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ZSHMODULES(1)		    General Commands Manual		 ZSHMODULES(1)

       zshmodules - zsh	loadable modules

       Some  optional  parts  of zsh are in modules, separate from the core of
       the shell.  Each	of these modules may be	linked	in  to	the  shell  at
       build  time, or can be dynamically linked while the shell is running if
       the installation	supports this feature.	Modules	are linked at  runtime
       with the	zmodload command, see zshbuiltins(1).

       The modules that	are bundled with the zsh distribution are:

	      Builtins for manipulating	extended attributes (xattr).

	      Builtins	for manipulating POSIX.1e (POSIX.6) capability (privi-
	      lege) sets.

	      A	builtin	that can clone a running shell onto another terminal.

	      The compctl builtin for controlling completion.

	      The basic	completion code.

	      Completion listing extensions.

	      A	module with utility builtins needed  for  the  shell  function
	      based completion system.

	      curses windowing commands

	      Some date/time commands and parameters.

	      Builtins	for managing associative array parameters tied to GDBM

	      A	ZLE function duplicating EMACS'	zap-to-char.

	      An example of how	to write a module.

	      Some basic file manipulation commands as builtins.

	      Interface	to locale information.

	      Access to	external files via a special associative array.

	      Standard scientific functions for	use  in	 mathematical  evalua-

	      Arrange for files	for new	users to be installed.

	      Access to	internal hash tables via special associative arrays.

	      Interface	to the PCRE library.

	      Builtins for managing private-scoped parameters in function con-

	      Interface	to the POSIX regex library.

	      A	builtin	that provides a	timed execution	 facility  within  the

	      Manipulation of Unix domain sockets

	      A	builtin	command	interface to the stat system call.

	      A	builtin	interface to various low-level system features.

	      Manipulation of TCP sockets

	      Interface	to the termcap database.

	      Interface	to the terminfo	database.

	      A	builtin	FTP client.

	      The Zsh Line Editor, including the bindkey and vared builtins.

	      Access to	internals of the Zsh Line Editor via parameters.

	      A	module allowing	profiling for shell functions.

	      A	builtin	for starting a command in a pseudo-terminal.

	      Block and	return when file descriptors are ready.

	      Some utility builtins, e.g. the one for supporting configuration
	      via styles.

       The zsh/attr module is used for manipulating extended attributes.   The
       -h  option  causes all commands to operate on symbolic links instead of
       their targets.  The builtins in this module are:

       zgetattr	[ -h ] filename	attribute [ parameter ]
	      Get the extended attribute attribute from	 the  specified	 file-
	      name. If the optional argument parameter is given, the attribute
	      is set on	that parameter instead of being	printed	to stdout.

       zsetattr	[ -h ] filename	attribute value
	      Set the extended attribute attribute on the  specified  filename
	      to value.

       zdelattr	[ -h ] filename	attribute
	      Remove the extended attribute attribute from the specified file-

       zlistattr [ -h ]	filename [ parameter ]
	      List the extended	attributes  currently  set  on	the  specified
	      filename.	 If the	optional argument parameter is given, the list
	      of attributes is set on that parameter instead of	being  printed
	      to stdout.

       zgetattr	 and  zlistattr	allocate memory	dynamically.  If the attribute
       or list of attributes grows between the allocation and the call to  get
       them,  they return 2.  On all other errors, 1 is	returned.  This	allows
       the calling function to check for this case and retry.

       The zsh/cap module is used for manipulating POSIX.1e (POSIX.6) capabil-
       ity sets.  If the operating system does not support this	interface, the
       builtins	defined	by this	module will do nothing.	 The builtins in  this
       module are:

       cap [ capabilities ]
	      Change  the shell's process capability sets to the specified ca-
	      pabilities, otherwise display the	shell's	current	capabilities.

       getcap filename ...
	      This is a	built-in implementation	of the POSIX standard utility.
	      It displays the capability sets on each specified	filename.

       setcap capabilities filename ...
	      This is a	built-in implementation	of the POSIX standard utility.
	      It sets the capability sets on each specified  filename  to  the
	      specified	capabilities.

       The zsh/clone module makes available one	builtin	command:

       clone tty
	      Creates  a forked	instance of the	current	shell, attached	to the
	      specified	tty.  In the new shell,	the PID, PPID and TTY  special
	      parameters  are changed appropriately.  $! is set	to zero	in the
	      new shell, and to	the new	shell's	PID in the original shell.

	      The return status	of the builtin is zero in both shells if  suc-
	      cessful, and non-zero on error.

	      The target of clone should be an unused terminal,	such as	an un-
	      used virtual console or a	virtual	terminal created by

		     xterm -e sh -c 'trap : INT	QUIT TSTP; tty;
			     while :; do sleep 100000000; done'

	      Some words of explanation	are warranted about  this  long	 xterm
	      command  line: when doing	clone on a pseudo-terminal, some other
	      session ("session" meant as a unix session group,	or SID)	is al-
	      ready  owning  the terminal. Hence the cloned zsh	cannot acquire
	      the pseudo-terminal as a controlling tty.	That means two things:

	      o	     the   job	 control    signals    will    go    to	   the
		     sh-started-by-xterm  process group	(that's	why we disable
		     INT QUIT and TSTP with trap;  otherwise  the  while  loop
		     could get suspended or killed)

	      o	     the  cloned shell will have job control disabled, and the
		     job control keys  (control-C,  control-\  and  control-Z)
		     will not work.

	      This does	not apply when cloning to an unused vc.

	      Cloning  to  a used (and unprepared) terminal will result	in two
	      processes	reading	simultaneously from the	 same  terminal,  with
	      input bytes going	randomly to either process.

	      clone  is	 mostly	 useful	 as  a	shell built-in replacement for

       The zsh/compctl module makes available two builtin  commands.  compctl,
       is the old, deprecated way to control completions for ZLE.  See zshcom-
       pctl(1).	 The other builtin command, compcall can be used  in  user-de-
       fined completion	widgets, see zshcompwid(1).

       The  zsh/complete module	makes available	several	builtin	commands which
       can be used in user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).

       The zsh/complist	module offers three extensions to completion listings:
       the  ability to highlight matches in such a list, the ability to	scroll
       through long lists and a	different style	of menu	completion.

   Colored completion listings
       Whenever	one of the parameters ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS	is set and the
       zsh/complist  module  is	 loaded	 or  linked into the shell, completion
       lists will be colored.  Note, however, that complist will not automati-
       cally  be loaded	if it is not linked in:	 on systems with dynamic load-
       ing, `zmodload zsh/complist' is required.

       The parameters ZLS_COLORS and  ZLS_COLOURS  describe  how  matches  are
       highlighted.  To	turn on	highlighting an	empty value suffices, in which
       case all	the default values given below will be used.   The  format  of
       the value of these parameters is	the same as used by the	GNU version of
       the ls command: a colon-separated list of specifications	 of  the  form
       `name=value'.   The  name  may be one of	the following strings, most of
       which specify file types	for which the value will be used.  The strings
       and their default values	are:

       no 0   for  normal  text	 (i.e.	when displaying	something other	than a
	      matched file)

       fi 0   for regular files

       di 32  for directories

       ln 36  for symbolic links.  If this has the special value target,  sym-
	      bolic  links are dereferenced and	the target file	used to	deter-
	      mine the display format.

       pi 31  for named	pipes (FIFOs)

       so 33  for sockets

       bd 44;37
	      for block	devices

       cd 44;37
	      for character devices

       or none
	      for a symlink to nonexistent file	(default is the	value  defined
	      for ln)

       mi none
	      for  a  non-existent file	(default is the	value defined for fi);
	      this code	is currently not used

       su 37;41
	      for files	with setuid bit	set

       sg 30;43
	      for files	with setgid bit	set

       tw 30;42
	      for world	writable directories with sticky bit set

       ow 34;43
	      for world	writable directories without sticky bit	set

       sa none
	      for files	with an	associated suffix alias; this is  only	tested
	      after specific suffixes, as described below

       st 37;44
	      for directories with sticky bit set but not world	writable

       ex 35  for executable files

       lc \e[ for the left code	(see below)

       rc m   for the right code

       tc 0   for  the character indicating the	file type  printed after file-
	      names if the LIST_TYPES option is	set

       sp 0   for the spaces printed after matches to align the	next column

       ec none
	      for the end code

       Apart from these	strings, the name may also be an asterisk  (`*')  fol-
       lowed by	any string. The	value given for	such a string will be used for
       all files whose name ends with the string.  The name  may  also	be  an
       equals  sign (`=') followed by a	pattern; the EXTENDED_GLOB option will
       be turned on for	evaluation of the pattern.  The	value given  for  this
       pattern will be used for	all matches (not just filenames) whose display
       string are matched by the pattern.  Definitions for the form  with  the
       leading	equal  sign  take  precedence over the values defined for file
       types, which in turn take precedence over the form with the leading as-
       terisk (file extensions).

       The  leading-equals  form  also allows different	parts of the displayed
       strings to be colored differently.  For this, the pattern  has  to  use
       the `(#b)' globbing flag	and pairs of parentheses surrounding the parts
       of the strings that are to be colored differently.  In  this  case  the
       value may consist of more than one color	code separated by equal	signs.
       The first code will be used for all parts for which no explicit code is
       specified and the following codes will be used for the parts matched by
       the  sub-patterns  in  parentheses.   For  example,  the	 specification
       `=(#b)(?)*(?)=0=3=7'  will  be  used for	all matches which are at least
       two characters long and will use	the code `3' for the first  character,
       `7' for the last	character and `0' for the rest.

       All  three  forms  of name may be preceded by a pattern in parentheses.
       If this is given, the value will	be used	only  for  matches  in	groups
       whose  names  are matched by the	pattern	given in the parentheses.  For
       example,	`(g*)m*=43' highlights	all  matches  beginning	 with  `m'  in
       groups  whose names  begin with `g' using the color code	`43'.  In case
       of the `lc', `rc', and `ec' codes, the group pattern is ignored.

       Note also that all patterns are tried in	the order in which they	appear
       in the parameter	value until the	first one matches which	is then	used.

       When  printing  a match,	the code prints	the value of lc, the value for
       the file-type or	the last matching specification	with a `*', the	 value
       of  rc,	the string to display for the match itself, and	then the value
       of ec if	that is	defined	or the values of lc, no, and rc	if ec  is  not

       The  default  values  are  ISO 6429 (ANSI) compliant and	can be used on
       vt100 compatible	terminals such as xterms.  On monochrome terminals the
       default	values	will have no visible effect.  The colors function from
       the contribution	can be used to get associative arrays  containing  the
       codes  for ANSI terminals (see the section `Other Functions' in zshcon-
       trib(1)).   For	example,  after	 loading   colors,   one   could   use
       `$color[red]'   to   get	  the	code  for  foreground  color  red  and
       `$color[bg-green]' for the code for background color green.

       If the completion system	invoked	by compinit is used, these  parameters
       should  not  be	set  directly because the system controls them itself.
       Instead,	the list-colors	style should be	used (see the section `Comple-
       tion System Configuration' in zshcompsys(1)).

   Scrolling in	completion listings
       To enable scrolling through a completion	list, the LISTPROMPT parameter
       must be set.  Its value will be used as the prompt; if it is the	 empty
       string,	a  default prompt will be used.	 The value may contain escapes
       of the form `%x'.  It supports the  escapes  `%B',  `%b',  `%S',	 `%s',
       `%U',  `%u',  `%F',  `%f',  `%K', `%k' and `%{...%}' used also in shell
       prompts as well as three	pairs of additional sequences: a `%l' or  `%L'
       is  replaced  by	the number of the last line shown and the total	number
       of lines	in the form `number/total'; a `%m' or `%M'  is	replaced  with
       the number of the last match shown and the total	number of matches; and
       `%p' or `%P' is replaced	with `Top', `Bottom' or	the  position  of  the
       first line shown	in percent of the total	number of lines, respectively.
       In each of these	cases the form with the	uppercase letter will  be  re-
       placed  with  a string of fixed width, padded to	the right with spaces,
       while the lowercase form	will not be padded.

       If the parameter	LISTPROMPT is set, the completion code will not	ask if
       the list	should be shown.  Instead it immediately starts	displaying the
       list, stopping after the	first screenful, showing  the  prompt  at  the
       bottom,	waiting	 for  a	 keypress  after  temporarily switching	to the
       listscroll keymap.  Some	of the zle functions have  a  special  meaning
       while scrolling lists:

	      stops listing discarding the key pressed

       accept-line, down-history, down-line-or-history
       down-line-or-search, vi-down-line-or-history
	      scrolls forward one line

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-complete-or-expand
	      scrolls forward one screenful

	      stop listing but take no other action

       Every  other  character stops listing and immediately processes the key
       as usual.  Any key that is not bound in the listscroll keymap  or  that
       is  bound  to  undefined-key  is	 looked	up in the keymap currently se-

       As for the ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters, LISTPROMPT should not
       be  set directly	when using the shell function based completion system.
       Instead,	the list-prompt	style should be	used.

   Menu	selection
       The zsh/complist	module also offers an alternative style	 of  selecting
       matches	from  a	 list, called menu selection, which can	be used	if the
       shell is	set up to return to the	last prompt after showing a completion
       list (see the ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT	option in zshoptions(1)).

       Menu  selection	can  be	invoked	directly by the	widget menu-select de-
       fined by	this module.  This is a	standard ZLE widget that can be	 bound
       to a key	in the usual way as described in zshzle(1).

       Alternatively, the parameter MENUSELECT can be set to an	integer, which
       gives the minimum number	of matches that	must be	 present  before  menu
       selection is automatically turned on.  This second method requires that
       menu completion be started, either  directly  from  a  widget  such  as
       menu-complete,  or due to one of	the options MENU_COMPLETE or AUTO_MENU
       being set.  If MENUSELECT is set, but is	0, 1 or	empty, menu  selection
       will always be started during an	ambiguous menu completion.

       When  using the completion system based on shell	functions, the MENUSE-
       LECT parameter should not be used (like the ZLS_COLORS and  ZLS_COLOURS
       parameters  described  above).	Instead, the menu style	should be used
       with the	select=... keyword.

       After menu selection is started,	the matches will be listed.  If	 there
       are  more  matches  than	fit on the screen, only	the first screenful is
       shown.  The matches to insert into the command  line  can  be  selected
       from  this  list.  In the list one match	is highlighted using the value
       for ma from the ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS parameter.  The default value
       for this	is `7' which forces the	selected match to be highlighted using
       standout	mode on	a vt100-compatible terminal.   If  neither  ZLS_COLORS
       nor  ZLS_COLOURS	 is set, the same terminal control sequence as for the
       `%S' escape in prompts is used.

       If there	are more matches than fit on  the  screen  and	the  parameter
       MENUPROMPT  is set, its value will be shown below the matches.  It sup-
       ports the same escape sequences as LISTPROMPT, but the  number  of  the
       match  or  line shown will be that of the one where the mark is placed.
       If its value is the empty string, a default prompt will be used.

       The MENUSCROLL parameter	can  be	 used  to  specify  how	 the  list  is
       scrolled.   If the parameter is unset, this is done line	by line, if it
       is set to `0' (zero), the list will scroll half the number of lines  of
       the  screen.  If	the value is positive, it gives	the number of lines to
       scroll and if it	is negative, the list will be scrolled the  number  of
       lines of	the screen minus the (absolute)	value.

       As  for	the ZLS_COLORS,	ZLS_COLOURS and	LISTPROMPT parameters, neither
       MENUPROMPT nor MENUSCROLL should	be set directly	when using  the	 shell
       function	 based	completion system.  Instead, the select-prompt and se-
       lect-scroll styles should be used.

       The completion code sometimes decides not to show all of	the matches in
       the  list.   These hidden matches are either matches for	which the com-
       pletion function	which added them explicitly requested  that  they  not
       appear in the list (using the -n	option of the compadd builtin command)
       or they are matches which duplicate a string already in the  list  (be-
       cause they differ only in things	like prefixes or suffixes that are not
       displayed).  In the list	used for menu selection, however,  even	 these
       matches	are shown so that it is	possible to select them.  To highlight
       such  matches  the  hi  and  du	capabilities  in  the  ZLS_COLORS  and
       ZLS_COLOURS  parameters	are  supported for hidden matches of the first
       and second kind,	respectively.

