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ZSHEXPN(1)              FreeBSD General Commands Manual             ZSHEXPN(1)

       zshexpn - zsh expansion and substitution

       The following types of expansions are performed in the indicated order
       in five steps:

       History Expansion
              This is performed only in interactive shells.

       Alias Expansion
              Aliases are expanded immediately before the command line is
              parsed as explained under Aliasing in zshmisc(1).

       Process Substitution
       Parameter Expansion
       Command Substitution
       Arithmetic Expansion
       Brace Expansion
              These five are performed in one step in left-to-right fashion.
              After these expansions, all unquoted occurrences of the
              characters `\', `'' and `"' are removed.

       Filename Expansion
              If the SH_FILE_EXPANSION option is set, the order of expansion
              is modified for compatibility with sh and ksh.  In that case
              filename expansion is performed immediately after alias
              expansion, preceding the set of five expansions mentioned above.

       Filename Generation
              This expansion, commonly referred to as globbing, is always done

       The following sections explain the types of expansion in detail.

       History expansion allows you to use words from previous command lines
       in the command line you are typing.  This simplifies spelling
       corrections and the repetition of complicated commands or arguments.
       Immediately before execution, each command is saved in the history
       list, the size of which is controlled by the HISTSIZE parameter.  The
       one most recent command is always retained in any case.  Each saved
       command in the history list is called a history event and is assigned a
       number, beginning with 1 (one) when the shell starts up.  The history
       number that you may see in your prompt (see Prompt Expansion in
       zshmisc(1)) is the number that is to be assigned to the next command.

       A history expansion begins with the first character of the histchars
       parameter, which is `!' by default, and may occur anywhere on the
       command line; history expansions do not nest.  The `!' can be escaped
       with `\' or can be enclosed between a pair of single quotes ('') to
       suppress its special meaning.  Double quotes will not work for this.
       Following this history character is an optional event designator (see
       the section `Event Designators') and then an optional word designator
       (the section `Word Designators'); if neither of these designators is
       present, no history expansion occurs.

       Input lines containing history expansions are echoed after being
       expanded, but before any other expansions take place and before the
       command is executed.  It is this expanded form that is recorded as the
       history event for later references.

       By default, a history reference with no event designator refers to the
       same event as any preceding history reference on that command line; if
       it is the only history reference in a command, it refers to the
       previous command.  However, if the option CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY is set,
       then every history reference with no event specification always refers
       to the previous command.

       For example, `!' is the event designator for the previous command, so
       `!!:1' always refers to the first word of the previous command, and
       `!!$' always refers to the last word of the previous command.  With
       CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY set, then `!:1' and `!$' function in the same manner
       as `!!:1' and `!!$', respectively.  Conversely, if CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY
       is unset, then `!:1' and `!$' refer to the first and last words,
       respectively, of the same event referenced by the nearest other history
       reference preceding them on the current command line, or to the
       previous command if there is no preceding reference.

       The character sequence `^foo^bar' (where `^' is actually the second
       character of the histchars parameter) repeats the last command,
       replacing the string foo with bar.  More precisely, the sequence
       `^foo^bar^' is synonymous with `!!:s^foo^bar^', hence other modifiers
       (see the section `Modifiers') may follow the final `^'.

       If the shell encounters the character sequence `!"' in the input, the
       history mechanism is temporarily disabled until the current list (see
       zshmisc(1)) is fully parsed.  The `!"' is removed from the input, and
       any subsequent `!' characters have no special significance.

       A less convenient but more comprehensible form of command history
       support is provided by the fc builtin.

   Event Designators
       An event designator is a reference to a command-line entry in the
       history list.  In the list below, remember that the initial `!' in each
       item may be changed to another character by setting the histchars

       !      Start a history expansion, except when followed by a blank,
              newline, `=' or `('.  If followed immediately by a word
              designator (see the section `Word Designators'), this forms a
              history reference with no event designator (see the section

       !!     Refer to the previous command.  By itself, this expansion
              repeats the previous command.

       !n     Refer to command-line n.

       !-n    Refer to the current command-line minus n.

       !str   Refer to the most recent command starting with str.

              Refer to the most recent command containing str.  The trailing
              `?' is necessary if this reference is to be followed by a
              modifier or followed by any text that is not to be considered
              part of str.

       !#     Refer to the current command line typed in so far.  The line is
              treated as if it were complete up to and including the word
              before the one with the `!#' reference.

       !{...} Insulate a history reference from adjacent characters (if

   Word Designators
       A word designator indicates which word or words of a given command line
       are to be included in a history reference.  A `:' usually separates the
       event specification from the word designator.  It may be omitted only
       if the word designator begins with a `^', `$', `*', `-' or `%'.  Word
       designators include:

       0      The first input word (command).
       n      The nth argument.
       ^      The first argument.  That is, 1.
       $      The last argument.
       %      The word matched by (the most recent) ?str search.
       x-y    A range of words; x defaults to 0.
       *      All the arguments, or a null value if there are none.
       x*     Abbreviates `x-$'.
       x-     Like `x*' but omitting word $.

       Note that a `%' word designator works only when used in one of `!%',
       `!:%' or `!?str?:%', and only when used after a !? expansion (possibly
       in an earlier command).  Anything else results in an error, although
       the error may not be the most obvious one.

       After the optional word designator, you can add a sequence of one or
       more of the following modifiers, each preceded by a `:'.  These
       modifiers also work on the result of filename generation and parameter
       expansion, except where noted.

       h      Remove a trailing pathname component, leaving the head.  This
              works like `dirname'.

       r      Remove a filename extension of the form `.xxx', leaving the root

       e      Remove all but the extension.

       t      Remove all leading pathname components, leaving the tail.  This
              works like `basename'.

       p      Print the new command but do not execute it.  Only works with
              history expansion.

       q      Quote the substituted words, escaping further substitutions.
              Works with history expansion and parameter expansion, though for
              parameters it is only useful if the resulting text is to be
              re-evaluated such as by eval.

