless the INTERACTIVE option is	explicitly set
	      on  the  command	line.	The  value  of this option can only be
	      changed via flags	supplied at invocation of the shell.  It  can-
	      not be changed once zsh is running.

       BEEP (+B) <D>
	      Beep on error in ZLE.

	      Assume  that  the	 terminal  displays  combining characters cor-
	      rectly.  Specifically, if	a base alphanumeric character is  fol-
	      lowed  by	 one or	more zero-width	punctuation characters,	assume
	      that the zero-width characters will be  displayed	 as  modifica-
	      tions to the base	character within the same width.  Not all ter-
	      minals handle this.  If this option is not set, zero-width char-
	      acters are displayed separately with special mark-up.

	      If  this	option	is  set, the pattern test [[:WORD:]] matches a
	      zero-width punctuation character on the assumption that it  will
	      be  used as part of a word in combination	with a word character.
	      Otherwise	the base shell does not	 handle	 combining  characters

       EMACS  If  ZLE is loaded, turning on this option	has the	equivalent ef-
	      fect of `bindkey -e'.  In	addition,  the	VI  option  is	unset.
	      Turning it off has no effect.  The option	setting	is not guaran-
	      teed to reflect the current keymap.  This	option is provided for
	      compatibility; bindkey is	the recommended	interface.

	      Start up the line	editor in overstrike mode.

       SINGLE_LINE_ZLE (-M) <K>
	      Use single-line command line editing instead of multi-line.

	      Note  that  although  this  is on	by default in ksh emulation it
	      only provides superficial	compatibility with the ksh line	editor
	      and reduces the effectiveness of the zsh line editor.  As	it has
	      no effect	on shell syntax, many users may	wish to	 disable  this
	      option when using	ksh emulation interactively.

       VI     If  ZLE is loaded, turning on this option	has the	equivalent ef-
	      fect of `bindkey -v'.  In	addition, the EMACS option  is	unset.
	      Turning it off has no effect.  The option	setting	is not guaran-
	      teed to reflect the current keymap.  This	option is provided for
	      compatibility; bindkey is	the recommended	interface.

       ZLE (-Z)
	      Use  the	zsh line editor.  Set by default in interactive	shells
	      connected	to a terminal.

       Some options have alternative names.  These aliases are never used  for
       output,	but  can be used just like normal option names when specifying
       options to the shell.

	      NO_IGNORE_BRACES (ksh and	bash compatibility)

	      GLOB_DOTS	(bash compatibility)

	      HASH_CMDS	(bash compatibility)

	      APPEND_HISTORY (bash compatibility)

	      BANG_HIST	(bash compatibility)

       LOG    NO_HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS (ksh	compatibility)

	      MAIL_WARNING (bash compatibility)

	      SINGLE_COMMAND (bash compatibility)

	      CHASE_LINKS (ksh and bash	compatibility)

	      PROMPT_SUBST (bash compatibility)

       STDIN  SHIN_STDIN (ksh compatibility)

	      HASH_CMDS	(ksh compatibility)

   Default set
       -0     CORRECT
       -1     PRINT_EXIT_VALUE
       -2     NO_BAD_PATTERN
       -3     NO_NOMATCH
       -4     GLOB_DOTS
       -5     NOTIFY
       -6     BG_NICE
       -7     IGNORE_EOF
       -8     MARK_DIRS
       -9     AUTO_LIST
       -B     NO_BEEP
       -C     NO_CLOBBER
       -D     PUSHD_TO_HOME
       -E     PUSHD_SILENT
       -F     NO_GLOB
       -G     NULL_GLOB
       -H     RM_STAR_SILENT
       -I     IGNORE_BRACES
       -J     AUTO_CD
       -K     NO_BANG_HIST
       -M     SINGLE_LINE_ZLE
       -N     AUTO_PUSHD
       -O     CORRECT_ALL
       -P     RC_EXPAND_PARAM
       -Q     PATH_DIRS
       -R     LONG_LIST_JOBS
       -S     REC_EXACT
       -T     CDABLE_VARS
       -U     MAIL_WARNING
       -V     NO_PROMPT_CR
       -W     AUTO_RESUME
       -X     LIST_TYPES
       -Y     MENU_COMPLETE
       -Z     ZLE
       -a     ALL_EXPORT
       -e     ERR_EXIT
       -f     NO_RCS
       -g     HIST_IGNORE_SPACE
       -h     HIST_IGNORE_DUPS
       -i     INTERACTIVE
       -l     LOGIN
       -m     MONITOR
       -n     NO_EXEC
       -p     PRIVILEGED
       -r     RESTRICTED
       -s     SHIN_STDIN
       -t     SINGLE_COMMAND
       -u     NO_UNSET
       -v     VERBOSE
       -w     CHASE_LINKS
       -x     XTRACE
       -y     SH_WORD_SPLIT

   sh/ksh emulation set
       -C     NO_CLOBBER
       -T     TRAPS_ASYNC
       -X     MARK_DIRS
       -a     ALL_EXPORT
       -b     NOTIFY
       -e     ERR_EXIT
       -f     NO_GLOB
       -i     INTERACTIVE
       -l     LOGIN
       -m     MONITOR
       -n     NO_EXEC
       -p     PRIVILEGED
       -r     RESTRICTED
       -s     SHIN_STDIN
       -t     SINGLE_COMMAND
       -u     NO_UNSET
       -v     VERBOSE
       -x     XTRACE

   Also	note
       -A     Used by set for setting arrays
       -b     Used on the command line to specify end of option	processing
       -c     Used on the command line to specify a single command
       -m     Used by setopt for pattern-matching option setting
       -o     Used in all places to allow use of long option names
       -s     Used by set to sort positional parameters

zsh 5.8.1		       February	12, 2022		 ZSHOPTIONS(1)


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