       Selecting matches is done by moving the mark around using the zle move-
       ment functions.	When not all matches can be shown on the screen	at the
       same time, the list will	scroll up and down when	crossing  the  top  or
       bottom  line.   The following zle functions have	special	meaning	during
       menu selection.	Note that the following	always perform the  same  task
       within  the  menu  selection map	and cannot be replaced by user defined
       widgets,	nor can	the set	of functions be	extended:

       accept-line, accept-search
	      accept the current match and leave menu selection	 (but  do  not
	      cause the	command	line to	be accepted)

	      leaves  menu selection and restores the previous contents	of the
	      command line

       redisplay, clear-screen
	      execute their normal function without leaving menu selection

       accept-and-hold,	accept-and-menu-complete
	      accept the currently inserted match and continue	selection  al-
	      lowing to	select the next	match to insert	into the line

	      accepts  the  current  match and then tries completion with menu
	      selection	again;	in the case of files this allows one to	select
	      a	directory and immediately attempt to complete files in it;  if
	      there are	no matches, a message is shown and one can use undo to
	      go  back	to  completion	on the previous	level, every other key
	      leaves menu selection (including the other zle  functions	 which
	      are otherwise special during menu	selection)

       undo   removes matches inserted during the menu selection by one	of the
	      three functions before

       down-history, down-line-or-history
       vi-down-line-or-history,	 down-line-or-search
	      moves the	mark one line down

       up-history, up-line-or-history
       vi-up-line-or-history, up-line-or-search
	      moves the	mark one line up

       forward-char, vi-forward-char
	      moves the	mark one column	right

       backward-char, vi-backward-char
	      moves the	mark one column	left

       forward-word, vi-forward-word
       vi-forward-word-end, emacs-forward-word
	      moves the	mark one screenful down

       backward-word, vi-backward-word,	emacs-backward-word
	      moves the	mark one screenful up

       vi-forward-blank-word, vi-forward-blank-word-end
	      moves the	mark to	the first line of the next group of matches

	      moves the	mark to	the last line of the previous group of matches

	      moves the	mark to	the first line

	      moves the	mark to	the last line

       beginning-of-buffer-or-history, beginning-of-line
       beginning-of-line-hist, vi-beginning-of-line
	      moves the	mark to	the leftmost column

       end-of-buffer-or-history, end-of-line
       end-of-line-hist, vi-end-of-line
	      moves the	mark to	the rightmost column

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-expand-or-complete
	      moves the	mark to	the next match

	      moves the	mark to	the previous match

	      this toggles between normal and interactive mode;	in interactive
	      mode the keys bound to self-insert and self-insert-unmeta	insert
	      into the command line as in  normal  editing  mode  but  without
	      leaving menu selection; after each character completion is tried
	      again and	the list changes to contain only the new matches;  the
	      completion  widgets  make	 the longest unambiguous string	be in-
	      serted in	the command line and undo and backward-delete-char  go
	      back to the previous set of matches

	      this starts incremental searches in the list of completions dis-
	      played;  in  this	 mode,	accept-line  only  leaves  incremental
	      search, going back to the	normal menu selection mode

       All movement functions wrap around at the edges;	any other zle function
       not listed leaves menu selection	and executes  that  function.	It  is
       possible	 to  make  widgets  in the above list do the same by using the
       form of the widget with a `.' in	front.	For example, the widget	 `.ac-
       cept-line'  has	the effect of leaving menu selection and accepting the
       entire command line.

       During this selection the widget	uses the keymap	menuselect.   Any  key
       that is not defined in this keymap or that is bound to undefined-key is
       looked up in the	keymap currently selected.  This  is  used  to	ensure
       that  the  most important keys used during selection (namely the	cursor
       keys, return, and TAB) have sensible defaults.  However,	 keys  in  the
       menuselect  keymap  can	be modified directly using the bindkey builtin
       command (see zshmodules(1)). For	example, to make the return key	 leave
       menu selection without accepting	the match currently selected one could

	      bindkey -M menuselect '^M' send-break

       after loading the zsh/complist module.

       The zsh/computil	module adds several builtin commands that are used  by
       some  of	 the  completion  functions  in	the completion system based on
       shell functions (see  zshcompsys(1)  ).	 Except	 for  compquote	 these
       builtin	commands  are  very  specialised and thus not very interesting
       when writing your own completion	functions.  In summary,	these  builtin
       commands	are:

	      This  is	used by	the _arguments function	to do the argument and
	      command line parsing.  Like compdescribe it has an option	-i  to
	      do  the  parsing	and initialize some internal state and various
	      options to access	the state information to decide	what should be

	      This is used by the _describe function to	build the displays for
	      the matches and to get the strings to add	as matches with	 their
	      options.	 On  the first call one	of the options -i or -I	should
	      be supplied as the first argument.  In the first	case,  display
	      strings  without the descriptions	will be	generated, in the sec-
	      ond case,	the string used	to separate the	matches	from their de-
	      scriptions must be given as the second argument and the descrip-
	      tions (if	any) will be shown.  All other arguments are like  the
	      definition arguments to _describe	itself.

	      Once  compdescribe  has been called with either the -i or	the -I
	      option, it can be	repeatedly called with the -g option  and  the
	      names  of	 four  parameters  as  its  arguments.	This will step
	      through the different sets of matches and	 store	the  value  of
	      compstate[list]  in the first scalar, the	options	for compadd in
	      the second array,	the  matches  in  the  third  array,  and  the
	      strings  to be displayed in the completion listing in the	fourth
	      array.  The arrays may then be directly given to compadd to reg-
	      ister the	matches	with the completion code.

	      Used  by	the _path_files	function to optimize complex recursive
	      filename generation (globbing).  It does three things.  With the
	      -p  and -P options it builds the glob patterns to	use, including
	      the paths	already	handled	and trying to  optimize	 the  patterns
	      with  respect  to	 the  prefix  and suffix from the line and the
	      match specification currently used.  The -i option does the  di-
	      rectory  tests  for  the	ignore-parents style and the -r	option
	      tests if a component for some of the matches are	equal  to  the
	      string  on  the  line  and  removes all other matches if that is

	      Used by the _tags	function to implement  the  internals  of  the
	      group-order  style.   This  only takes its arguments as names of
	      completion groups	and creates the	groups for it (all six	types:
	      sorted  and unsorted, both without removing duplicates, with re-
	      moving all duplicates and	with removing consecutive duplicates).

       compquote [ -p ]	names ...
	      There may	be reasons to write completion functions that have  to
	      add the matches using the	-Q option to compadd and perform quot-
	      ing themselves.  Instead of interpreting the first character  of
	      the  all_quotes key of the compstate special association and us-
	      ing the q	flag  for  parameter  expansions,  one	can  use  this
	      builtin command.	The arguments are the names of scalar or array
	      parameters and the values	of  these  parameters  are  quoted  as
	      needed  for  the	innermost  quoting level.  If the -p option is
	      given, quoting is	done as	if there is  some  prefix  before  the
	      values  of the parameters, so that a leading equal sign will not
	      be quoted.

	      The return status	is non-zero in case of an error	and zero  oth-

	      These implement the internals of the tags	mechanism.

	      Like comparguments, but for the _values function.

       The  zsh/curses	module makes available one builtin command and various

       zcurses init
       zcurses end
       zcurses addwin targetwin	nlines ncols begin_y begin_x [ parentwin ]
       zcurses delwin targetwin
       zcurses refresh [ targetwin ... ]
       zcurses touch targetwin ...
       zcurses move targetwin new_y new_x
       zcurses clear targetwin [ redraw	| eol |	bot ]
       zcurses position	targetwin array
       zcurses char targetwin character
       zcurses string targetwin	string
       zcurses border targetwin	border
       zcurses attr targetwin [	[+|-]attribute | fg_col/bg_col ] [...]
       zcurses bg targetwin [ [+|-]attribute | fg_col/bg_col | @char ] [...]
       zcurses scroll targetwin	[ on | off | [+|-]lines	]
       zcurses input targetwin [ param [ kparam	[ mparam ] ] ]
       zcurses mouse [ delay num | [+|-]motion ]
       zcurses timeout targetwin intval
       zcurses querychar targetwin [ param ]
	      Manipulate curses	windows.  All uses of this command  should  be
	      bracketed	 by  `zcurses  init'  to initialise use	of curses, and
	      `zcurses end' to end it; omitting	`zcurses end'  can  cause  the
	      terminal to be in	an unwanted state.

	      The  subcommand  addwin  creates	a window with nlines lines and
	      ncols columns.  Its upper	left corner will be placed at row  be-
	      gin_y  and  column begin_x of the	screen.	 targetwin is a	string
	      and refers to the	name of	a window that  is  not	currently  as-
	      signed.	Note in	particular the curses convention that vertical
	      values appear before horizontal values.

	      If addwin	is given an existing window as the final argument, the
	      new window is created as a subwindow of parentwin.  This differs
	      from an ordinary new window in that the  memory  of  the	window
	      contents is shared with the parent's memory.  Subwindows must be
	      deleted before their parent.  Note that the coordinates of  sub-
	      windows  are  relative  to  the  screen, not the parent, as with
	      other windows.

	      Use the subcommand delwin	to delete a window  created  with  ad-
	      dwin.   Note  that  end  does not	implicitly delete windows, and
	      that delwin does not erase the screen image of the window.

	      The window corresponding to the full visible  screen  is	called
	      stdscr;  it  always  exists  after  `zcurses init' and cannot be
	      delete with delwin.

	      The subcommand refresh will refresh window  targetwin;  this  is
	      necessary	 to  make  any pending changes (such as	characters you
	      have prepared for	output with char) visible on the screen.   re-
	      fresh  without  an  argument causes the screen to	be cleared and
	      redrawn.	If multiple windows are	given, the screen  is  updated
	      once at the end.

	      The  subcommand  touch  marks  the targetwins listed as changed.
	      This is necessary	before refreshing windows if a window that was
	      in front of another window (which	may be stdscr) is deleted.

	      The  subcommand  move  moves the cursor position in targetwin to
	      new coordinates new_y  and  new_x.   Note	 that  the  subcommand
	      string  (but  not	the subcommand char) advances the cursor posi-
	      tion over	the characters added.

	      The subcommand clear erases the contents of targetwin.  One (and
	      no  more	than one) of three options may be specified.  With the
	      option redraw, in	addition the next refresh  of  targetwin  will
	      cause  the  screen to be cleared and repainted.  With the	option
	      eol, targetwin is	only cleared to	the end	of the current	cursor
	      line.   With  the	option bot, targetwin is cleared to the	end of
	      the window, i.e everything to the	right and below	the cursor  is

	      The subcommand position writes various positions associated with
	      targetwin	into the array named array.  These are,	in order:
	      -	     The y and x coordinates of	the cursor relative to the top
		     left of targetwin
	      -	     The  y  and x coordinates of the top left of targetwin on
		     the screen
	      -	     The size of targetwin in y	and x dimensions.

	      Outputting characters and	 strings  are  achieved	 by  char  and
	      string respectively.

	      To draw a	border around window targetwin,	use border.  Note that
	      the border is not	 subsequently  handled	specially:   in	 other
	      words,  the  border  is simply a set of characters output	at the
	      edge of the window.  Hence it can	be overwritten,	can scroll off
	      the window, etc.

	      The  subcommand  attr  will  set targetwin's attributes or fore-
	      ground/background	color pair for any successive  character  out-
	      put.   Each  attribute given on the line may be prepended	by a +
	      to set or	a - to unset that attribute; + is assumed  if  absent.
	      The  attributes  supported are blink, bold, dim, reverse,	stand-
	      out, and underline.

	      Each fg_col/bg_col attribute (to be read as `fg_col on  bg_col')
	      sets  the	 foreground and	background color for character output.
	      The color	default	is sometimes available (in particular  if  the
	      library  is  ncurses),  specifying  the foreground or background
	      color with which the  terminal  started.	 The  color  pair  de-
	      fault/default  is	always available. To use more than the 8 named
	      colors (red, green,  etc.)  construct  the  fg_col/bg_col	 pairs
	      where  fg_col and	bg_col are decimal integers, e.g 128/200.  The
	      maximum color value is 254 if the	terminal supports 256 colors.

	      bg overrides the color and other attributes of all characters in
	      the  window.   Its usual use is to set the background initially,
	      but it will overwrite the	attributes of any  characters  at  the
	      time  when  it  is called.  In addition to the arguments allowed
	      with attr, an argument @char specifies a character to  be	 shown
	      in otherwise blank areas of the window.  Owing to	limitations of
	      curses this cannot be a multibyte	character (use of ASCII	 char-
	      acters only is recommended).  As the specified set of attributes
	      override the existing background,	turning	attributes off in  the
	      arguments	is not useful, though this does	not cause an error.

	      The  subcommand  scroll can be used with on or off to enabled or
	      disable scrolling	of a window when the  cursor  would  otherwise
	      move  below  the window due to typing or output.	It can also be
	      used with	a positive or negative integer to scroll the window up
	      or  down	the given number of lines without changing the current
	      cursor position (which therefore appears to move in the opposite
	      direction	 relative  to  the  window).   In  the second case, if
	      scrolling	is off it is temporarily turned	on to allow the	window
	      to be scrolled.

	      The  subcommand  input  reads a single character from the	window
	      without echoing it back.	If param is supplied the character  is
	      assigned	to the parameter param,	else it	is assigned to the pa-
	      rameter REPLY.

	      If both param and	kparam are supplied, the key is	read in	 `key-
	      pad'  mode.  In this mode	special	keys such as function keys and
	      arrow keys return	the name of the	key in the  parameter  kparam.
	      The  key	names  are  the	 macros	 defined  in  the  curses.h or
	      ncurses.h	with the prefix	`KEY_' removed;	see also the  descrip-
	      tion  of the parameter zcurses_keycodes below.  Other keys cause
	      a	value to be set	in param as before.  On	 a  successful	return
	      only  one	 of  param  or kparam contains a non-empty string; the
	      other is set to an empty string.

	      If mparam	is also	supplied, input	attempts to handle  mouse  in-
	      put.   This  is  only  available with the	ncurses	library; mouse
	      handling can be detected by checking  for	 the  exit  status  of
	      `zcurses mouse' with no arguments.  If a mouse button is clicked
	      (or double- or triple-clicked, or	pressed	 or  released  with  a
	      configurable delay from being clicked) then kparam is set	to the
	      string MOUSE, and	mparam is set to an array  consisting  of  the
	      following	elements:
	      -	     An	 identifier  to	 discriminate different	input devices;
		     this is only rarely useful.
	      -	     The x, y and z coordinates	of the mouse click relative to
		     the  full	screen,	 as three elements in that order (i.e.
		     the y coordinate is, unusually, after the x  coordinate).
		     The  z coordinate is only available for a few unusual in-
		     put devices and is	otherwise set to zero.
	      -	     Any events	that occurred as separate items; usually there
		     will  be  just  one.   An	event consists of PRESSED, RE-
		     lowed  immediately	(in the	same element) by the number of
		     the button.
	      -	     If	the shift key was pressed, the string SHIFT.
	      -	     If	the control key	was pressed, the string	CTRL.
	      -	     If	the alt	key was	pressed, the string ALT.

	      Not all mouse events may be passed through to the	terminal  win-
	      dow;  most  terminal  emulators  handle  some mouse events them-
	      selves.  Note that the ncurses manual implies that  using	 input
	      both  with and without mouse handling may	cause the mouse	cursor
	      to appear	and disappear.

	      The subcommand mouse can be used to configure  the  use  of  the
	      mouse.   There  is no window argument; mouse options are global.
	      `zcurses mouse' with no arguments	returns	status 0 if mouse han-
	      dling is possible, else status 1.	 Otherwise, the	possible argu-
	      ments (which may be combined on the same command	line)  are  as
	      follows.	 delay	num sets the maximum delay in milliseconds be-
	      tween press and release events to	be considered as a click;  the
	      value  0 disables	click resolution, and the default is one sixth
	      of a second.  motion proceeded by	an optional `+'	(the  default)
	      or  -  turns  on or off reporting	of mouse motion	in addition to
	      clicks, presses and releases, which are always  reported.	  How-
	      ever,  it	appears	reports	for mouse motion are not currently im-

	      The subcommand timeout specifies a timeout value for input  from
	      targetwin.  If intval is negative, `zcurses input' waits indefi-
	      nitely for a character to	be typed; this	is  the	 default.   If
	      intval is	zero, `zcurses input' returns immediately; if there is
	      typeahead	it is returned,	else no	input is done and status 1  is
	      returned.	  If  intval is	positive, `zcurses input' waits	intval
	      milliseconds for input and if there is none at the end  of  that
	      period returns status 1.