       Q      Remove one level of quotes from the substituted words.

       x      Like q, but break into words at whitespace.  Does not work with
              parameter expansion.

       l      Convert the words to all lowercase.

       u      Convert the words to all uppercase.

              Substitute r for l as described below.  Unless preceded
              immediately by a g, with no colon between, the substitution is
              done only for the first string that matches l.  For arrays and
              for filename generation, this applies to each word of the
              expanded text.

       &      Repeat the previous s substitution.  Like s, may be preceded
              immediately by a g.  In parameter expansion the & must appear
              inside braces, and in filename generation it must be quoted with
              a backslash.

       The s/l/r/ substitution works as follows.  The left-hand side of
       substitutions are not regular expressions, but character strings.  Any
       character can be used as the delimiter in place of `/'.  A backslash
       quotes the delimiter character.  The character `&', in the
       right-hand-side r, is replaced by the text from the left-hand-side l.
       The `&' can be quoted with a backslash.  A null l uses the previous
       string either from the previous l or from the contextual scan string s
       from `!?s'.  You can omit the rightmost delimiter if a newline
       immediately follows r; the rightmost `?' in a context scan can
       similarly be omitted.  Note the same record of the last l and r is
       maintained across all forms of expansion.

       The following f, F, w and W modifiers work only with parameter
       expansion and filename generation.  They are listed here to provide a
       single point of reference for all modifiers.

       f      Repeats the immediately (without a colon) following modifier
              until the resulting word doesn't change any more.

              Like f, but repeats only n times if the expression expr
              evaluates to n.  Any character can be used instead of the `:';
              if `(', `[', or `{' is used as the opening delimiter, the
              closing delimiter should be ')', `]', or `}', respectively.

       w      Makes the immediately following modifier work on each word in
              the string.

       W:sep: Like w but words are considered to be the parts of the string
              that are separated by sep. Any character can be used instead of
              the `:'; opening parentheses are handled specially, see above.

       Each command argument of the form `<(list)', `>(list)' or `=(list)' is
       subject to process substitution.  In the case of the < or > forms, the
       shell runs process list asynchronously.  If the system supports the
       /dev/fd mechanism, the command argument is the name of the device file
       corresponding to a file descriptor; otherwise, if the system supports
       named pipes (FIFOs), the command argument will be a named pipe.  If the
       form with > is selected then writing on this special file will provide
       input for list.  If < is used, then the file passed as an argument will
       be connected to the output of the list process.  For example,

              paste <(cut -f1 file1) <(cut -f3 file2) |
              tee >(process1) >(process2) >/dev/null

       cuts fields 1 and 3 from the files file1 and file2 respectively, pastes
       the results together, and sends it to the processes process1 and

       Both the /dev/fd and the named pipe implementation have drawbacks.  In
       the former case, some programmes may automatically close the file
       descriptor in question before examining the file on the command line,
       particularly if this is necessary for security reasons such as when the
       programme is running setuid.  In the second case, if the programme does
       not actually open the file, the subshell attempting to read from or
       write to the pipe will (in a typical implementation, different
       operating systems may have different behaviour) block for ever and have
       to be killed explicitly.  In both cases, the shell actually supplies
       the information using a pipe, so that programmes that expect to lseek
       (see lseek(2)) on the file will not work.

       Also note that the previous example can be more compactly and
       efficiently written (provided the MULTIOS option is set) as:

              paste <(cut -f1 file1) <(cut -f3 file2) \
              > >(process1) > >(process2)

       The shell uses pipes instead of FIFOs to implement the latter two
       process substitutions in the above example.

       If = is used, then the file passed as an argument will be the name of a
       temporary file containing the output of the list process.  This may be
       used instead of the < form for a program that expects to lseek (see
       lseek(2)) on the input file.

       The character `$' is used to introduce parameter expansions.  See
       zshparam(1) for a description of parameters, including arrays,
       associative arrays, and subscript notation to access individual array

       In the expansions discussed below that require a pattern, the form of
       the pattern is the same as that used for filename generation; see the
       section `Filename Generation'.  Note that these patterns, along with
       the replacement text of any substitutions, are themselves subject to
       parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic expansion.
       In addition to the following operations, the colon modifiers described
       in the section `Modifiers' in the section `History Expansion' can be
       applied:  for example, ${i:s/foo/bar/} performs string substitution on
       the expansion of parameter $i.

              The value, if any, of the parameter name is substituted.  The
              braces are required if the expansion is to be followed by a
              letter, digit, or underscore that is not to be interpreted as
              part of name.  In addition, more complicated forms of
              substitution usually require the braces to be present;
              exceptions, which only apply if the option KSH_ARRAYS is not
              set, are a single subscript or any colon modifiers appearing
              after the name, or any of the characters `^', `=', `~', `#' or
              `+' appearing before the name, all of which work with or without

              If name is an array parameter, and the KSH_ARRAYS option is not
              set, then the value of each element of name is substituted, one
              element per word.  Otherwise, the expansion results in one word
              only; with KSH_ARRAYS, this is the first element of an array.
              No field splitting is done on the result unless the
              SH_WORD_SPLIT option is set.

              If name is the name of a set parameter `1' is substituted,
              otherwise `0' is substituted.

              If name is set and is non-null then substitute its value;
              otherwise substitute word. If name is missing, substitute word.