	      The  subcommand  querychar  queries the character	at the current
	      cursor position.	The return values  are	stored	in  the	 array
	      named  param  if	supplied,  else	in the array reply.  The first
	      value is the character (which may	be a  multibyte	 character  if
	      the  system  supports them); the second is the color pair	in the
	      usual fg_col/bg_col notation, or 0 if color  is  not  supported.
	      Any  attributes other than color that apply to the character, as
	      set with the subcommand attr, appear as additional elements.

	      Readonly integer.	 The maximum number  of	 colors	 the  terminal
	      supports.	  This	value is initialised by	the curses library and
	      is not available until the first time zcurses init is run.

	      Readonly	integer.   The	 maximum   number   of	 color	 pairs
	      fg_col/bg_col  that  may	be defined in `zcurses attr' commands;
	      note this	limit applies to all color pairs that have  been  used
	      whether  or  not	they are currently active.  This value is ini-
	      tialised by the curses library and is not	 available  until  the
	      first time zcurses init is run.

	      Readonly	array.	The attributes supported by zsh/curses;	avail-
	      able as soon as the module is loaded.

	      Readonly array.  The colors supported by	zsh/curses;  available
	      as soon as the module is loaded.

	      Readonly	array.	 The values that may be	returned in the	second
	      parameter	supplied to `zcurses input' in the order in which they
	      are  defined  internally	by  curses.  Not all function keys are
	      listed, only F0; curses reserves space for F0 up to F63.

	      Readonly array.  The current list	of windows, i.e.  all  windows
	      that  have  been	created	 with `zcurses addwin' and not removed
	      with `zcurses delwin'.

       The zsh/datetime	module makes available one builtin command:

       strftime	[ -s scalar ] format epochtime
       strftime	-r [ -q	] [ -s scalar ]	format timestring
	      Output the date denoted by epochtime in  the  format  specified.
	      See  strftime(3)	for  details.  The zsh extensions described in
	      the section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES	in zshmisc(1) are also

	      -q     Run  quietly; suppress printing of	all error messages de-
		     scribed below.  Errors for	invalid	epochtime  values  are
		     always printed.

	      -r     With the option -r	(reverse), use format to parse the in-
		     put string	timestring and output the  number  of  seconds
		     since  the	epoch at which the time	occurred.  The parsing
		     is	implemented by the system function strptime; see strp-
		     time(3).	This  means that zsh format extensions are not
		     available,	but for	reverse	lookup they are	not required.

		     In	most implementations of	strftime any timezone  in  the
		     timestring	 is ignored and	the local timezone declared by
		     the TZ environment	variable is used; other	parameters are
		     set to zero if not	present.

		     If	 timestring  does not match format the command returns
		     status 1 and prints  an  error  message.	If  timestring
		     matches  format but not all characters in timestring were
		     used, the conversion succeeds but also  prints  an	 error

		     If	 either	 of the	system functions strptime or mktime is
		     not available, status 2 is	returned and an	error  message
		     is	printed.

	      -s scalar
		     Assign the	date string (or	epoch time in seconds if -r is
		     given) to scalar instead of printing it.

	      Note that	depending on the system's declared integral time type,
	      strftime	may  produce incorrect results for epoch times greater
	      than 2147483647 which corresponds	to 2038-01-19 03:14:07 +0000.

       The zsh/datetime	module makes available	several	 parameters;  all  are

	      A	 floating point	value representing the number of seconds since
	      the epoch.  The notional	accuracy  is  to  nanoseconds  if  the
	      clock_gettime  call  is available	and to microseconds otherwise,
	      but in practice the range	of double precision floating point and
	      shell scheduling latencies may be	significant effects.

	      An  integer  value  representing the number of seconds since the

	      An array value containing	the number of seconds since the	 epoch
	      in  the  first  element  and the remainder of the	time since the
	      epoch in nanoseconds in the second element.  To ensure  the  two
	      elements	are consistent the array should	be copied or otherwise
	      referenced as a single substitution before the values are	 used.
	      The following idiom may be used:

		     for secs nsecs in $epochtime; do

       The zsh/db/gdbm module is used to create	"tied" associative arrays that
       interface to database files.  If	the GDBM interface is  not  available,
       the  builtins defined by	this module will report	an error.  This	module
       is also intended	as a prototype for creating additional database	inter-
       faces, so the ztie builtin may move to a	more generic module in the fu-

       The builtins in this module are:

       ztie -d db/gdbm -f filename [ -r	] arrayname
	      Open the GDBM database identified	by filename and,  if  success-
	      ful,  create the associative array arrayname linked to the file.
	      To create	a local	tied array, the	parameter must	first  be  de-
	      clared,  so  commands similar to the following would be executed
	      inside a function	scope:

		     local -A sampledb
		     ztie -d db/gdbm -f	sample.gdbm sampledb

	      The -r option opens the database file for	reading	only, creating
	      a	 parameter  with the readonly attribute.  Without this option,
	      using `ztie' on a	file for which the user	does  not  have	 write
	      permission  is  an  error.   If writable,	the database is	opened
	      synchronously so fields changed  in  arrayname  are  immediately
	      written to filename.

	      Changes  to  the file modes filename after it has	been opened do
	      not alter	the state of arrayname,	 but  `typeset	-r  arrayname'
	      works as expected.

       zuntie [	-u ] arrayname ...
	      Close  the GDBM database associated with each arrayname and then
	      unset the	parameter.  The	-u option forces an unset  of  parame-
	      ters made	readonly with `ztie -r'.

	      This  happens automatically if the parameter is explicitly unset
	      or its local scope (function) ends.  Note	that a readonly	param-
	      eter  may	 not  be  explicitly unset, so the only	way to unset a
	      global parameter created with `ztie -r' is to use	`zuntie	-u'.

       The fields of an	associative array tied to GDBM are neither cached  nor
       otherwise  stored in memory, they are read from or written to the data-
       base on each reference.	Thus, for example, the values  in  a  readonly
       array may be changed by a second	writer of the same database file.

       The zsh/deltochar module	makes available	two ZLE	functions:

	      Read  a  character from the keyboard, and	delete from the	cursor
	      position up to and including the next (or, with repeat count  n,
	      the  nth)	 instance  of  that character.	Negative repeat	counts
	      mean delete backwards.

	      This behaves like	delete-to-char,	except that the	 final	occur-
	      rence of the character itself is not deleted.

       The zsh/example module makes available one builtin command:

       example [ -flags	] [ args ... ]
	      Displays the flags and arguments it is invoked with.

       The  purpose  of	the module is to serve as an example of	how to write a

       The zsh/files module makes available some common	commands for file  ma-
       nipulation as builtins; these commands are probably not needed for many
       normal situations but can be useful in  emergency  recovery  situations
       with constrained	resources.  The	commands do not	implement all features
       now required by relevant	standards committees.

       For all commands, a variant beginning zf_ is also available and	loaded
       automatically.	Using the features capability of zmodload will let you
       load only those names you want.	Note that it's possible	to  load  only
       the builtins with zsh-specific names using the following	command:

	      zmodload -m -F zsh/files b:zf_\*

       The commands loaded by default are:

       chgrp [ -hRs ] group filename ...
	      Changes  group  of files specified.  This	is equivalent to chown
	      with a user-spec argument	of `:group'.

       chown [ -hRs ] user-spec	filename ...
	      Changes ownership	and group of files specified.

	      The user-spec can	be in four forms:

	      user   change owner to user; do not change group
	      user:: change owner to user; do not change group
	      user:  change owner to user;  change  group  to  user's  primary
		     change owner to user; change group	to group
	      :group do	not change owner; change group to group

	      In each case, the	`:' may	instead	be a `.'.  The rule is that if
	      there is a `:' then the separator	is `:',	otherwise if there  is
	      a	 `.'  then the separator is `.', otherwise there is no separa-

	      Each of user and group may be either a username (or group	 name,
	      as appropriate) or a decimal user	ID (group ID).	Interpretation
	      as a name	takes precedence, if there is an all-numeric  username
	      (or group	name).

	      If  the target is	a symbolic link, the -h	option causes chown to
	      set the ownership	of the link instead of its target.

	      The -R option causes chown to recursively	descend	into  directo-
	      ries, changing the ownership of all files	in the directory after
	      changing the ownership of	the directory itself.

	      The -s option is a zsh extension to chown	functionality.	It en-
	      ables  paranoid  behaviour,  intended to avoid security problems
	      involving	a chown	being tricked into affecting files other  than
	      the  ones	intended.  It will refuse to follow symbolic links, so
	      that (for	example) ``chown luser /tmp/foo/passwd''  can't	 acci-
	      dentally	chown  /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to be a link to
	      /etc.  It	will also check	where it is after leaving directories,
	      so  that a recursive chown of a deep directory tree can't	end up
	      recursively chowning /usr	as a result of directories being moved
	      up the tree.

       ln [ -dfhins ] filename dest
       ln [ -dfhins ] filename ... dir
	      Creates  hard (or, with -s, symbolic) links.  In the first form,
	      the specified destination	is created, as a link to the specified
	      filename.	 In the	second form, each of the filenames is taken in
	      turn, and	linked to a pathname in	the specified  directory  that
	      has the same last	pathname component.

	      Normally,	 ln  will not attempt to create	hard links to directo-
	      ries.  This check	can be overridden using	the -d option.	 Typi-
	      cally  only the super-user can actually succeed in creating hard
	      links to directories.  This does not apply to symbolic links  in
	      any case.

	      By  default, existing files cannot be replaced by	links.	The -i
	      option causes the	user to	be queried  about  replacing  existing
	      files.   The  -f	option	causes	existing  files	to be silently
	      deleted, without querying.  -f takes precedence.

	      The -h and -n options are	identical and both exist for  compati-
	      bility;  either  one  indicates  that if the target is a symlink
	      then it should not be dereferenced.  Typically this is  used  in
	      combination with -sf so that if an existing link points to a di-
	      rectory then it will be removed, instead of followed.   If  this
	      option  is used with multiple filenames and the target is	a sym-
	      bolic link pointing to a directory then the result is an error.

       mkdir [ -p ] [ -m mode ]	dir ...
	      Creates directories.  With the -p	 option,  non-existing	parent
	      directories are first created if necessary, and there will be no
	      complaint	if the directory already exists.  The -m option	can be
	      used  to	specify	 (in  octal) a set of file permissions for the
	      created directories, otherwise mode 777 modified by the  current
	      umask (see umask(2)) is used.

       mv [ -fi	] filename dest
       mv [ -fi	] filename ... dir
	      Moves files.  In the first form, the specified filename is moved
	      to the specified destination.  In	the second form, each  of  the
	      filenames	is taken in turn, and moved to a pathname in the spec-
	      ified directory that has the same	last pathname component.

	      By default, the user will	be queried before replacing  any  file
	      that  the	 user  cannot  write  to,  but	writable files will be
	      silently removed.	 The -i	option causes the user to  be  queried
	      about  replacing	any  existing files.  The -f option causes any
	      existing files to	be silently  deleted,  without	querying.   -f
	      takes precedence.

	      Note  that this mv will not move files across devices.  Histori-
	      cal versions of mv, when actual  renaming	 is  impossible,  fall
	      back  on	copying	 and  removing files; if this behaviour	is de-
	      sired, use cp and	rm manually.  This may change in a future ver-

       rm [ -dfirs ] filename ...
	      Removes files and	directories specified.

	      Normally,	rm will	not remove directories (except with the	-r op-
	      tion).  The -d option causes rm to try removing directories with
	      unlink  (see  unlink(2)),	the same method	used for files.	 Typi-
	      cally only the super-user	can actually succeed in	unlinking  di-
	      rectories	in this	way.  -d takes precedence over -r.

	      By  default,  the	 user will be queried before removing any file
	      that the user cannot  write  to,	but  writable  files  will  be
	      silently	removed.   The -i option causes	the user to be queried
	      about removing any files.	 The -f	 option	 causes	 files	to  be
	      silently deleted,	without	querying, and suppresses all error in-
	      dications.  -f takes precedence.

	      The -r option causes rm to recursively descend into directories,
	      deleting	all  files in the directory before removing the	direc-
	      tory with	the rmdir system call (see rmdir(2)).

	      The -s option is a zsh extension to rm  functionality.   It  en-
	      ables  paranoid  behaviour,  intended  to	 avoid common security
	      problems involving a root-run rm	being  tricked	into  removing
	      files  other  than  the ones intended.  It will refuse to	follow
	      symbolic links, so that  (for  example)  ``rm  /tmp/foo/passwd''
	      can't  accidentally remove /etc/passwd if	/tmp/foo happens to be
	      a	link to	/etc.  It will also check where	it  is	after  leaving
	      directories,  so	that  a	 recursive removal of a	deep directory
	      tree can't end up	recursively removing /usr as a result  of  di-
	      rectories	being moved up the tree.

       rmdir dir ...
	      Removes empty directories	specified.

       sync   Calls  the  system  call	of  the	same name (see sync(2)), which
	      flushes dirty buffers to disk.  It might return before  the  I/O
	      has actually been	completed.

       The zsh/langinfo	module makes available one parameter:

	      An  associative  array that maps langinfo	elements to their val-

	      Your implementation may support a	number of the following	keys:

	      EXPR,   CRNCYSTR,	  ABDAY_{1..7},	  DAY_{1..7},	ABMON_{1..12},
	      MON_{1..12},  T_FMT_AMPM,	 AM_STR,   PM_STR,   ERA,   ERA_D_FMT,

       The zsh/mapfile module provides one special associative array parameter
       of the same name.

	      This associative array takes as keys the names of	files; the re-
	      sulting  value is	the content of the file.  The value is treated
	      identically to any other text  coming  from  a  parameter.   The
	      value  may  also be assigned to, in which	case the file in ques-
	      tion is written (whether or not it originally  existed);	or  an
	      element  may  be	unset, which will delete the file in question.
	      For example, `vared mapfile[myfile]' works as expected,  editing
	      the file `myfile'.

	      When the array is	accessed as a whole, the keys are the names of
	      files in the current directory, and the  values  are  empty  (to
	      save  a  huge  overhead  in memory).  Thus ${(k)mapfile} has the
	      same affect as the glob operator	*(D),  since  files  beginning
	      with a dot are not special.  Care	must be	taken with expressions
	      such as rm ${(k)mapfile},	which will delete every	 file  in  the
	      current directory	without	the usual `rm *' test.

	      The parameter mapfile may	be made	read-only; in that case, files
	      referenced may not be written or deleted.

	      A	file may conveniently be read into an array as	one  line  per
	      element with the form `array=("${(f@)mapfile[filename]}")'.  The
	      double quotes and	the `@'	are necessary to prevent  empty	 lines
	      from  being removed.  Note that if the file ends with a newline,
	      the shell	will split on the final	newline, generating  an	 addi-
	      tional  empty  field;  this  can	be  suppressed	by  using `ar-

       Although	reading	and writing of the file	 in  question  is  efficiently
       handled,	 zsh's	internal memory	management may be arbitrarily baroque;
       however,	mapfile	is usually very	much more efficient than anything  in-
       volving a loop.	Note in	particular that	the whole contents of the file
       will always reside physically in	memory when accessed (possibly	multi-
       ple times, due to standard parameter substitution operations).  In par-
       ticular,	this means handling of sufficiently long files	(greater  than
       the  machine's  swap space, or than the range of	the pointer type) will
       be incorrect.

       No errors are printed or	flagged	for non-existent, unreadable,  or  un-
       writable	files, as the parameter	mechanism is too low in	the shell exe-
       cution hierarchy	to make	this convenient.

       It is unfortunate that the mechanism for	loading	modules	does  not  yet
       allow  the  user	to specify the name of the shell parameter to be given
       the special behaviour.

       The zsh/mathfunc	module provides	standard  mathematical	functions  for
       use when	evaluating mathematical	formulae.  The syntax agrees with nor-
       mal C and FORTRAN conventions, for example,

	      (( f = sin(0.3) ))

       assigns the sine	of 0.3 to the parameter	f.

       Most functions take floating point  arguments  and  return  a  floating
       point  value.   However,	 any  necessary	conversions from or to integer
       type will be performed automatically by the  shell.   Apart  from  atan
       with  a second argument and the abs, int	and float functions, all func-
       tions behave as noted in	the manual page	for the	corresponding C	 func-
       tion,  except that any arguments	out of range for the function in ques-
       tion will be detected by	the shell and an error reported.

       The following functions take a single floating  point  argument:	 acos,
       acosh, asin, asinh, atan, atanh,	cbrt, ceil, cos, cosh, erf, erfc, exp,
       expm1, fabs, floor, gamma, j0, j1, lgamma,  log,	 log10,	 log1p,	 logb,
       sin,  sinh,  sqrt, tan, tanh, y0, y1.  The atan function	can optionally
       take a second argument, in which	case it	behaves	like  the  C  function
       atan2.	The ilogb function takes a single floating point argument, but
       returns an integer.

       The function signgam takes no arguments,	and returns an integer,	 which
       is  the	C  variable  of	the same name, as described in gamma(3).  Note
       that it is therefore only useful	immediately after a call to  gamma  or
       lgamma.	 Note also that	`signgam()' and	`signgam' are distinct expres-

       The functions min, max, and sum are defined not in this module  but  in
       the  zmathfunc  autoloadable function, described	in the section `Mathe-
       matical Functions' in zshcontrib(1).

       The following functions take two	floating  point	 arguments:  copysign,
       fmod, hypot, nextafter.

       The  following take an integer first argument and a floating point sec-
       ond argument: jn, yn.

       The following take a floating point first argument and an integer  sec-
       ond argument: ldexp, scalb.

       The  function  abs does not convert the type of its single argument; it
       returns the absolute value of either a floating point number or an  in-
       teger.	The  functions	float  and  int	convert	their arguments	into a
       floating	point or integer value (by truncation) respectively.

       Note that the C pow function is available in ordinary  math  evaluation
       as the `**' operator and	is not provided	here.

       The  function rand48 is available if your system's mathematical library
       has the function	erand48(3).  It	returns	a pseudo-random	floating point
       number between 0	and 1.	It takes a single string optional argument.

       If  the	argument is not	present, the random number seed	is initialised
       by three	calls to the rand(3) function --- this produces	the same  ran-
       dom numbers as the next three values of $RANDOM.

       If  the	argument  is  present, it gives	the name of a scalar parameter
       where the current random	number seed will  be  stored.	On  the	 first
       call,  the  value  must contain at least	twelve hexadecimal digits (the
       remainder of the	string is ignored), or the seed	will be	initialised in
       the  same  manner as for	a call to rand48 with no argument.  Subsequent
       calls to	rand48(param) will then	maintain the  seed  in	the  parameter
       param as	a string of twelve hexadecimal digits, with no base signifier.
       The random number sequences for different parameters are	completely in-
       dependent,  and	are also independent from that used by calls to	rand48
       with no argument.

       For example, consider

	      print $((	rand48(seed) ))
	      print $((	rand48() ))
	      print $((	rand48(seed) ))

       Assuming	$seed does not exist, it will  be  initialised	by  the	 first
       call.   In the second call, the default seed is initialised; note, how-
       ever, that because of the properties of rand() there is	a  correlation
       between	the seeds used for the two initialisations, so for more	secure
       uses, you should	generate your own 12-byte seed.	 The  third  call  re-
       turns  to  the  same sequence of	random numbers used in the first call,
       unaffected by the intervening rand48().

       The zsh/newuser module is loaded	at boot	if it is  available,  the  RCS
       option is set, and the PRIVILEGED option	is not set (all	three are true
       by default).  This takes	place immediately after	commands in the	global
       zshenv  file  (typically	 /etc/zshenv), if any, have been executed.  If
       the module is not available it is silently ignored by  the  shell;  the
       module  may safely be removed from $MODULE_PATH by the administrator if
       it is not required.

       On loading, the module tests if any  of	the  start-up  files  .zshenv,
       .zprofile,  .zshrc or .zlogin exist in the directory given by the envi-
       ronment variable	ZDOTDIR, or the	user's home directory if that  is  not
       set.   The test is not performed	and the	module halts processing	if the
       shell was in an emulation mode (i.e. had	been  invoked  as  some	 other
       shell than zsh).

       If none of the start-up files were found, the module then looks for the
       file newuser first in a sitewide	directory, usually the	parent	direc-
       tory of the site-functions directory, and if that is not	found the mod-
       ule searches in a version-specific directory, usually the parent	of the
       functions  directory containing version-specific	functions.  (These di-
       rectories  can  be  configured  when  zsh  is  built  using  the	 --en-
       able-site-scriptdir=dir	and --enable-scriptdir=dir flags to configure,
       respectively;   the   defaults	are    prefix/share/zsh	   and	  pre-
       fix/share/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION where	the default prefix is /usr/local.)

       If  the file newuser is found, it is then sourced in the	same manner as
       a start-up file.	 The file is  expected	to  contain  code  to  install
       start-up	 files for the user, however any valid shell code will be exe-

       The zsh/newuser module is then unconditionally unloaded.

       Note that it is possible	to achieve exactly  the	 same  effect  as  the
       zsh/newuser  module  by	adding code to /etc/zshenv.  The module	exists
       simply to allow the shell to make arrangements for  new	users  without
       the need	for intervention by package maintainers	and system administra-

       The  script  supplied  with  the	 module	 invokes  the  shell  function
       zsh-newuser-install.   This may be invoked directly by the user even if
       the zsh/newuser module is disabled.  Note, however, that	if the	module
       is  not installed the function will not be installed either.  The func-
       tion is documented in the section User Configuration Functions in  zsh-

       The  zsh/parameter module gives access to some of the internal hash ta-
       bles used by the	shell by defining some special parameters.

	      The keys for this	associative array are the names	of the options
	      that  can	 be  set  and  unset  using  the  setopt  and unsetopt
	      builtins.	The value of each key is either	the string on  if  the
	      option  is currently set,	or the string off if the option	is un-
	      set.  Setting a key to one of these strings is like  setting  or
	      unsetting	 the option, respectively. Unsetting a key in this ar-
	      ray is like setting it to	the value off.

	      This array gives access to the command hash table. The keys  are
	      the  names of external commands, the values are the pathnames of
	      the files	that would be executed when the	command	would  be  in-
	      voked.  Setting  a key in	this array defines a new entry in this
	      table in the same	way as with the	hash builtin. Unsetting	a  key
	      as  in  `unset  "commands[foo]"' removes the entry for the given
	      key from the command hash	table.

	      This associative array maps names	of enabled functions to	 their
	      definitions.  Setting  a	key  in	it is like defining a function
	      with the name given by the key and the body given	by the	value.
	      Unsetting	a key removes the definition for the function named by
	      the key.

	      Like functions but for disabled functions.

	      This associative array gives information about the builtin  com-
	      mands  currently	enabled. The keys are the names	of the builtin
	      commands and the values are either `undefined' for builtin  com-
	      mands that will automatically be loaded from a module if invoked
	      or `defined' for builtin commands	that are already loaded.

	      Like builtins but	for disabled builtin commands.

	      This array contains the enabled reserved words.

	      Like reswords but	for disabled reserved words.

	      This array contains the enabled pattern characters.

	      Like patchars but	for disabled pattern characters.

	      This maps	the names of the regular aliases currently enabled  to
	      their expansions.

	      Like aliases but for disabled regular aliases.

	      Like aliases, but	for global aliases.

	      Like galiases but	for disabled global aliases.

	      Like raliases, but for suffix aliases.

	      Like saliases but	for disabled suffix aliases.

	      The  keys	in this	associative array are the names	of the parame-
	      ters currently defined. The values are  strings  describing  the
	      type  of the parameter, in the same format used by the t parame-
	      ter flag,	see zshexpn(1) .  Setting or unsetting	keys  in  this
	      array is not possible.

	      An  associative array giving information about modules. The keys
	      are the names of	the  modules  loaded,  registered  to  be  au-
	      toloaded,	 or aliased. The value says which state	the named mod-
	      ule is in	and is one of the strings `loaded',  `autoloaded',  or
	      `alias:name', where name is the name the module is aliased to.

	      Setting or unsetting keys	in this	array is not possible.

	      A	normal array holding the elements of the directory stack. Note
	      that the output of the dirs builtin command  includes  one  more
	      directory, the current working directory.

	      This  associative	 array	maps history event numbers to the full
	      history lines.  Although it is presented as an  associative  ar-
	      ray, the array of	all values (${history[@]}) is guaranteed to be
	      returned in order	from most recent to oldest history event, that
	      is, by decreasing	history	event number.

	      A	 special  array	 containing  the  words	stored in the history.
	      These also appear	in most	to least recent	order.

	      This associative array maps job numbers to the directories  from
	      which  the  job was started (which may not be the	current	direc-
	      tory of the job).

	      The keys of the associative arrays are usually  valid  job  num-
	      bers,  and  these	 are  the  values  output  with,  for example,
	      ${(k)jobdirs}.  Non-numeric job  references  may	be  used  when
	      looking  up  a  value; for example, ${jobdirs[%+]} refers	to the
	      current job.

	      This associative array maps job numbers to the texts of the com-
	      mand lines that were used	to start the jobs.

	      Handling	of  the	 keys of the associative array is as described
	      for jobdirs above.

	      This associative array gives information about the states	of the
	      jobs  currently known. The keys are the job numbers and the val-
	      ues are strings of the form  `job-state:mark:pid=state...'.  The
	      job-state	 gives the state the whole job is currently in,	one of
	      `running', `suspended', or `done'. The mark is `+' for the  cur-
	      rent  job, `-' for the previous job and empty otherwise. This is
	      followed by one `:pid=state' for every process in	the  job.  The
	      pids are,	of course, the process IDs and the state describes the
	      state of that process.

	      Handling of the keys of the associative array  is	 as  described
	      for jobdirs above.

	      This  associative	 array	maps the names of named	directories to
	      the pathnames they stand for.

	      This associative array maps user names to	the pathnames of their
	      home directories.

	      This  associative	array maps names of system groups of which the
	      current user is a	member to the corresponding group identifiers.
	      The  contents  are  the same as the groups output	by the id com-

	      This array contains the absolute line numbers and	 corresponding
	      file  names  for	the  point where the current function, sourced
	      file, or (if EVAL_LINENO is set) eval command was	 called.   The
	      array  is	 of  the same length as	funcsourcetrace	and functrace,
	      but differs from funcsourcetrace in that the line	and  file  are
	      the point	of call, not the point of definition, and differs from
	      functrace	in that	all values are absolute	line numbers in	files,
	      rather than relative to the start	of a function, if any.

	      This  array  contains  the  file	names  and line	numbers	of the
	      points where the functions, sourced files, and  (if  EVAL_LINENO
	      is  set)	eval  commands	currently being	executed were defined.
	      The line number is the line where	the `function name'  or	 `name
	      ()'  started.   In  the case of an autoloaded function  the line
	      number is	reported as zero.  The format of each element is file-
	      name:lineno.  For	functions autoloaded from a file in native zsh
	      format, where only the body of the function occurs in the	 file,
	      or  for  files  that  have  been	executed  by the source	or `.'
	      builtins,	the trace information is shown	as  filename:0,	 since
	      the entire file is the definition.

	      Most  users  will	 be interested in the information in the func-
	      filetrace	array instead.

	      This array contains the names of the functions,  sourced	files,
	      and  (if EVAL_LINENO is set) eval	commands. currently being exe-
	      cuted. The first element is the name of the function  using  the

	      The  standard shell array	zsh_eval_context can be	used to	deter-
	      mine the type of shell construct being executed at  each	depth:
	      note,  however, that is in the opposite order, with the most re-
	      cent item	last, and it is	more detailed, for  example  including
	      an entry for toplevel, the main shell code being executed	either
	      interactively or from a script, which is not present  in	$func-

	      This  array  contains  the names and line	numbers	of the callers
	      corresponding to the functions currently	being  executed.   The
	      format  of  each element is name:lineno.	Callers	are also shown
	      for sourced files; the caller is the point where the  source  or
	      `.' command was executed.

       The zsh/pcre module makes some commands available as builtins:

       pcre_compile [ -aimxs ] PCRE
	      Compiles a perl-compatible regular expression.

	      Option -a	will force the pattern to be anchored.	Option -i will
	      compile a	case-insensitive pattern.  Option -m  will  compile  a
	      multi-line  pattern; that	is, ^ and $ will match newlines	within
	      the pattern.   Option  -x	 will  compile	an  extended  pattern,
	      wherein  whitespace and #	comments are ignored.  Option -s makes
	      the dot metacharacter match all characters, including those that
	      indicate newline.

	      Studies  the previously-compiled PCRE which may result in	faster

       pcre_match [ -v var ] [ -a arr ]	[ -n offset ] [	-b ] string
	      Returns successfully if string matches  the  previously-compiled

	      Upon  successful	match,	if  the	expression captures substrings
	      within parentheses, pcre_match will set the array	match to those
	      substrings, unless the -a	option is given, in which case it will
	      set the array arr.  Similarly, the variable MATCH	will be	set to
	      the  entire  matched portion of the string, unless the -v	option
	      is given,	in which case the variable var will be set.  No	 vari-
	      ables  are altered if there is no	successful match.  A -n	option
	      starts searching for a match from	the byte  offset  position  in
	      string.	If  the	-b option is given, the	variable ZPCRE_OP will
	      be set to	an offset pair string, representing  the  byte	offset
	      positions	 of the	entire matched portion within the string.  For
	      example, a ZPCRE_OP set to "32 45" indicates  that  the  matched
	      portion  began  on  byte	offset 32 and ended on byte offset 44.
	      Here, byte offset	position 45 is the position directly after the
	      matched portion.	Keep in	mind that the byte position isn't nec-
	      essarily the same	as the character position when	UTF-8  charac-
	      ters  are	involved.  Consequently, the byte offset positions are
	      only to be relied	on in the context of using them	for subsequent
	      searches	on  string, using an offset position as	an argument to
	      the -n option.  This is mostly used to implement the  "find  all
	      non-overlapping matches" functionality.

	      A	simple example of "find	all non-overlapping matches":

		     string="The following zip codes: 78884 90210 99513"
		     pcre_compile -m "\d{5}"
		     pcre_match	-b -- $string
		     while [[ $? -eq 0 ]] do
			 pcre_match -b -n $b[2]	-- $string
		     print -l $accum

       The zsh/pcre module makes available the following test condition:

       expr -pcre-match	pcre
	      Matches a	string against a perl-compatible regular expression.

	      For example,

		     [[	"$text"	-pcre-match ^d+$ ]] &&
		     print text	variable contains only "d's".

	      If the REMATCH_PCRE option is set, the =~	operator is equivalent
	      to -pcre-match, and the NO_CASE_MATCH option may be used.	  Note
	      that  NO_CASE_MATCH never	applies	to the pcre_match builtin, in-
	      stead use	the -i switch of pcre_compile.

       The zsh/param/private module is used to create parameters  whose	 scope
       is  limited  to	the  current function body, and	not to other functions
       called by the current function.

       This module provides a single autoloaded	builtin:

       private [ {+|-}AHUahlprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZi [ n ]	] [ name[=value] ... ]
	      The private builtin accepts all the same options	and  arguments
	      as  local	(zshbuiltins(1)) except	for the	`-T' option.  Tied pa-
	      rameters may not be made private.

	      If used at the top level (outside	 a  function  scope),  private
	      creates  a  normal  parameter  in	 the same manner as declare or
	      typeset.	A warning about	this is	printed	if  WARN_CREATE_GLOBAL
	      is  set  (zshoptions(1)).	 Used inside a function	scope, private
	      creates a	local parameter	similar	to one	declared  with	local,
	      except having special properties noted below.

	      Special  parameters  which  expose  or manipulate	internal shell
	      state, such as ARGC,  argv,  COLUMNS,  LINES,  UID,  EUID,  IFS,
	      PROMPT, RANDOM, SECONDS, etc., cannot be made private unless the
	      `-h' option is used to hide the special meaning of  the  parame-
	      ter.  This may change in the future.