              In the first form, if name is unset or is null then set it to
              word; in the second form, unconditionally set name to word.  In
              both forms, the value of the parameter is then substituted.

              If name is set and is non-null then substitute its value;
              otherwise, print word and exit from the shell.  Interactive
              shells instead return to the prompt.  If word is omitted, then a
              standard message is printed.

              If name is set and is non-null then substitute word; otherwise
              substitute nothing.

       If the colon is omitted from one of the above expressions containing a
       colon, then the shell only checks whether name is set, not whether its
       value is null.

       In the following expressions, when name is an array and the
       substitution is not quoted, or if the `(@)' flag or the name[@] syntax
       is used, matching and replacement is performed on each array element

              If the pattern matches the beginning of the value of name, then
              substitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted;
              otherwise, just substitute the value of name.  In the first
              form, the smallest matching pattern is preferred; in the second
              form, the largest matching pattern is preferred.

              If the pattern matches the end of the value of name, then
              substitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted;
              otherwise, just substitute the value of name.  In the first
              form, the smallest matching pattern is preferred; in the second
              form, the largest matching pattern is preferred.

              If the pattern matches the value of name, then substitute the
              empty string; otherwise, just substitute the value of name.  If
              name is an array the matching array elements are removed (use
              the `(M)' flag to remove the non-matched elements).

              Replace the longest possible match of pattern in the expansion
              of parameter name by string repl.  The first form replaces just
              the first occurrence, the second form all occurrences.  Both
              pattern and repl are subject to double-quoted substitution, so
              that expressions like ${name/$opat/$npat} will work, but note
              the usual rule that pattern characters in $opat are not treated
              specially unless either the option GLOB_SUBST is set, or $opat
              is instead substituted as ${~opat}.

              The pattern may begin with a `#', in which case the pattern must
              match at the start of the string, or `%', in which case it must
              match at the end of the string.  The repl may be an empty
              string, in which case the final `/' may also be omitted.  To
              quote the final `/' in other cases it should be preceded by two
              backslashes (i.e., a quoted backslash); this is not necessary if
              the `/' occurs inside a substituted parameter.  Note also that
              the `#' and `%' are not active if they occur inside a
              substituted parameter, even at the start.

              The first `/' may be preceded by a `:', in which case the match
              will only succeed if it matches the entire word.  Note also the
              effect of the I and S parameter expansion flags below; however,
              the flags M, R, B, E and N are not useful.

              For example,

                     foo="twinkle twinkle little star" sub="t*e" rep="spy"
                     print ${foo//${~sub}/$rep}
                     print ${(S)foo//${~sub}/$rep}

              Here, the `~' ensures that the text of $sub is treated as a
              pattern rather than a plain string.  In the first case, the
              longest match for t*e is substituted and the result is `spy
              star', while in the second case, the shortest matches are taken
              and the result is `spy spy lispy star'.

              If spec is one of the above substitutions, substitute the length
              in characters of the result instead of the result itself.  If
              spec is an array expression, substitute the number of elements
              of the result.  Note that `^', `=', and `~', below, must appear
              to the left of `#' when these forms are combined.

              Turn on the RC_EXPAND_PARAM option for the evaluation of spec;
              if the `^' is doubled, turn it off.  When this option is set,
              array expansions of the form foo${xx}bar, where the parameter xx
              is set to (a b c), are substituted with `fooabar foobbar
              foocbar' instead of the default `fooa b cbar'.

              Internally, each such expansion is converted into the equivalent
              list for brace expansion.  E.g., ${^var} becomes
              {$var[1],$var[2],...}, and is processed as described in the
              section `Brace Expansion' below.  If word splitting is also in
              effect the $var[N] may themselves be split into different list

              Perform word splitting using the rules for SH_WORD_SPLIT during
              the evaluation of spec, but regardless of whether the parameter
              appears in double quotes; if the `=' is doubled, turn it off.
              This forces parameter expansions to be split into separate words
              before substitution, using IFS as a delimiter.  This is done by
              default in most other shells.

              Note that splitting is applied to word in the assignment forms
              of spec before the assignment to name is performed.  This
              affects the result of array assignments with the A flag.

              Turn on the GLOB_SUBST option for the evaluation of spec; if the
              `~' is doubled, turn it off.  When this option is set, the
              string resulting from the expansion will be interpreted as a
              pattern anywhere that is possible, such as in filename expansion
              and filename generation and pattern-matching contexts like the
              right hand side of the `=' and `!=' operators in conditions.

       If a ${...} type parameter expression or a $(...) type command
       substitution is used in place of name above, it is expanded first and
       the result is used as if it were the value of name.  Thus it is
       possible to perform nested operations:  ${${foo#head}%tail} substitutes
       the value of $foo with both `head' and `tail' deleted.  The form with
       $(...) is often useful in combination with the flags described next;
       see the examples below.  Each name or nested ${...} in a parameter
       expansion may also be followed by a subscript expression as described
       in Array Parameters in zshparam(1).

       Note that double quotes may appear around nested expressions, in which
       case only the part inside is treated as quoted; for example,
       ${(f)"$(foo)"} quotes the result of $(foo), but the flag `(f)' (see
       below) is applied using the rules for unquoted expansions.  Note
       further that quotes are themselves nested in this context; for example,
       in "${(@f)"$(foo)"}", there are two sets of quotes, one surrounding the
       whole expression, the other (redundant) surrounding the $(foo) as

   Parameter Expansion Flags
       If the opening brace is directly followed by an opening parenthesis,
       the string up to the matching closing parenthesis will be taken as a
       list of flags.  In cases where repeating a flag is meaningful, the
       repetitions need not be consecutive; for example, `(q%q%q)' means the
       same thing as the more readable `(%%qqq)'.  The following flags are

       %      Expand all % escapes in the resulting words in the same way as
              in in prompts (see the section `Prompt Expansion'). If this flag
              is given twice, full prompt expansion is done on the resulting
              words, depending on the setting of the PROMPT_PERCENT,
              PROMPT_SUBST and PROMPT_BANG options.