       As  with	other typeset equivalents, private is both a builtin and a re-
       served word, so arrays may be assigned  with  parenthesized  word  list
       name=(value...)	syntax.	  However,  the	reserved word `private'	is not
       available until zsh/param/private is loaded, so care must be taken with
       order  of execution and parsing for function definitions	which use pri-
       vate.  To compensate for	this, the module also adds the option `-P'  to
       the `local' builtin to declare private parameters.

       For  example,  this construction	fails if zsh/param/private has not yet
       been loaded when	`bad_declaration' is defined:
	      bad_declaration()	{
		zmodload zsh/param/private
		private	array=(	one two	three )

       This construction works because local is	already	 a  keyword,  and  the
       module is loaded	before the statement is	executed:
	      good_declaration() {
		zmodload zsh/param/private
		local -P array=( one two three )

       The following is	usable in scripts but may have trouble with autoload:
	      zmodload zsh/param/private
	      iffy_declaration() {
		private	array=(	one two	three )

       The  private builtin may	always be used with scalar assignments and for
       declarations without assignments.

       Parameters declared with	private	have the following properties:

       o      Within the function body where it	is declared, the parameter be-
	      haves  as	a local, except	as noted above for tied	or special pa-

       o      The type of a parameter declared private cannot  be  changed  in
	      the scope	where it was declared, even if the parameter is	unset.
	      Thus an array cannot be assigned to a private scalar, etc.

       o      Within any other function	called by the declaring	function,  the
	      private  parameter  does	NOT  hide other	parameters of the same
	      name, so for example a global parameter of the same name is vis-
	      ible  and	 may  be  assigned  or	unset.	This includes calls to
	      anonymous	functions, although that may also change  in  the  fu-

       o      An  exported  private remains in the environment of inner	scopes
	      but appears unset	for the	current	shell in those scopes.	Gener-
	      ally, exporting private parameters should	be avoided.

       Note  that  this	differs	from the static	scope defined by compiled lan-
       guages derived from C, in that the a new	call to	the same function cre-
       ates a new scope, i.e., the parameter is	still associated with the call
       stack rather than with the function definition.	It  differs  from  ksh
       `typeset	 -S'  because  the  syntax  used to define the function	has no
       bearing on whether the parameter	scope is respected.

       The zsh/regex module makes available the	following test condition:

       expr -regex-match regex
	      Matches a	string against a POSIX	extended  regular  expression.
	      On successful match, matched portion of the string will normally
	      be placed	in the MATCH variable.	If  there  are	any  capturing
	      parentheses within the regex, then the match array variable will
	      contain those.  If the match is not successful, then  the	 vari-
	      ables will not be	altered.

	      For example,

		     [[	alphabetical -regex-match ^a([^a]+)a([^a]+)a ]]	&&
		     print -l $MATCH X $match

	      If the option REMATCH_PCRE is not	set, then the =~ operator will
	      automatically load this module as	needed	and  will  invoke  the
	      -regex-match operator.

	      If  BASH_REMATCH is set, then the	array BASH_REMATCH will	be set
	      instead of MATCH and match.

       The zsh/sched module makes available one	builtin	command	and one	param-

       sched [-o] [+]hh:mm[:ss]	command	...
       sched [-o] [+]seconds command ...
       sched [ -item ]
	      Make an entry in the scheduled list of commands to execute.  The
	      time may be specified in either absolute or relative  time,  and
	      either as	hours, minutes and (optionally)	seconds	separated by a
	      colon, or	seconds	alone.	An absolute number  of	seconds	 indi-
	      cates  the time since the	epoch (1970/01/01 00:00); this is use-
	      ful in combination with the features in the zsh/datetime module,
	      see the zsh/datetime module entry	in zshmodules(1).

	      With  no	arguments,  prints the list of scheduled commands.  If
	      the scheduled command has	the -o flag set, this is shown at  the
	      start of the command.

	      With the argument	`-item', removes the given item	from the list.
	      The numbering of the list	is continuous and entries are in  time
	      order,  so  the  numbering  can change when entries are added or

	      Commands are executed either immediately	before	a  prompt,  or
	      while the	shell's	line editor is waiting for input.  In the lat-
	      ter case it is useful to be able to produce output that does not
	      interfere	 with  the line	being edited.  Providing the option -o
	      causes the shell to clear	the command line before	the event  and
	      redraw  it  afterwards.	This should be used with any scheduled
	      event that produces visible output to the	terminal;  it  is  not
	      needed,  for example, with output	that updates a terminal	emula-
	      tor's title bar.

	      To effect	changes	to the editor buffer when an  event  executes,
	      use the `zle' command with no arguments to test whether the edi-
	      tor is active, and if it is, then	use `zle widget' to access the
	      editor via the named widget.

	      The  sched  builtin  is  not  made available by default when the
	      shell starts in a	mode emulating another shell.  It can be  made
	      available	with the command `zmodload -F zsh/sched	b:sched'.

	      A	 readonly  array  corresponding	to the events scheduled	by the
	      sched builtin.  The indices of the array correspond to the  num-
	      bers  shown  when	 sched is run with no arguments	(provided that
	      the KSH_ARRAYS option is not set).  The value of the array  con-
	      sists  of	the scheduled time in seconds since the	epoch (see the
	      section `The zsh/datetime	Module'	for facilities for using  this
	      number), followed	by a colon, followed by	any options (which may
	      be empty but will	be preceded by a `-' otherwise), followed by a
	      colon, followed by the command to	be executed.

	      The  sched  builtin  should be used for manipulating the events.
	      Note that	this will have an immediate effect on the contents  of
	      the array, so that indices may become invalid.

       The zsh/net/socket module makes available one builtin command:

       zsocket [ -altv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
	      zsocket  is  implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell
	      command line editing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

   Outbound Connections
       zsocket [ -v ] [	-d fd ]	filename
	      Open a new Unix domain connection	to filename.  The shell	param-
	      eter  REPLY  will	 be set	to the file descriptor associated with
	      that connection.	Currently, only	stream	connections  are  sup-

	      If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will	be taken as the	target
	      file descriptor for the connection.

	      In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

	      File descriptors can be closed with normal shell syntax when  no
	      longer needed, for example:

		     exec {REPLY}>&-

   Inbound Connections
       zsocket -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
	      zsocket  -l will open a socket listening on filename.  The shell
	      parameter	REPLY will be set to the  file	descriptor  associated
	      with that	listener.

	      If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will	be taken as the	target
	      file descriptor for the connection.

	      In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       zsocket -a [ -tv	] [ -d targetfd	] listenfd
	      zsocket -a will accept an	incoming connection to the socket  as-
	      sociated	with  listenfd.	 The shell parameter REPLY will	be set
	      to the file descriptor associated	with the inbound connection.

	      If -d is specified, its argument will be	taken  as  the	target
	      file descriptor for the connection.

	      If  -t  is specified, zsocket will return	if no incoming connec-
	      tion is pending.	Otherwise it will wait for one.

	      In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       The zsh/stat module makes available one builtin command under two  pos-
       sible names:

       zstat [ -gnNolLtTrs ] [ -f fd ] [ -H hash ] [ -A	array ]	[ -F fmt ]
	     [ +element	] [ file ... ]
       stat ...
	      The  command  acts  as  a	front end to the stat system call (see
	      stat(2)).	 The same command is provided with two names;  as  the
	      name stat	is often used by an external command it	is recommended
	      that only	the zstat form of the command is used.	 This  can  be
	      arranged	by  loading  the  module with the command `zmodload -F
	      zsh/stat b:zstat'.

	      If the stat call fails, the  appropriate	system	error  message
	      printed  and  status  1  is returned.  The fields	of struct stat
	      give information about the files provided	as  arguments  to  the
	      command.	 In addition to	those available	from the stat call, an
	      extra element `link' is provided.	 These elements	are:

	      device The number	of the device on which the file	resides.

	      inode  The unique	number of the file  on	this  device  (`inode'

	      mode   The mode of the file; that	is, the	file's type and	access
		     permissions.  With	the -s option, this will  be  returned
		     as	a string corresponding to the first column in the dis-
		     play of the ls -l command.

	      nlink  The number	of hard	links to the file.

	      uid    The user ID of the	owner of the file.  With  the  -s  op-
		     tion, this	is displayed as	a user name.

	      gid    The  group	 ID  of	the file.  With	the -s option, this is
		     displayed as a group name.

	      rdev   The raw device number.  This is only useful  for  special

	      size   The size of the file in bytes.

	      ctime  The  last	access,	modification and inode change times of
		     the file, respectively, as	the number  of	seconds	 since
		     midnight  GMT  on 1st January, 1970.  With	the -s option,
		     these are printed as strings for the local	time zone; the
		     format can	be altered with	the -F option, and with	the -g
		     option the	times are in GMT.

		     The number	of bytes in one	allocation block on the	device
		     on	which the file resides.

	      block  The number	of disk	blocks used by the file.

	      link   If	 the  file  is	a link and the -L option is in effect,
		     this contains the name of the file	linked	to,  otherwise
		     it	 is  empty.   Note  that  if  this element is selected
		     (``zstat +link'') then the	 -L  option  is	 automatically

	      A	 particular element may	be selected by including its name pre-
	      ceded by a `+' in	the option list; only one element is  allowed.
	      The  element may be shortened to any unique set of leading char-
	      acters.  Otherwise, all elements will be shown for all files.


	      -A array
		     Instead of	displaying the results on standard output, as-
		     sign  them	to an array, one struct	stat element per array
		     element for each file in order.  In this case neither the
		     name  of the element nor the name of the files appears in
		     array unless the -t or -n	options	 were  given,  respec-
		     tively.   If  -t  is given, the element name appears as a
		     prefix to the appropriate array element; if -n is	given,
		     the file name appears as a	separate array element preced-
		     ing all the others.  Other	 formatting  options  are  re-

	      -H hash
		     Similar  to  -A,  but  instead assign the values to hash.
		     The keys are the elements listed above.  If the -n	option
		     is	 provided then the name	of the file is included	in the
		     hash with key name.

	      -f fd  Use the file on  file  descriptor	fd  instead  of	 named
		     files; no list of file names is allowed in	this case.

	      -F fmt Supplies a	strftime (see strftime(3)) string for the for-
		     matting of	the time elements.  The	-s option is implied.

	      -g     Show the time elements in the GMT time zone.  The -s  op-
		     tion is implied.

	      -l     List  the	names of the type elements (to standard	output
		     or	an array as appropriate) and return  immediately;  op-
		     tions other than -A and arguments are ignored.

	      -L     Perform an	lstat (see lstat(2)) rather than a stat	system
		     call.  In this case, if the file is a  link,  information
		     about  the	link itself rather than	the target file	is re-
		     turned.  This option is required to make the link element
		     useful.   It's  important	to note	that this is the exact
		     opposite from ls(1), etc.

	      -n     Always show the names of files.  Usually these  are  only
		     shown when	output is to standard output and there is more
		     than one file in the list.

	      -N     Never show	the names of files.

	      -o     If	a raw file mode	is printed, show it in octal, which is
		     more  useful  for	human  consumption than	the default of
		     decimal.  A leading zero will be printed  in  this	 case.
		     Note that this does not affect whether a raw or formatted
		     file mode is shown, which is controlled by	the -r and  -s
		     options, nor whether a mode is shown at all.

	      -r     Print raw data (the default format) alongside string data
		     (the -s format); the string data appears  in  parentheses
		     after the raw data.

	      -s     Print  mode,  uid,	 gid  and  the	three time elements as
		     strings instead of	numbers.  In each case the  format  is
		     like that of ls -l.

	      -t     Always  show  the	type  names for	the elements of	struct
		     stat.  Usually these are only shown  when	output	is  to
		     standard  output  and  no individual element has been se-

	      -T     Never show	the type names of the struct stat elements.

       The zsh/system module makes available various builtin commands and  pa-

       syserror	[ -e errvar ] [	-p prefix ] [ errno | errname ]
	      This command prints out the error	message	associated with	errno,
	      a	system error number, followed by a newline to standard error.

	      Instead of the error number, a name errname, for example ENOENT,
	      may  be  used.   The set of names	is the same as the contents of
	      the array	errnos,	see below.

	      If the string prefix is given, it	is printed in front of the er-
	      ror message, with	no intervening space.

	      If errvar	is supplied, the entire	message, without a newline, is
	      assigned to the parameter	names errvar and nothing is output.

	      A	return status of 0  indicates  the  message  was  successfully
	      printed  (although  it may not be	useful if the error number was
	      out of the system's range), a return status of  1	 indicates  an
	      error  in	the parameters,	and a return status of 2 indicates the
	      error name was not recognised (no	message	is printed for this).

       sysopen [ -arw ]	[ -m permissions ] [ -o	options	]
	       -u fd file
	      This command opens a file. The -r,  -w  and  -a  flags  indicate
	      whether  the  file should	be opened for reading, writing and ap-
	      pending, respectively. The -m option allows the initial  permis-
	      sions to use when	creating a file	to be specified	in octal form.
	      The file descriptor is specified with  -u.  Either  an  explicit
	      file  descriptor in the range 0 to 9 can be specified or a vari-
	      able name	can be given to	which the file descriptor number  will
	      be assigned.

	      The -o option allows various system specific options to be spec-
	      ified as a comma-separated list. The following is	a list of pos-
	      sible  options. Note that, depending on the system, some may not
	      be available.
		     mark file to be closed when other programs	are executed

	      creat  create file if it does not	exist

	      excl   create file, error	if it already exists

		     suppress updating of the file atime

		     fail if file is a symbolic	link

	      sync   request that writes wait until data has  been  physically

	      trunc  truncate file to size 0

	      To close the file, use one of the	following:

		     exec {fd}<&-
		     exec {fd}>&-

       sysread [ -c countvar ] [ -i infd ] [ -o	outfd ]
	       [ -s bufsize ] [	-t timeout ] [ param ]
	      Perform  a single	system read from file descriptor infd, or zero
	      if that is not given.  The result	of the read is stored in param
	      or REPLY if that is not given.  If countvar is given, the	number
	      of bytes read is assigned	to the parameter named by countvar.

	      The maximum number of bytes read is bufsize or 8192 if  that  is
	      not  given, however the command returns as soon as any number of
	      bytes was	successfully read.

	      If timeout is given, it specifies	a timeout  in  seconds,	 which
	      may be zero to poll the file descriptor.	This is	handled	by the
	      poll system call if available, otherwise the select system  call
	      if available.

	      If  outfd	 is  given,  an	attempt	is made	to write all the bytes
	      just read	to the file descriptor outfd.  If this fails,  because
	      of a system error	other than EINTR or because of an internal zsh
	      error during an interrupt, the bytes read	but  not  written  are
	      stored  in  the parameter	named by param if supplied (no default
	      is used in this case), and the number  of	 bytes	read  but  not
	      written  is stored in the	parameter named	by countvar if that is
	      supplied.	 If it was successful, countvar	contains the full num-
	      ber of bytes transferred,	as usual, and param is not set.

	      The  error EINTR (interrupted system call) is handled internally
	      so that shell interrupts are transparent	to  the	 caller.   Any
	      other error causes a return.

	      The possible return statuses are
	      0	     At	 least	one byte of data was successfully read and, if
		     appropriate, written.

	      1	     There was an error	in  the	 parameters  to	 the  command.
		     This  is the only error for which a message is printed to
		     standard error.

	      2	     There was an error	on the read, or	on polling  the	 input
		     file descriptor for a timeout.  The parameter ERRNO gives
		     the error.

	      3	     Data were successfully read, but there was	an error writ-
		     ing them to outfd.	 The parameter ERRNO gives the error.

	      4	     The  attempt  to  read timed out.	Note this does not set
		     ERRNO as this is not a system error.

	      5	     No	system error occurred, but zero	bytes were read.  This
		     usually  indicates	 end  of file.	The parameters are set
		     according to the usual rules; no write to	outfd  is  at-

       sysseek [ -u fd ] [ -w start|end|current	] offset
	      The  current file	position at which future reads and writes will
	      take place is adjusted to	the specified byte offset. The	offset
	      is evaluated as a	math expression. The -u	option allows the file
	      descriptor to be specified. By default the offset	 is  specified
	      relative to the start or the file	but, with the -w option, it is
	      possible to specify that the offset should be  relative  to  the
	      current position or the end of the file.

       syswrite	[ -c countvar ]	[ -o outfd ] data
	      The  data	(a single string of bytes) are written to the file de-
	      scriptor outfd, or 1 if that is not given, using the write  sys-
	      tem  call.   Multiple  write operations may be used if the first
	      does not write all the data.

	      If countvar is given, the	number of byte written	is  stored  in
	      the parameter named by countvar; this may	not be the full	length
	      of data if an error occurred.

	      The error	EINTR (interrupted system call)	is handled  internally
	      by  retrying;  otherwise	an error causes	the command to return.
	      For example, if the file descriptor is set to non-blocking  out-
	      put,  an	error EAGAIN (on some systems, EWOULDBLOCK) may	result
	      in the command returning early.

	      The return status	may be 0 for success, 1	for an	error  in  the
	      parameters  to  the  command, or 2 for an	error on the write; no
	      error message is printed in the last case, but the parameter ER-
	      RNO will reflect the error that occurred.

       zsystem flock [ -t timeout ] [ -f var ] [-er] file
       zsystem flock -u	fd_expr
	      The  builtin  zsystem's  subcommand flock	performs advisory file
	      locking (via the fcntl(2)	system call) over the entire  contents
	      of  the given file.  This	form of	locking	requires the processes
	      accessing	the file to cooperate; its most	obvious	use is between
	      two instances of the shell itself.

	      In  the  first form the named file, which	must already exist, is
	      locked by	opening	a file descriptor to the file and  applying  a
	      lock to the file descriptor.  The	lock terminates	when the shell
	      process that created the lock exits; it is therefore often  con-
	      venient to create	file locks within subshells, since the lock is
	      automatically released when the subshell exits.  Status 0	is re-
	      turned if	the lock succeeds, else	status 1.

	      In  the  second form the file descriptor given by	the arithmetic
	      expression fd_expr is closed, releasing a	lock.	The  file  de-
	      scriptor	can  be	 queried by using the `-f var' form during the
	      lock; on a successful lock, the shell variable var is set	to the
	      file  descriptor used for	locking.  The lock will	be released if
	      the file descriptor is closed by any other  means,  for  example
	      using `exec {var}>&-'; however, the form described here performs
	      a	safety check that the file descriptor is in use	for file lock-

	      By default the shell waits indefinitely for the lock to succeed.
	      The option -t timeout specifies a	timeout	for the	lock  in  sec-
	      onds; currently this must	be an integer.	The shell will attempt
	      to lock the file once a second during this period.  If  the  at-
	      tempt times out, status 2	is returned.

	      If  the  option -e is given, the file descriptor for the lock is
	      preserved	when the shell uses exec to start a new	process;  oth-
	      erwise it	is closed at that point	and the	lock released.

	      If  the option -r	is given, the lock is only for reading,	other-
	      wise it is for reading and  writing.   The  file	descriptor  is
	      opened accordingly.

       zsystem supports	subcommand
	      The  builtin zsystem's subcommand	supports tests whether a given
	      subcommand is supported.	It returns status 0 if so, else	status
	      1.   It  operates	silently unless	there was a syntax error (i.e.
	      the wrong	number of arguments), in which case status 255 is  re-
	      turned.  Status 1	can indicate one of two	things:	 subcommand is
	      known but	not supported by the current operating system, or sub-
	      command  is not known (possibly because this is an older version
	      of the shell before it was implemented).

   Math	Functions
	      The systell math function	returns	the current file position  for
	      the file descriptor passed as an argument.

       errnos A	 readonly  array of the	names of errors	defined	on the system.
	      These are	typically macros defined in C by including the	system
	      header  file  errno.h.  The index	of each	name (assuming the op-
	      tion KSH_ARRAYS is unset)	corresponds to the error number.   Er-
	      ror  numbers  num	before the last	known error which have no name
	      are given	the name Enum in the array.

	      Note that	aliases	for errors are not handled; only the canonical
	      name is used.

	      A	readonly associative array.  The keys are:

	      pid    Returns  the  process  ID of the current process, even in
		     subshells.	 Compare $$, which returns the process	ID  of
		     the main shell process.

	      ppid   Returns  the  process  ID	of  the	 parent	of the current
		     process, even in subshells.  Compare $PPID, which returns
		     the process ID of the parent of the main shell process.

       The zsh/net/tcp module makes available one builtin command:

       ztcp [ -acflLtv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
	      ztcp is implemented as a builtin to allow	full use of shell com-
	      mand line	editing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

	      If ztcp is run with no options, it will output the  contents  of
	      its session table.

	      If  it  is  run with only	the option -L, it will output the con-
	      tents of the session table in a format  suitable	for  automatic
	      parsing.	 The option is ignored if given	with a command to open
	      or close a session.  The output consists of a set	of lines,  one
	      per session, each	containing the following elements separated by

	      File descriptor
		     The file descriptor in use	for the	connection.  For  nor-
		     mal  inbound (I) and outbound (O) connections this	may be
		     read and written by the usual shell mechanisms.  However,
		     it	should only be close with `ztcp	-c'.

	      Connection type
		     A letter indicating how the session was created:

		     Z	    A session created with the zftp command.

		     L	    A connection opened	for listening with `ztcp -l'.

		     I	    An inbound connection accepted with	`ztcp -a'.

		     O	    An	outbound  connection  created  with `ztcp host

	      The local	host
		     This is usually set to an all-zero	IP address as the  ad-
		     dress of the localhost is irrelevant.

	      The local	port
		     This  is  likely  to be zero unless the connection	is for

	      The remote host
		     This is the fully qualified domain	name of	the  peer,  if
		     available,	 else an IP address.  It is an all-zero	IP ad-
		     dress for a session opened	for listening.

	      The remote port
		     This is zero for a	connection opened for listening.

   Outbound Connections
       ztcp [ -v ] [ -d	fd ] host [ port ]
	      Open a new TCP connection	to host.  If the port is  omitted,  it
	      will  default  to	 port 23.  The connection will be added	to the
	      session table and	the shell parameter REPLY will be set  to  the
	      file descriptor associated with that connection.

	      If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will	be taken as the	target
	      file descriptor for the connection.

	      In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       ztcp -l [ -v ] [	-d fd ]	port
	      ztcp -l will open	a socket listening on TCP  port.   The	socket
	      will be added to the session table and the shell parameter REPLY
	      will be set to the file descriptor  associated  with  that  lis-

	      If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will	be taken as the	target
	      file descriptor for the connection.

	      In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       ztcp -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
	      ztcp -a will accept an incoming connection to the	 port  associ-
	      ated with	listenfd.  The connection will be added	to the session
	      table and	the shell parameter REPLY will be set to the file  de-
	      scriptor associated with the inbound connection.

	      If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will	be taken as the	target
	      file descriptor for the connection.

	      If -t is specified, ztcp will return if no  incoming  connection
	      is pending.  Otherwise it	will wait for one.

	      In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Closing Connections
       ztcp -cf	[ -v ] [ fd ]
       ztcp -c [ -v ] [	fd ]
	      ztcp  -c	will  close the	socket associated with fd.  The	socket
	      will be removed from the session table.  If fd is	not specified,
	      ztcp will	close everything in the	session	table.

	      Normally,	sockets	registered by zftp (see	zshmodules(1) )	cannot
	      be closed	this way.  In order to force such a socket closed, use

	      In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       Here  is	 how  to create	a TCP connection between two instances of zsh.
       We need to pick an unassigned port; here	we  use	 the  randomly	chosen

       On host1,
	      zmodload zsh/net/tcp
	      ztcp -l 5123
	      ztcp -a $listenfd
       The  second from	last command blocks until there	is an incoming connec-

       Now create a connection from host2 (which may, of course, be  the  same
	      zmodload zsh/net/tcp
	      ztcp host1 5123

       Now  on	each  host,  $fd contains a file descriptor for	talking	to the
       other.  For example, on host1:
	      print This is a message >&$fd
       and on host2:
	      read -r line <&$fd; print	-r - $line
       prints `This is a message'.

       To tidy up, on host1:
	      ztcp -c $listenfd
	      ztcp -c $fd
       and on host2
	      ztcp -c $fd

       The zsh/termcap module makes available one builtin command:

       echotc cap [ arg	... ]
	      Output the termcap value corresponding to	 the  capability  cap,
	      with optional arguments.

       The zsh/termcap module makes available one parameter:

	      An associative array that	maps termcap capability	codes to their

       The zsh/terminfo	module makes available one builtin command:

       echoti cap [ arg	]
	      Output the terminfo value	corresponding to the  capability  cap,
	      instantiated with	arg if applicable.

       The zsh/terminfo	module makes available one parameter:

	      An  associative  array  that  maps  terminfo capability names to
	      their values.

       The zsh/zftp module makes available one builtin command:

       zftp subcommand [ args ]
	      The zsh/zftp module is a client for FTP  (file  transfer	proto-
	      col).  It	is implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell
	      command line editing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.  Of-
	      ten,  users  will	access it via shell functions providing	a more
	      powerful interface; a set	is provided with the zsh  distribution
	      and is described in zshzftpsys(1).  However, the zftp command is
	      entirely usable in its own right.

	      All commands consist of the command name zftp  followed  by  the
	      name  of a subcommand.  These are	listed below.  The return sta-
	      tus of each subcommand is	supposed to  reflect  the  success  or
	      failure of the remote operation.	See a description of the vari-
	      able ZFTP_VERBOSE	for more information on	how responses from the
	      server may be printed.

       open host[:port]	[ user [ password [ account ] ]	]
	      Open  a  new  FTP	 session  to  host, which may be the name of a
	      TCP/IP connected host or an IP number in the standard dot	 nota-
	      tion.   If the argument is in the	form host:port,	open a connec-
	      tion to TCP port port instead of the standard FTP	port 21.  This
	      may  be the name of a TCP	service	or a number:  see the descrip-
	      tion of ZFTP_PORT	below for more information.

	      If IPv6 addresses	in colon format	are used, the host  should  be
	      surrounded  by quoted square brackets to distinguish it from the
	      port, for	example	'[fe80::203:baff:fe02:8b56]'.  For consistency
	      this is allowed with all forms of	host.

	      Remaining	 arguments  are	 passed	to the login subcommand.  Note
	      that if no arguments beyond host are supplied, open will not au-
	      tomatically  call	 login.	  If no	arguments at all are supplied,
	      open will	use the	parameters set by the params subcommand.

	      After  a	successful  open,  the	shell	variables   ZFTP_HOST,
	      ZFTP_PORT,  ZFTP_IP  and	ZFTP_SYSTEM  are available; see	`Vari-
	      ables' below.

       login [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
       user [ name [ password [	account	] ] ]
	      Login the	user name with parameters password and	account.   Any
	      of the parameters	can be omitted,	and will be read from standard
	      input if needed (name is always needed).	If standard input is a
	      terminal,	 a prompt for each one will be printed on standard er-
	      ror and password will not	be echoed.  If any of  the  parameters
	      are not used, a warning message is printed.

	      After   a	 successful  login,  the  shell	 variables  ZFTP_USER,
	      ZFTP_ACCOUNT and ZFTP_PWD	are available; see `Variables' below.

	      This command may be re-issued when a user	is already logged  in,
	      and the server will first	be reinitialized for a new user.

       params [	host [ user [ password [ account ] ] ] ]
       params -
	      Store  the given parameters for a	later open command with	no ar-
	      guments.	Only those given on the	command	line  will  be	remem-
	      bered.   If no arguments are given, the parameters currently set
	      are printed, although the	password will  appear  as  a  line  of
	      stars;  the return status	is one if no parameters	were set, zero

	      Any of the parameters may	be specified as	a `?', which may  need
	      to  be quoted to protect it from shell expansion.	 In this case,
	      the appropriate parameter	will be	read from stdin	 as  with  the
	      login  subcommand,  including  special handling of password.  If
	      the `?' is followed by a string, that is used as the prompt  for
	      reading the parameter instead of the default message (any	neces-
	      sary punctuation and whitespace should be	included at the	end of
	      the  prompt).   The  first letter	of the parameter (only)	may be
	      quoted with a `\'; hence an argument "\\$word"  guarantees  that
	      the string from the shell	parameter $word	will be	treated	liter-
	      ally, whether or not it begins with a `?'.

	      If instead a single `-' is given,	the  existing  parameters,  if
	      any,  are	deleted.  In that case,	calling	open with no arguments
	      will cause an error.

	      The list of parameters is	not deleted after a close, however  it
	      will be deleted if the zsh/zftp module is	unloaded.

	      For example,

		     zftp params ftp.elsewhere.xx juser	'?Password for juser: '

	      will store the host ftp.elsewhere.xx and the user	juser and then
	      prompt the user for the corresponding password  with  the	 given

       test   Test  the	 connection;  if  the  server has reported that	it has
	      closed the connection (maybe due to a timeout), return status 2;
	      if  no  connection was open anyway, return status	1; else	return
	      status 0.	 The test subcommand is	silent,	 apart	from  messages
	      printed by the $ZFTP_VERBOSE mechanism, or error messages	if the
	      connection closes.  There	is no network overhead for this	test.

	      The test is only supported on systems with either	the  select(2)
	      or poll(2) system	calls; otherwise the message `not supported on
	      this system' is printed instead.

	      The test subcommand will automatically be	called at the start of
	      any  other  subcommand for the current session when a connection
	      is open.

       cd directory
	      Change the remote	directory to directory.	 Also alters the shell
	      variable ZFTP_PWD.

       cdup   Change  the  remote directory to the one higher in the directory
	      tree.  Note that cd .. will also work correctly on non-UNIX sys-

       dir [ arg ... ]
	      Give  a (verbose)	listing	of the remote directory.  The args are
	      passed directly to the server. The command's behaviour is	imple-
	      mentation	 dependent, but	a UNIX server will typically interpret
	      args as arguments	to the ls command and with no arguments	return
	      the  result of `ls -l'. The directory is listed to standard out-

       ls [ arg	... ]
	      Give a (short) listing of	the remote directory.	With  no  arg,
	      produces a raw list of the files in the directory, one per line.
	      Otherwise, up to vagaries	of the server implementation,  behaves
	      similar to dir.

       type [ type ]
	      Change  the  type	for the	transfer to type, or print the current
	      type if type is absent.  The allowed values are `A' (ASCII), `I'
	      (Image, i.e. binary), or `B' (a synonym for `I').

	      The FTP default for a transfer is	ASCII.	However, if zftp finds
	      that the remote host is a	UNIX machine with 8-bit	byes, it  will
	      automatically  switch  to	 using	binary for file	transfers upon
	      open.  This can subsequently be overridden.

	      The transfer type	is only	passed to the remote host when a  data
	      connection  is  established;  this  command  involves no network

       ascii  The same as type A.

       binary The same as type I.

       mode [ S	| B ]
	      Set the mode type	to stream (S) or block (B).   Stream  mode  is
	      the default; block mode is not widely supported.

       remote file ...
       local [ file ...	]
	      Print the	size and last modification time	of the remote or local
	      files.  If there is more than one	item on	the list, the name  of
	      the  file	 is printed first.  The	first number is	the file size,
	      the second is the	last modification time of the file in the for-
	      mat  CCYYMMDDhhmmSS  consisting of year, month, date, hour, min-
	      utes and seconds in GMT.	Note that this format,	including  the
	      length, is guaranteed, so	that time strings can be directly com-
	      pared via	the [[ builtin's < and > operators, even if  they  are
	      too long to be represented as integers.

	      Not  all servers support the commands for	retrieving this	infor-
	      mation.  In that case, the remote	command	will print nothing and
	      return status 2, compared	with status 1 for a file not found.