       @      In double quotes, array elements are put into separate words.
              E.g., `"${(@)foo}"' is equivalent to `"${foo[@]}"' and
              `"${(@)foo[1,2]}"' is the same as `"$foo[1]" "$foo[2]"'.  This
              is distinct from field splitting by the the f, s or z flags,
              which still applies within each array element.

       A      Create an array parameter with `${...=...}', `${...:=...}' or
              `${...::=...}'.  If this flag is repeated (as in `AA'), create
              an associative array parameter.  Assignment is made before
              sorting or padding.  The name part may be a subscripted range
              for ordinary arrays; the word part must be converted to an
              array, for example by using `${(AA)=name=...}' to activate field
              splitting, when creating an associative array.

       c      With ${#name}, count the total number of characters in an array,
              as if the elements were concatenated with spaces between them.

       C      Capitalize the resulting words.  `Words' in this case refers to
              sequences of alphanumeric characters separated by
              non-alphanumerics, not to words that result from field

       e      Perform parameter expansion, command substitution and arithmetic
              expansion on the result. Such expansions can be nested but too
              deep recursion may have unpredictable effects.

       f      Split the result of the expansion to lines. This is a shorthand
              for `ps:\n:'.

       F      Join the words of arrays together using newline as a separator.
              This is a shorthand for `pj:\n:'.

       i      With o or O, sort case-independently.

       k      If name refers to an associative array, substitute the keys
              (element names) rather than the values of the elements.  Used
              with subscripts (including ordinary arrays), force indices or
              keys to be substituted even if the subscript form refers to
              values.  However, this flag may not be combined with subscript

       L      Convert all letters in the result to lower case.

       o      Sort the resulting words in ascending order.

       O      Sort the resulting words in descending order.

       P      This forces the value of the parameter name to be interpreted as
              a further parameter name, whose value will be used where
              appropriate. If used with a nested parameter or command
              substitution, the result of that will be taken as a parameter
              name in the same way.  For example, if you have `foo=bar' and
              `bar=baz', the strings ${(P)foo}, ${(P)${foo}}, and ${(P)$(echo
              bar)} will be expanded to `baz'.

       q      Quote the resulting words with backslashes. If this flag is
              given twice, the resulting words are quoted in single quotes and
              if it is given three times, the words are quoted in double
              quotes. If it is given four times, the words are quoted in
              single quotes preceded by a $.

       Q      Remove one level of quotes from the resulting words.

       t      Use a string describing the type of the parameter where the
              value of the parameter would usually appear. This string
              consists of keywords separated by hyphens (`-'). The first
              keyword in the string describes the main type, it can be one of
              `scalar', `array', `integer', `float' or `association'. The
              other keywords describe the type in more detail:

              local  for local parameters

              left   for left justified parameters

                     for right justified parameters with leading blanks

                     for right justified parameters with leading zeros

              lower  for parameters whose value is converted to all lower case
                     when it is expanded

              upper  for parameters whose value is converted to all upper case
                     when it is expanded

                     for readonly parameters

              tag    for tagged parameters

              export for exported parameters

              unique for arrays which keep only the first occurrence of
                     duplicated values

              hide   for parameters with the `hide' flag

                     for special parameters defined by the shell

       U      Convert all letters in the result to upper case.

       v      Used with k, substitute (as two consecutive words) both the key
              and the value of each associative array element.  Used with
              subscripts, force values to be substituted even if the subscript
              form refers to indices or keys.

       V      Make any special characters in the resulting words visible.

       w      With ${#name}, count words in arrays or strings; the s flag may
              be used to set a word delimiter.

       W      Similar to w with the difference that empty words between
              repeated delimiters are also counted.

       X      With this flag parsing errors occurring with the Q and e flags
              or the pattern matching forms such as `${name#pattern}' are
              reported. Without the flag they are silently ignored.

       z      Split the result of the expansion into words using shell parsing
              to find the words, i.e. taking into account any quoting in the

              Note that this is done very late, as for the `(s)' flag. So to
              access single words in the result, one has to use nested
              expansions as in `${${(z)foo}[2]}'. Likewise, to remove the
              quotes in the resulting words one would do: `${(Q)${(z)foo}}'.

       The following flags (except p) are followed by one or more arguments as
       shown.  Any character, or the matching pairs `(...)', `{...}', `[...]',
       or `<...>', may be used in place of a colon as delimiters, but note
       that when a flag takes more than one argument, a matched pair of
       delimiters must surround each argument.

       p      Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in
              string arguments to any of the flags described below.

              Join the words of arrays together using string as a separator.
              Note that this occurs before field splitting by the
              SH_WORD_SPLIT option.

              Pad the resulting words on the left.  Each word will be
              truncated if required and placed in a field expr characters
              wide.  The space to the left will be filled with string1
              (concatenated as often as needed) or spaces if string1 is not
              given.  If both string1 and string2 are given, this string is
              inserted once directly to the left of each word, before padding.

              As l, but pad the words on the right and insert string2 on the

              Force field splitting (see the option SH_WORD_SPLIT) at the
              separator string.  Note that a string of two or more characters
              means all must all match in sequence; this differs from the
              treatment of two or more characters in the IFS parameter.

       The following flags are meaningful with the ${...#...} or ${...%...}
       forms.  The S and I flags may also be used with the ${.../...} forms.