	      The  local  command  (but	 not remote) may be used with no argu-
	      ments, in	which case the information comes from  examining  file
	      descriptor zero.	This is	the same file as seen by a put command
	      with no further redirection.

       get file	...
	      Retrieve all files from the server, concatenating	them and send-
	      ing them to standard output.

       put file	...
	      For  each	file, read a file from standard	input and send that to
	      the remote host with the given name.

       append file ...
	      As put, but if the remote	file already exists, data is  appended
	      to it instead of overwriting it.

       getat file point
       putat file point
       appendat	file point
	      Versions of get, put and append which will start the transfer at
	      the given	point in the remote file.  This	is useful for  append-
	      ing  to an incomplete local file.	 However, note that this abil-
	      ity is not universally supported by servers (and	is  not	 quite
	      the behaviour specified by the standard).

       delete file ...
	      Delete the list of files on the server.

       mkdir directory
	      Create a new directory directory on the server.

       rmdir directory
	      Delete the directory directory  on the server.

       rename old-name new-name
	      Rename file old-name to new-name on the server.

       site arg	...
	      Send  a  host-specific command to	the server.  You will probably
	      only need	this if	instructed by the server to use	it.

       quote arg ...
	      Send the raw FTP command sequence	to the server.	You should  be
	      familiar	with  the  FTP command set as defined in RFC959	before
	      doing this.  Useful commands may include STAT  and  HELP.	  Note
	      also  the	 mechanism for returning messages as described for the
	      variable ZFTP_VERBOSE below, in  particular  that	 all  messages
	      from the control connection are sent to standard error.

       quit   Close the	current	data connection.  This unsets the shell	param-

       session [ sessname ]
	      Allows  multiple	FTP  sessions to be used at once.  The name of
	      the session is an	arbitrary string of  characters;  the  default
	      session  is called `default'.  If	this command is	called without
	      an argument, it will list	all the	current	sessions; with an  ar-
	      gument,  it  will	 either	 switch	to the existing	session	called
	      sessname,	or create a new	session	of that	name.

	      Each session remembers the status	of the connection, the set  of
	      connection-specific  shell parameters (the same set as are unset
	      when a connection	closes,	as given in the	description of close),
	      and  any	user  parameters specified with	the params subcommand.
	      Changing to a previous session restores those  values;  changing
	      to a new session initialises them	in the same way	as if zftp had
	      just been	loaded.	 The name of the current session is  given  by
	      the parameter ZFTP_SESSION.

       rmsession [ sessname ]
	      Delete a session;	if a name is not given,	the current session is
	      deleted.	If the current session is deleted, the earliest	exist-
	      ing  session becomes the new current session, otherwise the cur-
	      rent session is not changed.  If the session  being  deleted  is
	      the  only	one, a new session called `default' is created and be-
	      comes the	current	session; note that this	is a new session  even
	      if  the  session	being  deleted is also called `default'. It is
	      recommended that sessions	not be deleted while  background  com-
	      mands which use zftp are still active.

       The  following  shell  parameters  are used by zftp.  Currently none of
       them are	special.

	      Integer.	The time in seconds to wait for	a network operation to
	      complete before returning	an error.  If this is not set when the
	      module is	loaded,	it will	be given  the  default	value  60.   A
	      value  of	 zero  turns off timeouts.  If a timeout occurs	on the
	      control connection it will be closed.  Use  a  larger  value  if
	      this occurs too frequently.

	      Readonly.	 The IP	address	of the current connection in dot nota-

	      Readonly.	 The hostname of the current remote  server.   If  the
	      host  was	 opened	 as  an	IP number, ZFTP_HOST contains that in-
	      stead; this saves	the overhead for a name	lookup,	as IP  numbers
	      are most commonly	used when a nameserver is unavailable.

	      Readonly.	  The  number of the remote TCP	port to	which the con-
	      nection is open (even if the port	was originally specified as  a
	      named service).  Usually this is the standard FTP	port, 21.

	      In  the unlikely event that your system does not have the	appro-
	      priate conversion	functions, this	appears	in network byte	order.
	      If  your	system is little-endian, the port then consists	of two
	      swapped bytes and	the standard port will be  reported  as	 5376.
	      In  that	case, numeric ports passed to zftp open	will also need
	      to be in this format.

	      Readonly.	 The system type string	returned by the	server in  re-
	      sponse  to  an FTP SYST request.	The most interesting case is a
	      string beginning "UNIX Type: L8",	which ensures maximum compati-
	      bility with a local UNIX host.

	      Readonly.	  The  type to be used for data	transfers , either `A'
	      or `I'.	Use the	type subcommand	to change this.

	      Readonly.	 The username currently	logged in, if any.

	      Readonly.	 The account name of the current user, if  any.	  Most
	      servers do not require an	account	name.

	      Readonly.	 The current directory on the server.

	      Readonly.	  The  three digit code	of the last FTP	reply from the
	      server as	a string.  This	can still be read after	the connection
	      is closed, and is	not changed when the current session changes.

	      Readonly.	  The  last line of the	last reply sent	by the server.
	      This can still be	read after the connection is  closed,  and  is
	      not changed when the current session changes.

	      Readonly.	 The name of the current FTP session; see the descrip-
	      tion of the session subcommand.

	      A	string of preferences for altering aspects  of	zftp's	behav-
	      iour.  Each preference is	a single character.  The following are

	      P	     Passive:  attempt to make the remote server initiate data
		     transfers.	 This is slightly more efficient than sendport
		     mode.  If the letter S occurs later in the	 string,  zftp
		     will use sendport mode if passive mode is not available.

	      S	     Sendport:	 initiate  transfers  by the FTP PORT command.
		     If	this occurs before any P in the	string,	 passive  mode
		     will never	be attempted.

	      D	     Dumb:   use  only the bare	minimum	of FTP commands.  This
		     prevents the variables ZFTP_SYSTEM	and ZFTP_PWD from  be-
		     ing  set,	and will mean all connections default to ASCII
		     type.  It may prevent ZFTP_SIZE from being	set  during  a
		     transfer  if  the	server	does  not send it anyway (many
		     servers do).

	      If ZFTP_PREFS is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set  to
	      a	default	of `PS', i.e. use passive mode if available, otherwise
	      fall back	to sendport mode.

	      A	string of digits between 0 and 5 inclusive,  specifying	 which
	      responses	 from  the server should be printed.  All responses go
	      to standard error.  If any of the	numbers	1 to 5 appear  in  the
	      string, raw responses from the server with reply codes beginning
	      with that	digit will be printed to standard  error.   The	 first
	      digit of the three digit reply code is defined by	RFC959 to cor-
	      respond to:

	      1.     A positive	preliminary reply.

	      2.     A positive	completion reply.

	      3.     A positive	intermediate reply.

	      4.     A transient negative completion reply.

	      5.     A permanent negative completion reply.

	      It should	be noted that, for unknown reasons, the	reply `Service
	      not  available',	which  forces  termination of a	connection, is
	      classified as 421, i.e. `transient negative', an interesting in-
	      terpretation of the word `transient'.

	      The  code	0 is special:  it indicates that all but the last line
	      of multiline replies read	from the server	 will  be  printed  to
	      standard	error  in  a processed format.	By convention, servers
	      use this mechanism for sending information for the user to read.
	      The  appropriate	reply  code,  if it matches the	same response,
	      takes priority.

	      If ZFTP_VERBOSE is not set when zftp is loaded, it will  be  set
	      to  the  default value 450, i.e.,	messages destined for the user
	      and all errors will be printed.  A  null	string	is  valid  and
	      specifies	that no	messages should	be printed.

	      If this function is set by the user, it is called	every time the
	      directory	changes	on the server, including when a	user is	logged
	      in, or when a connection is closed.  In the last case, $ZFTP_PWD
	      will be unset; otherwise it will reflect the new directory.

	      If this function is set by the user, it will be called during  a
	      get,  put	or append operation each time sufficient data has been
	      received from the	host.  During a	get, the data is sent to stan-
	      dard  output,  so	it is vital that this function should write to
	      standard error or	directly to the	terminal, not to standard out-

	      When it is called	with a transfer	in progress, the following ad-
	      ditional shell parameters	are set:

		     The name of the remote file being transferred from	or to.

		     A G for a get operation and a P for a put operation.

		     The total size of the complete  file  being  transferred:
		     the  same	as  the	first value provided by	the remote and
		     local subcommands for a particular	file.  If  the	server
		     cannot  supply  this  value  for  a remote	file being re-
		     trieved, it will not be set.  If input is from a pipe the
		     value  may	 be  incorrect and correspond simply to	a full
		     pipe buffer.

		     The amount	of data	so far transferred; a  number  between
		     zero  and $ZFTP_SIZE, if that is set.  This number	is al-
		     ways available.

	      The function is initially	called with ZFTP_TRANSFER  set	appro-
	      priately and ZFTP_COUNT set to zero.  After the transfer is fin-
	      ished,  the  function  will  be  called  one  more   time	  with
	      ZFTP_TRANSFER set	to GF or PF, in	case it	wishes to tidy up.  It
	      is  otherwise  never  called  twice  with	 the  same  value   of

	      Sometimes	 the progress meter may	cause disruption.  It is up to
	      the user to decide whether the function should be	defined	and to
	      use unfunction when necessary.

       A  connection may not be	opened in the left hand	side of	a pipe as this
       occurs in a subshell and	the file information is	 not  updated  in  the
       main shell.  In the case	of type	or mode	changes	or closing the connec-
       tion in a subshell, the information is returned but variables  are  not
       updated until the next call to zftp.  Other status changes in subshells
       will not	be reflected by	changes	to the variables (but should be	other-
       wise harmless).

       Deleting	 sessions while	a zftp command is active in the	background can
       have unexpected effects,	even if	it does	 not  use  the	session	 being
       deleted.	  This	is because all shell subprocesses share	information on
       the state of all	connections, and deleting a session changes the	order-
       ing of that information.

       On  some	operating systems, the control connection is not valid after a
       fork(), so that operations in subshells,	on the left  hand  side	 of  a
       pipeline,  or  in  the  background are not possible, as they should be.
       This is presumably a bug	in the operating system.

       The zsh/zle module contains the Zsh Line	Editor.	 See zshzle(1).

       The zsh/zleparameter module defines two special parameters that can  be
       used  to	 access	 internal information of the Zsh Line Editor (see zsh-

	      This array contains the names of the keymaps currently defined.

	      This associative array contains one entry	per widget.  The  name
	      of  the  widget is the key and the value gives information about
	      the widget. It is	either
		the string `builtin' for builtin widgets,
		a string of the	form `user:name' for user-defined widgets,
		  where	name is	the name of the	 shell	function  implementing
	      the widget,
		a string of the	form `completion:type:name'
		  for completion widgets,
		or  a  null  value if the widget is not	yet fully defined.  In
	      the penultimate case, type is the	name of	the builtin widget the
	      completion  widget imitates in its behavior and name is the name
	      of the shell function implementing the completion	widget.

       When loaded, the	zsh/zprof causes shell functions to be profiled.   The
       profiling  results  can be obtained with	the zprof builtin command made
       available by this module.  There	is no way to turn profiling off	 other
       than unloading the module.

       zprof [ -c ]
	      Without the -c option, zprof lists profiling results to standard
	      output.  The format is  comparable  to  that  of	commands  like

	      At  the  top  there is a summary listing all functions that were
	      called at	least once.  This summary is sorted in decreasing  or-
	      der  of the amount of time spent in each.	 The lines contain the
	      number of	the function in	order, which is	used in	other parts of
	      the  list	 in  suffixes  of the form `[num]', then the number of
	      calls made to the	function.  The next  three  columns  list  the
	      time  in milliseconds spent in the function and its descendants,
	      the average time in milliseconds spent in	the function  and  its
	      descendants  per	call  and  the percentage of time spent	in all
	      shell functions used in this function and	its descendants.   The
	      following	 three columns give the	same information, but counting
	      only the time spent in the function itself.   The	 final	column
	      shows the	name of	the function.

	      After  the  summary,  detailed  information about	every function
	      that was invoked is listed, sorted in decreasing	order  of  the
	      amount of	time spent in each function and	its descendants.  Each
	      of these entries consists	of descriptions	for the	functions that
	      called  the  function  described,	 the  function itself, and the
	      functions	that were called from it.   The	 description  for  the
	      function itself has the same format as in	the summary (and shows
	      the same information).  The other	lines don't show the number of
	      the  function at the beginning and have their function named in-
	      dented to	make it	easier to distinguish  the  line  showing  the
	      function described in the	section	from the surrounding lines.

	      The  information shown in	this case is almost the	same as	in the
	      summary, but only	refers to the call hierarchy being  displayed.
	      For example, for a calling function the column showing the total
	      running time lists the time spent	in the described function  and
	      its  descendants only for	the times when it was called from that
	      particular calling function.  Likewise, for a  called  function,
	      this  columns  lists the total time spent	in the called function
	      and its descendants only for the times when it was  called  from
	      the function described.

	      Also  in	this case, the column showing the number of calls to a
	      function also shows a slash and then the total number of invoca-
	      tions made to the	called function.

	      As  long	as  the	 zsh/zprof module is loaded, profiling will be
	      done and multiple	invocations of the zprof builtin command  will
	      show the times and numbers of calls since	the module was loaded.
	      With the -c option, the zprof builtin command will reset its in-
	      ternal counters and will not show	the listing.

       The zsh/zpty module offers one builtin:

       zpty [ -e ] [ -b	] name [ arg ... ]
	      The  arguments  following	 name are concatenated with spaces be-
	      tween, then executed as a	command, as  if	 passed	 to  the  eval
	      builtin.	 The command runs under	a newly	assigned pseudo-termi-
	      nal; this	is useful for running commands non-interactively which
	      expect  an interactive environment.  The name is not part	of the
	      command, but is used to refer to this command in later calls  to

	      With  the	-e option, the pseudo-terminal is set up so that input
	      characters are echoed.

	      With the -b option, input	to and output from the pseudo-terminal
	      are made non-blocking.

	      The shell	parameter REPLY	is set to the file descriptor assigned
	      to the master side of the	pseudo-terminal.  This allows the ter-
	      minal  to	 be  monitored	with ZLE descriptor handlers (see zsh-
	      zle(1)) or  manipulated  with  sysread  and  syswrite  (see  THE
	      ZSH/SYSTEM  MODULE  in  zshmodules(1)).  Warning:	Use of sysread
	      and syswrite is not recommended, use zpty	-r and zpty -w	unless
	      you know exactly what you	are doing.

       zpty -d [ name ... ]
	      The  second form,	with the -d option, is used to delete commands
	      previously started, by supplying a list of their names.	If  no
	      name  is	given,	all  commands are deleted.  Deleting a command
	      causes the HUP signal to be sent to the corresponding process.

       zpty -w [ -n ] name [ string ...	]
	      The -w option can	be used	to send	the to command name the	 given
	      strings as input (separated by spaces).  If the -n option	is not
	      given, a newline is added	at the end.

	      If no string is provided,	the standard input is  copied  to  the
	      pseudo-terminal;	this may stop before copying the full input if
	      the pseudo-terminal is non-blocking.

	      Note that	the command under the pseudo-terminal sees this	 input
	      as  if  it were typed, so	beware when sending special tty	driver
	      characters such as word-erase, line-kill,	and end-of-file.

       zpty -r [ -mt ] name [ param [ pattern ]	]
	      The -r option can	be used	to read	 the  output  of  the  command
	      name.   With  only a name	argument, the output read is copied to
	      the standard output.  Unless the pseudo-terminal	is  non-block-
	      ing, copying continues until the command under the pseudo-termi-
	      nal exits; when non-blocking, only as much output	as is  immedi-
	      ately  available	is  copied.   The return status	is zero	if any
	      output is	copied.

	      When also	given a	param argument,	at most	one line is  read  and
	      stored  in the parameter named param.  Less than a full line may
	      be read if the pseudo-terminal is	non-blocking.  The return sta-
	      tus is zero if at	least one character is stored in param.

	      If  a  pattern  is given as well,	output is read until the whole
	      string read matches the pattern, even in the non-blocking	 case.
	      The  return  status  is zero if the string read matches the pat-
	      tern, or if the command has exited but at	 least	one  character
	      could  still  be	read.  If the option -m	is present, the	return
	      status is	zero only if the pattern matches.  As of this writing,
	      a	maximum	of one megabyte	of output can be consumed this way; if
	      a	full megabyte is read without matching the pattern, the	return
	      status is	non-zero.

	      In  all cases, the return	status is non-zero if nothing could be
	      read, and	is 2 if	this is	because	the command has	finished.