       S      Search substrings as well as beginnings or ends; with # start
              from the beginning and with % start from the end of the string.
              With substitution via ${.../...} or ${...//...}, specifies
              non-greedy matching, i.e. that the shortest instead of the
              longest match should be replaced.

              Search the exprth match (where expr evaluates to a number).
              This only applies when searching for substrings, either with the
              S flag, or with ${.../...} (only the exprth match is
              substituted) or ${...//...} (all matches from the exprth on are
              substituted).  The default is to take the first match.

              The exprth match is counted such that there is either one or
              zero matches from each starting position in the string, although
              for global substitution matches overlapping previous
              replacements are ignored.  With the ${...%...} and ${...%%...}
              forms, the starting position for the match moves backwards from
              the end as the index increases, while with the other forms it
              moves forward from the start.

              Hence with the string
                     which switch is the right switch for Ipswich?
              substitutions of the form ${(SI:N:)string#w*ch} as N increases
              from 1 will match and remove `which', `witch', `witch' and
              `wich'; the form using `##' will match and remove `which switch
              is the right switch for Ipswich', `witch is the right switch for
              Ipswich', `witch for Ipswich' and `wich'. The form using `%'
              will remove the same matches as for `#', but in reverse order,
              and the form using `%%' will remove the same matches as for `##'
              in reverse order.

       B      Include the index of the beginning of the match in the result.

       E      Include the index of the end of the match in the result.

       M      Include the matched portion in the result.

       N      Include the length of the match in the result.

       R      Include the unmatched portion in the result (the Rest).

       Here is a summary of the rules for substitution; this assumes that
       braces are present around the substitution, i.e. ${...}.  Some
       particular examples are given below.  Note that the Zsh Development
       Group accepts no responsibility for any brain damage which may occur
       during the reading of the following rules.

       1. Nested Substitution
              If multiple nested ${...} forms are present, substitution is
              performed from the inside outwards.  At each level, the
              substitution takes account of whether the current value is a
              scalar or an array, whether the whole substitution is in double
              quotes, and what flags are supplied to the current level of
              substitution, just as if the nested substitution were the
              outermost.  The flags are not propagated up to enclosing
              substitutions; the nested substitution will return either a
              scalar or an array as determined by the flags, possibly adjusted
              for quoting.  All the following steps take place where
              applicable at all levels of substitution.  Note that, unless the
              `(P)' flag is present, the flags and any subscripts apply
              directly to the value of the nested substitution; for example,
              the expansion ${${foo}} behaves exactly the same as ${foo}.

       2. Parameter Subscripting
              If the value is a raw parameter reference with a subscript, such
              as ${var[3]}, the effect of subscripting is applied directly to
              the parameter.  Subscripts are evaluated left to right;
              subsequent subscripts apply to the scalar or array value yielded
              by the previous subscript.  Thus if var is an array,
              ${var[1][2]} is the second character of the first word, but
              ${var[2,4][2]} is the entire third word (the second word of the
              range of words two through four of the original array).  Any
              number of subscripts may appear.

       3. Parameter Name Replacement
              The effect of any (P) flag, which treats the value so far as a
              parameter name and replaces it with the corresponding value, is

       4. Double-Quoted Joining
              If the value after this process is an array, and the
              substitution appears in double quotes, and no (@) flag is
              present at the current level, the words of the value are joined
              with the first character of the parameter $IFS, by default a
              space, between each word (single word arrays are not modified).
              If the (j) flag is present, that is used for joining instead of

       5. Nested Subscripting
              Any remaining subscripts (i.e. of a nested substitution) are
              evaluated at this point, based on whether the value is an array
              or a scalar.  As with 2., multiple subscripts can appear.  Note
              that ${foo[2,4][2]} is thus equivalent to ${${foo[2,4]}[2]} and
              also to "${${(@)foo[2,4]}[2]}" (the nested substitution returns
              an array in both cases), but not to "${${foo[2,4]}[2]}" (the
              nested substitution returns a scalar because of the quotes).

       6. Modifiers
              Any modifiers, as specified by a trailing `#', `%', `/'
              (possibly doubled) or by a set of modifiers of the form :...
              (see the section `Modifiers' in the section `History
              Expansion'), are applied to the words of the value at this

       7. Forced Joining
              If the `(j)' flag is present, or no `(j)' flag is present but
              the string is to be split as given by rules 8. or 9., and
              joining did not take place at step 4., any words in the value
              are joined together using the given string or the first
              character of $IFS if none.  Note that the `(F)' flag implicitly
              supplies a string for joining in this manner.

       8. Forced Splitting
              If one of the `(s)', `(f)' or `(z)' flags are present, or the
              `=' specifier was present (e.g. ${=var}), the word is split on
              occurrences of the specified string, or (for = with neither of
              the two flags present) any of the characters in $IFS.

       9. Shell Word Splitting
              If no `(s)', `(f)' or `=' was given, but the word is not quoted
              and the option SH_WORD_SPLIT is set, the word is split on
              occurrences of any of the characters in $IFS.  Note this step,
              too, takes place at all levels of a nested substitution.

       10. Re-Evaluation
              Any `(e)' flag is applied to the value, forcing it to be
              re-examined for new parameter substitutions, but also for
              command and arithmetic substitutions.

       11. Padding
              Any padding of the value by the `(l.fill.)' or `(r.fill.)' flags
              is applied.

       12. Semantic Joining
              In contexts where expansion semantics requires a single word to
              result, all words are rejoined with the first character of IFS
              between.  So in `${(P)${(f)lines}}' the value of ${lines} is
              split at newlines, but then must be joined again before the P
              flag can be applied.

              If a single word is not required, this rule is skipped.

       The flag f is useful to split a double-quoted substitution line by
       line.  For example, ${(f)"$(<file)"} substitutes the contents of file
       divided so that each line is an element of the resulting array.
       Compare this with the effect of $(<file) alone, which divides the file
       up by words, or the same inside double quotes, which makes the entire
       content of the file a single string.

       The following illustrates the rules for nested parameter expansions.
       Suppose that $foo contains the array (bar baz):

              This produces the result b.  First, the inner substitution
              "${foo}", which has no array (@) flag, produces a single word
              result "bar baz".  The outer substitution "${(@)...[1]}" detects
              that this is a scalar, so that (despite the `(@)' flag) the
              subscript picks the first character.

              This produces the result `bar'.  In this case, the inner
              substitution "${(@)foo}" produces the array `(bar baz)'.  The
              outer substitution "${...[1]}" detects that this is an array and
              picks the first word.  This is similar to the simple case

       As an example of the rules for word splitting and joining, suppose $foo
       contains the array `(ax1 bx1)'.  Then

              produces the words `a', `1 b' and `1'.

              produces `a', `1', `b' and `1'.

              produces `a' and ` b' (note the extra space).  As substitution
              occurs before either joining or splitting, the operation  first
              generates the modified array (ax bx), which is joined to give
              "ax bx", and then split to give `a', ` b' and `'.  The final
              empty string will then be elided, as it is not in double quotes.

       A command enclosed in parentheses preceded by a dollar sign, like
       `$(...)', or quoted with grave accents, like ``...`', is replaced with
       its standard output, with any trailing newlines deleted.  If the
       substitution is not enclosed in double quotes, the output is broken
       into words using the IFS parameter.  The substitution `$(cat foo)' may
       be replaced by the equivalent but faster `$(<foo)'.  In either case, if
       the option GLOB_SUBST is set, the output is eligible for filename

       A string of the form `$[exp]' or `$((exp))' is substituted with the
       value of the arithmetic expression exp.  exp is subjected to parameter
       expansion, command substitution and arithmetic expansion before it is
       evaluated.  See the section `Arithmetic Evaluation'.

       A string of the form `foo{xx,yy,zz}bar' is expanded to the individual
       words `fooxxbar', `fooyybar' and `foozzbar'.  Left-to-right order is
       preserved.  This construct may be nested.  Commas may be quoted in
       order to include them literally in a word.

       An expression of the form `{n1..n2}', where n1 and n2 are integers, is
       expanded to every number between n1 and n2 inclusive.  If either number
       begins with a zero, all the resulting numbers will be padded with
       leading zeroes to that minimum width.  If the numbers are in decreasing
       order the resulting sequence will also be in decreasing order.

       If a brace expression matches none of the above forms, it is left
       unchanged, unless the BRACE_CCL option is set.  In that case, it is
       expanded to a sorted list of the individual characters between the
       braces, in the manner of a search set.  `-' is treated specially as in
       a search set, but `^' or `!' as the first character is treated

       Note that brace expansion is not part of filename generation
       (globbing); an expression such as */{foo,bar} is split into two
       separate words */foo and */bar before filename generation takes place.
       In particular, note that this is liable to produce a `no match' error
       if either of the two expressions does not match; this is to be
       contrasted with */(foo|bar), which is treated as a single pattern but
       otherwise has similar effects.

       Each word is checked to see if it begins with an unquoted `~'.  If it
       does, then the word up to a `/', or the end of the word if there is no
       `/', is checked to see if it can be substituted in one of the ways
       described here.  If so, then the `~' and the checked portion are
       replaced with the appropriate substitute value.

       A `~' by itself is replaced by the value of $HOME.  A `~' followed by a
       `+' or a `-' is replaced by the value of $PWD or $OLDPWD, respectively.

       A `~' followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that
       position in the directory stack.  `~0' is equivalent to `~+', and `~1'
       is the top of the stack.  `~+' followed by a number is replaced by the
       directory at that position in the directory stack.  `~+0' is equivalent
       to `~+', and `~+1' is the top of the stack.  `~-' followed by a number
       is replaced by the directory that many positions from the bottom of the
       stack.  `~-0' is the bottom of the stack.  The PUSHD_MINUS option
       exchanges the effects of `~+' and `~-' where they are followed by a

       A `~' followed by anything not already covered is looked up as a named
       directory, and replaced by the value of that named directory if found.
       Named directories are typically home directories for users on the
       system.  They may also be defined if the text after the `~' is the name
       of a string shell parameter whose value begins with a `/'.  It is also
       possible to define directory names using the -d option to the hash

       In certain circumstances (in prompts, for instance), when the shell
       prints a path, the path is checked to see if it has a named directory
       as its prefix.  If so, then the prefix portion is replaced with a `~'
       followed by the name of the directory.  The shortest way of referring
       to the directory is used, with ties broken in favour of using a named
       directory, except when the directory is / itself.  The parameters $PWD
       and $OLDPWD are never abbreviated in this fashion.

       If a word begins with an unquoted `=' and the EQUALS option is set, the
       remainder of the word is taken as the name of a command or alias.  If a
       command exists by that name, the word is replaced by the full pathname
       of the command.  If an alias exists by that name, the word is replaced
       with the text of the alias.

       Filename expansion is performed on the right hand side of a parameter
       assignment, including those appearing after commands of the typeset
       family.  In this case, the right hand side will be treated as a
       colon-separated list in the manner of the PATH parameter, so that a `~'
       or an `=' following a `:' is eligible for expansion.  All such
       behaviour can be disabled by quoting the `~', the `=', or the whole
       expression (but not simply the colon); the EQUALS option is also

       If the option MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST is set, any unquoted shell argument in
       the form `identifier=expression' becomes eligible for file expansion as
       described in the previous paragraph.  Quoting the first `=' also
       inhibits this.