	      If the -r	option is combined with	 the  -t  option,  zpty	 tests
	      whether output is	available before trying	to read.  If no	output
	      is available, zpty immediately returns the status	1.  When  used
	      with  a  pattern,	 the  behaviour	on a failed poll is similar to
	      when the command has exited:  the	return value  is  zero	if  at
	      least  one  character  could  still  be read even	if the pattern
	      failed to	match.

       zpty -t name
	      The -t option without the	-r option can be used to test  whether
	      the  command name	is still running.  It returns a	zero status if
	      the command is running and a non-zero value otherwise.

       zpty [ -L ]
	      The last form, without any arguments, is used to list  the  com-
	      mands  currently	defined.   If  the -L option is	given, this is
	      done in the form of calls	to the zpty builtin.

       The zsh/zselect module makes available one builtin command:

       zselect [ -rwe ]	[ -t timeout ] [ -a array ] [ -A assoc ] [ fd ... ]
	      The zselect builtin is a front-end to the	`select' system	 call,
	      which  blocks  until  a  file descriptor is ready	for reading or
	      writing, or has an error condition, with	an  optional  timeout.
	      If  this	is not available on your system, the command prints an
	      error message and	returns	status 2 (normal errors	return	status
	      1).   For	 more  information, see	your systems documentation for
	      select(3).  Note there is	no connection with the	shell  builtin
	      of the same name.

	      Arguments	and options may	be intermingled	in any order.  Non-op-
	      tion arguments are file descriptors, which must be decimal inte-
	      gers.   By  default, file	descriptors are	to be tested for read-
	      ing, i.e.	zselect	will return when data is available to be  read
	      from  the	file descriptor, or more precisely, when a read	opera-
	      tion from	the file descriptor will not block.  After  a  -r,  -w
	      and -e, the given	file descriptors are to	be tested for reading,
	      writing, or error	conditions.  These options  and	 an  arbitrary
	      list of file descriptors may be given in any order.

	      (The presence of an `error condition' is not well	defined	in the
	      documentation for	many  implementations  of  the	select	system
	      call.   According	to recent versions of the POSIX	specification,
	      it is really an exception	condition, of which the	only  standard
	      example  is out-of-band data received on a socket.  So zsh users
	      are unlikely to find the -e option useful.)

	      The option `-t timeout' specifies	a timeout in hundredths	 of  a
	      second.	This  may  be zero, in which case the file descriptors
	      will simply be polled and	zselect	will return  immediately.   It
	      is  possible  to	call  zselect  with  no	file descriptors and a
	      non-zero timeout for use	as  a  finer-grained  replacement  for
	      `sleep';	note,  however,	 the  return  status is	always 1 for a

	      The option `-a array' indicates that array should	be set to  in-
	      dicate the file descriptor(s) which are ready.  If the option is
	      not given, the array reply will be used for this	purpose.   The
	      array  will  contain  a string similar to	the arguments for zse-
	      lect.  For example,

		     zselect -t	0 -r 0 -w 1

	      might return immediately with status 0 and $reply	containing `-r
	      0	-w 1' to show that both	file descriptors are ready for the re-
	      quested operations.

	      The option `-A assoc' indicates that the associative array assoc
	      should  be  set  to  indicate  the  file descriptor(s) which are
	      ready.  This option overrides the	option -a, nor will  reply  be
	      modified.	  The  keys of assoc are the file descriptors, and the
	      corresponding values are any of the characters `rwe' to indicate
	      the condition.

	      The  command returns status 0 if some file descriptors are ready
	      for reading.  If the operation timed out,	or a timeout of	0  was
	      given and	no file	descriptors were ready,	or there was an	error,
	      it returns status	1 and the array	will not be set	(nor  modified
	      in  any way).  If	there was an error in the select operation the
	      appropriate error	message	is printed.

       The zsh/zutil module only adds some builtins:

       zstyle [	-L [ pattern [ style ] ] ]
       zstyle [	-e | - | -- ] pattern style string ...
       zstyle -d [ pattern [ style ... ] ]
       zstyle -g name [	pattern	[ style	] ]
       zstyle -{a|b|s} context style name [ sep	]
       zstyle -{T|t} context style [ string ...	]
       zstyle -m context style pattern
	      This builtin command  is	used  to  define  and  lookup  styles.
	      Styles  are  pairs of names and values, where the	values consist
	      of any number of strings.	 They are stored  together  with  pat-
	      terns  and  lookup  is done by giving a string, called the `con-
	      text', which is compared to the patterns.	 The definition	stored
	      for the first matching pattern will be returned.

	      For  ordering  of	 comparisons,  patterns	are searched from most
	      specific to least	specific, and patterns that are	 equally  spe-
	      cific  keep  the order in	which they were	defined.  A pattern is
	      considered to be more specific than another if it	contains  more
	      components  (substrings  separated by colons) or if the patterns
	      for the components are more specific, where simple  strings  are
	      considered  to  be  more specific	than patterns and complex pat-
	      terns are	considered to be more specific than the	pattern	`*'.

	      The  first  form	(without  arguments)  lists  the  definitions.
	      Styles  are  shown in alphabetic order and patterns are shown in
	      the order	zstyle will test them.

	      If the -L	option is given, listing is done in the	form of	 calls
	      to  zstyle.  The optional	first argument is a pattern which will
	      be matched against the string supplied as	the  pattern  for  the
	      context; note that this means, for example, `zstyle -L ":comple-
	      tion:*"' will match any  supplied	 pattern  beginning  `:comple-
	      tion:', not just ":completion:*":	 use ":completion:\*" to match
	      that.  The optional second argument limits the output to a  spe-
	      cific  style  (not  a  pattern).	 -L is not compatible with any
	      other options.

	      The other	forms are the following:

	      zstyle [ - | -- |	-e ] pattern style string ...
		     Defines the given style for the pattern with the  strings
		     as	 the  value.   If  the -e option is given, the strings
		     will be concatenated (separated by	spaces)	 and  the  re-
		     sulting  string  will be evaluated	(in the	same way as it
		     is	done by	the eval builtin command) when	the  style  is
		     looked  up.   In  this case the parameter `reply' must be
		     assigned to set the strings returned  after  the  evalua-
		     tion.   Before  evaluating	the value, reply is unset, and
		     if	it is still unset after	the evaluation,	the  style  is
		     treated as	if it were not set.

	      zstyle -d	[ pattern [ style ... ]	]
		     Delete  style  definitions. Without arguments all defini-
		     tions are deleted,	with a	pattern	 all  definitions  for
		     that  pattern  are	 deleted  and if any styles are	given,
		     then only those styles are	deleted	for the	pattern.

	      zstyle -g	name [ pattern [ style ] ]
		     Retrieve a	style definition. The name is used as the name
		     of	 an array in which the results are stored. Without any
		     further arguments,	all  patterns  defined	are  returned.
		     With  a  pattern  the styles defined for that pattern are
		     returned and with both a pattern and a style,  the	 value
		     strings of	that combination is returned.

	      The other	forms can be used to look up or	test patterns.

	      zstyle -s	context	style name [ sep ]
		     The  parameter  name is set to the	value of the style in-
		     terpreted as a string.  If	 the  value  contains  several
		     strings  they  are	 concatenated with spaces (or with the
		     sep string	if that	is given) between them.

	      zstyle -b	context	style name
		     The value is stored in name as a  boolean,	 i.e.  as  the
		     string  `yes'  if	the value has only one string and that
		     string is equal to	one of `yes', `true', `on', or `1'. If
		     the  value	 is  any  other	 string	 or  has more than one
		     string, the parameter is set to `no'.

	      zstyle -a	context	style name
		     The value is stored in name as an array. If name  is  de-
		     clared  as	 an associative	array,	the first, third, etc.
		     strings are used as the keys and the  other  strings  are
		     used as the values.

	      zstyle -t	context	style [	string ... ]
	      zstyle -T	context	style [	string ... ]
		     Test  the	value  of a style, i.e.	the -t option only re-
		     turns a status (sets $?).	Without	any string the	return
		     status  is	 zero if the style is defined for at least one
		     matching pattern, has only	one string in its  value,  and
		     that  is  equal  to one of	`true',	`yes', `on' or `1'. If
		     any strings are given the status is zero if and  only  if
		     at	 least	one of the strings is equal to at least	one of
		     the strings in the	value. If the  style  is  defined  but
		     doesn't  match,  the  return status is 1. If the style is
		     not defined, the status is	2.

		     The -T option tests the values of the style like -t,  but
		     it	 returns  status  zero (rather than 2) if the style is
		     not defined for any matching pattern.

	      zstyle -m	context	style pattern
		     Match a value. Returns status zero	if the pattern matches
		     at	least one of the strings in the	value.

       zformat -f param	format spec ...
       zformat -a array	sep spec ...
	      This  builtin  provides  two  different forms of formatting. The
	      first form is selected with the -f option. In this case the for-
	      mat string will be modified by replacing sequences starting with
	      a	percent	sign in	it with	strings	from  the  specs.   Each  spec
	      should  be  of the form `char:string' which will cause every ap-
	      pearance of the sequence `%char' in format to be replaced	by the
	      string.	The `%'	sequence may also contain optional minimum and
	      maximum field width  specifications  between  the	 `%'  and  the
	      `char'  in the form `%min.maxc', i.e. the	minimum	field width is
	      given first and if the maximum field width is used, it has to be
	      preceded	by  a dot.  Specifying a minimum field width makes the
	      result be	padded with spaces to  the  right  if  the  string  is
	      shorter  than  the  requested width.  Padding to the left	can be
	      achieved by giving a negative minimum field width.  If a maximum
	      field  width  is	specified,  the	string will be truncated after
	      that many	characters.  After all `%'  sequences  for  the	 given
	      specs have been processed, the resulting string is stored	in the
	      parameter	param.

	      The %-escapes also understand ternary expressions	 in  the  form
	      used  by	prompts.  The %	is followed by a `(' and then an ordi-
	      nary format specifier character as described above.   There  may
	      be a set of digits either	before or after	the `('; these specify
	      a	test number, which defaults to	zero.	Negative  numbers  are
	      also allowed.  An	arbitrary delimiter character follows the for-
	      mat specifier, which is followed by a piece of `true' text,  the
	      delimiter	 character again, a piece of `false' text, and a clos-
	      ing parenthesis.	The complete expression	(without  the  digits)
	      thus  looks like `%(X.text1.text2)', except that the `.' charac-
	      ter is arbitrary.	 The value given for the format	 specifier  in
	      the  char:string	expressions is evaluated as a mathematical ex-
	      pression,	and compared with the test number.  If	they  are  the
	      same,  text1 is output, else text2 is output.  A parenthesis may
	      be escaped in text2 as %).  Either of text1 or text2 may contain
	      nested %-escapes.

	      For example:

		     zformat -f	REPLY "The answer is '%3('." c:3

	      outputs  "The answer is 'yes'." to REPLY since the value for the
	      format specifier c is 3, agreeing	with the digit argument	to the
	      ternary expression.

	      The  second  form, using the -a option, can be used for aligning
	      strings.	Here, the specs	are of	the  form  `left:right'	 where
	      `left'  and  `right'  are	 arbitrary strings.  These strings are
	      modified by replacing the	colons by the sep string  and  padding
	      the  left	 strings  with	spaces	to  the	 right so that the sep
	      strings in the result (and hence the right strings  after	 them)
	      are  all	aligned	 if  the strings are printed below each	other.
	      All strings without a colon are left unchanged and  all  strings
	      with  an empty right string have the trailing colon removed.  In
	      both cases the lengths of	the strings are	not used to  determine
	      how  the other strings are to be aligned.	 The resulting strings
	      are stored in the	array.

	      This implements some internals of	the _regex_arguments function.

       zparseopts [ -D -K -M -E	] [ -a array ] [ -A assoc ] spec ...
	      This builtin simplifies the parsing of options in	positional pa-
	      rameters,	 i.e. the set of arguments given by $*.	 Each spec de-
	      scribes one option and must be of	the form `opt[=array]'.	 If an
	      option described by opt is found in the positional parameters it
	      is copied	into the array specified with the -a  option;  if  the
	      optional	`=array'  is given, it is instead copied into that ar-
	      ray, which should	be declared as a normal	array and never	as  an
	      associative array.

	      Note  that  it  is an error to give any spec without an `=array'
	      unless one of the	-a or -A options is used.

	      Unless the -E option is given, parsing stops at the first	string
	      that isn't described by one of the specs.	 Even with -E, parsing
	      always stops at a	positional parameter equal to `-' or `--'.

	      The opt description must be one of the following.	  Any  of  the
	      special  characters can appear in	the option name	provided it is
	      preceded by a backslash.

	      name+  The name is the name of the option	 without  the  leading
		     `-'.   To	specify	 a  GNU-style  long option, one	of the
		     usual two leading `-' must	be included in name; for exam-
		     ple,  a  `--file'	option	is  represented	 by  a name of

		     If	a `+' appears after name, the option  is  appended  to
		     array each	time it	is found in the	positional parameters;
		     without the `+' only the last occurrence of the option is

		     If	 one of	these forms is used, the option	takes no argu-
		     ment, so parsing stops if the next	 positional  parameter
		     does  not	also  begin  with `-' (unless the -E option is

	      name:: If	one or two colons are given, the option	takes an argu-
		     ment;  with one colon, the	argument is mandatory and with
		     two colons	it is optional.	 The argument is  appended  to
		     the array after the option	itself.

		     An	 optional  argument is put into	the same array element
		     as	the option name	(note that this	makes empty strings as
		     arguments	indistinguishable).   A	 mandatory argument is
		     added as a	separate element unless	the `:-' form is used,
		     in	which case the argument	is put into the	same element.

		     A	`+' as described above may appear between the name and
		     the first colon.

	      The options of zparseopts	itself cannot be stacked because,  for
	      example,	the  stack `-DEK' is indistinguishable from a spec for
	      the GNU-style long option	`--DEK'.  The  options	of  zparseopts
	      itself are:

	      -a array
		     As	described above, this names the	default	array in which
		     to	store the recognised options.

	      -A assoc
		     If	this is	given, the options and their values  are  also
		     put  into	an  associative	array with the option names as
		     keys and the arguments (if	any) as	the values.

	      -D     If	this option is given, all options  found  are  removed
		     from  the	positional  parameters of the calling shell or
		     shell function, up	to but not including any not described
		     by	 the  specs.   This  is	 similar  to  using  the shift

	      -K     With this option, the arrays specified with the -a	option
		     and  with the `=array' forms are kept unchanged when none
		     of	the specs for them is used.  Otherwise the entire  ar-
		     ray  is replaced when any of the specs is used.  Individ-
		     ual elements of associative arrays	specified with the  -A
		     option  are  preserved  by	-K.  This allows assignment of
		     default values to arrays before calling zparseopts.

	      -M     This changes the assignment  rules	 to  implement	a  map
		     among  equivalent	option	names.	 If  any spec uses the
		     `=array' form, the	string array  is  interpreted  as  the
		     name  of  another	spec, which is used to choose where to
		     store the values.	If no other spec is found, the	values
		     are  stored as usual.  This changes only the way the val-
		     ues are stored, not the way $* is parsed, so results  may
		     be	 unpredictable if the `name+' specifier	is used	incon-

	      -E     This changes the parsing rules to not stop	at  the	 first
		     string  that isn't	described by one of the	specs.	It can
		     be	used to	test for or (if	used together with -D) extract
		     options  and  their arguments, ignoring all other options
		     and arguments that	may be in the positional parameters.

	      For example,

		     set -- -a -bx -c y	-cz baz	-cend
		     zparseopts	a=foo b:=bar c+:=bar

	      will have	the effect of

		     bar=(-b x -c y -c z)

	      The arguments from `baz' on will not be used.

	      As an example for	the -E option, consider:

		     set -- -a x -b y -c z arg1	arg2
		     zparseopts	-E -D b:=bar

	      will have	the effect of

		     bar=(-b y)
		     set -- -a x -c z arg1 arg2

	      I.e., the	option -b and its arguments are	taken from  the	 posi-
	      tional parameters	and put	into the array bar.

	      The -M option can	be used	like this:

		     set -- -a -bx -c y	-cz baz	-cend
		     zparseopts	-A bar -M a=foo	b+: c:=b

	      to have the effect of

		     bar=(-a ''	-b xyz)

zsh 5.3.1		       December	21, 2016		 ZSHMODULES(1)


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