       If a word contains an unquoted instance of one of the characters `*',
       `(', `|', `<', `[', or `?', it is regarded as a pattern for filename
       generation, unless the GLOB option is unset.  If the EXTENDED_GLOB
       option is set, the `^' and `#' characters also denote a pattern;
       otherwise they are not treated specially by the shell.

       The word is replaced with a list of sorted filenames that match the
       pattern.  If no matching pattern is found, the shell gives an error
       message, unless the NULL_GLOB option is set, in which case the word is
       deleted; or unless the NOMATCH option is unset, in which case the word
       is left unchanged.

       In filename generation, the character `/' must be matched explicitly;
       also, a `.' must be matched explicitly at the beginning of a pattern or
       after a `/', unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set.  No filename
       generation pattern matches the files `.' or `..'.  In other instances
       of pattern matching, the `/' and `.' are not treated specially.

   Glob Operators
       *      Matches any string, including the null string.

       ?      Matches any character.

       [...]  Matches any of the enclosed characters.  Ranges of characters
              can be specified by separating two characters by a `-'.  A `-'
              or `]' may be matched by including it as the first character in
              the list.  There are also several named classes of characters,
              in the form `[:name:]' with the following meanings:  `[:alnum:]'
              alphanumeric, `[:alpha:]' alphabetic, `[:blank:]' space or tab,
              `[:cntrl:]' control character, `[:digit:]' decimal digit,
              `[:graph:]' printable character except whitespace, `[:lower:]'
              lowercase letter, `[:print:]' printable character, `[:punct:]'
              printable character neither alphanumeric nor whitespace,
              `[:space:]' whitespace character, `[:upper:]' uppercase letter,
              `[:xdigit:]' hexadecimal digit.  These use the macros provided
              by the operating system to test for the given character
              combinations, including any modifications due to local language
              settings:  see ctype(3).  Note that the square brackets are
              additional to those enclosing the whole set of characters, so to
              test for a single alphanumeric character you need `[[:alnum:]]'.
              Named character sets can be used alongside other types, e.g.

       [!...] Like [...], except that it matches any character which is not in
              the given set.

              Matches any number in the range x to y, inclusive.  Either of
              the numbers may be omitted to make the range open-ended; hence
              `<->' matches any number.  To match individual digits, the [...]
              form is more efficient.

              Be careful when using other wildcards adjacent to patterns of
              this form; for example, <0-9>* will actually match any number
              whatsoever at the start of the string, since the `<0-9>' will
              match the first digit, and the `*' will match any others.  This
              is a trap for the unwary, but is in fact an inevitable
              consequence of the rule that the longest possible match always
              succeeds.  Expressions such as `<0-9>[^[:digit:]]*' can be used

       (...)  Matches the enclosed pattern.  This is used for grouping.  If
              the KSH_GLOB option is set, then a `@', `*', `+', `?' or `!'
              immediately preceding the `(' is treated specially, as detailed
              below. The option SH_GLOB prevents bare parentheses from being
              used in this way, though the KSH_GLOB option is still available.

              Note that grouping cannot extend over multiple directories: it
              is an error to have a `/' within a group (this only applies for
              patterns used in filename generation).  There is one exception:
              a group of the form (pat/)# appearing as a complete path segment
              can match a sequence of directories.  For example, foo/(a*/)#bar
              matches foo/bar, foo/any/bar, foo/any/anyother/bar, and so on.

       x|y    Matches either x or y.  This operator has lower precedence than
              any other.  The `|' character must be within parentheses, to
              avoid interpretation as a pipeline.

       ^x     (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.) Matches anything except the
              pattern x.  This has a higher precedence than `/', so `^foo/bar'
              will search directories in `.' except `./foo' for a file named

       x~y    (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.) Match anything that matches
              the pattern x but does not match y.  This has lower precedence
              than any operator except `|', so `*/*~foo/bar' will search for
              all files in all directories in `.' and then exclude `foo/bar'
              if there was such a match.  Multiple patterns can be excluded by
              `foo~bar~baz'.  In the exclusion pattern (y), `/' and `.' are
              not treated specially the way they usually are in globbing.

       x#     (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.) Matches zero or more
              occurrences of the pattern x.  This operator has high
              precedence; `12#' is equivalent to `1(2#)', rather than `(12)#'.
              It is an error for an unquoted `#' to follow something which
              cannot be repeated; this includes an empty string, a pattern
              already followed by `##', or parentheses when part of a KSH_GLOB
              pattern (for example, `!(foo)#' is invalid and must be replaced
              by `*(!(foo))').

       x##    (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.) Matches one or more
              occurrences of the pattern x.  This operator has high
              precedence; `12##' is equivalent to `1(2##)', rather than
              `(12)##'.  No more than two active `#' characters may appear

   ksh-like Glob Operators
       If the KSH_GLOB option is set, the effects of parentheses can be
       modified by a preceding `@', `*', `+', `?' or `!'.  This character need
       not be unquoted to have special effects, but the `(' must be.

       @(...) Match the pattern in the parentheses.  (Like `(...)'.)

       *(...) Match any number of occurrences.  (Like `(...)#'.)

       +(...) Match at least one occurrence.  (Like `(...)##'.)

       ?(...) Match zero or one occurrence.  (Like `(|...)'.)

       !(...) Match anything but the expression in parentheses.  (Like

       The precedence of the operators given above is (highest) `^', `/', `~',
       `|' (lowest); the remaining operators are simply treated from left to
       right as part of a string, with `#' and `##' applying to the shortest
       possible preceding unit (i.e. a character, `?', `[...]', `<...>', or a
       parenthesised expression).  As mentioned above, a `/' used as a
       directory separator may not appear inside parentheses, while a `|' must
       do so; in patterns used in other contexts than filename generation (for
       example, in case statements and tests within `[[...]]'), a `/' is not
       special; and `/' is also not special after a `~' appearing outside
       parentheses in a filename pattern.

   Globbing Flags
       There are various flags which affect any text to their right up to the
       end of the enclosing group or to the end of the pattern; they require
       the EXTENDED_GLOB option. All take the form (#X) where X may have one
       of the following forms:

       i      Case insensitive:  upper or lower case characters in the pattern
              match upper or lower case characters.

       l      Lower case characters in the pattern match upper or lower case
              characters; upper case characters in the pattern still only
              match upper case characters.

       I      Case sensitive:  locally negates the effect of i or l from that
              point on.

       b      Activate backreferences for parenthesised groups in the pattern;
              this does not work in filename generation.  When a pattern with
              a set of active parentheses is matched, the strings matched by
              the groups are stored in the array $match, the indices of the
              beginning of the matched parentheses in the array $mbegin, and
              the indices of the end in the array $mend, with the first
              element of each array corresponding to the first parenthesised
              group, and so on.  These arrays are not otherwise special to the
              shell.  The indices use the same convention as does parameter
              substitution, so that elements of $mend and $mbegin may be used
              in subscripts; the KSH_ARRAYS option is respected.  Sets of
              globbing flags are not considered parenthesised groups; only the
              first nine active parentheses can be referenced.

              For example,

                     foo="a string with a message"
                     if [[ $foo = (a|an)' '(#b)(*)' '* ]]; then
                       print ${foo[$mbegin[1],$mend[1]]}

              prints `string with a'.  Note that the first parenthesis is
              before the (#b) and does not create a backreference.

              Backreferences work with all forms of pattern matching other
              than filename generation, but note that when performing matches
              on an entire array, such as ${array#pattern}, or a global
              substitution, such as ${param//pat/repl}, only the data for the
              last match remains available.  In the case of global
              replacements this may still be useful.  See the example for the
              m flag below.

              The numbering of backreferences strictly follows the order of
              the opening parentheses from left to right in the pattern
              string, although sets of parentheses may be nested.  There are
              special rules for parentheses followed by `#' or `##'.  Only the
              last match of the parenthesis is remembered: for example, in `[[
              abab = (#b)([ab])# ]]', only the final `b' is stored in
              match[1].  Thus extra parentheses may be necessary to match the
              complete segment: for example, use `X((ab|cd)#)Y' to match a
              whole string of either `ab' or `cd' between `X' and `Y', using
              the value of $match[1] rather than $match[2].

              If the match fails none of the parameters is altered, so in some
              cases it may be necessary to initialise them beforehand.  If
              some of the backreferences fail to match --- which happens if
              they are in an alternate branch which fails to match, or if they
              are followed by # and matched zero times --- then the matched
              string is set to the empty string, and the start and end indices
              are set to -1.

              Pattern matching with backreferences is slightly slower than

       B      Deactivate backreferences, negating the effect of the b flag
              from that point on.

       m      Set references to the match data for the entire string matched;
              this is similar to backreferencing and does not work in filename
              generation.  The flag must be in effect at the end of the
              pattern, i.e. not local to a group. The parameters $MATCH,
              $MBEGIN and $MEND will be set to the string matched and to the
              indices of the beginning and end of the string, respectively.
              This is most useful in parameter substitutions, as otherwise the
              string matched is obvious.

              For example,

                     arr=(veldt jynx grimps waqf zho buck)
                     print ${arr//(#m)[aeiou]/${(U)MATCH}}

              forces all the matches (i.e. all vowels) into uppercase,
              printing `vEldt jynx grImps wAqf zhO bUck'.

              Unlike backreferences, there is no speed penalty for using match
              references, other than the extra substitutions required for the
              replacement strings in cases such as the example shown.

       M      Deactivate the m flag, hence no references to match data will be

       anum   Approximate matching: num errors are allowed in the string
              matched by the pattern.  The rules for this are described in the
              next subsection.

       s, e   Unlike the other flags, these have only a local effect, and each
              must appear on its own:  `(#s)' and `(#e)' are the only valid
              forms.  The `(#s)' flag succeeds only at the start of the test
              string, and the `(#e)' flag succeeds only at the end of the test
              string; they correspond to `^' and `$' in standard regular
              expressions.  They are useful for matching path segments in
              patterns other than those in filename generation (where path
              segments are in any case treated separately).  For example,
              `*((#s)|/)test((#e)|/)*' matches a path segment `test' in any of
              the following strings: test, test/at/start, at/end/test,

              Another use is in parameter substitution; for example
              `${array/(#s)A*Z(#e)}' will remove only elements of an array
              which match the complete pattern `A*Z'.  There are other ways of
              performing many operations of this type, however the combination
              of the substitution operations `/' and `//' with the `(#s)' and
              `(#e)' flags provides a single simple and memorable method.

              Note that assertions of the form `(^(#s))' also work, i.e. match
              anywhere except at the start of the string, although this
              actually means `anything except a zero-length portion at the
              start of the string'; you need to use `(""~(#s))' to match a
              zero-length portion of the string not at the start.

       For example, the test string fooxx can be matched by the pattern
       (#i)FOOXX, but not by (#l)FOOXX, (#i)FOO(#I)XX or ((#i)FOOX)X.  The
       string (#ia2)readme specifies case-insensitive matching of readme with
       up to two errors.

       When using the ksh syntax for grouping both KSH_GLOB and EXTENDED_GLOB
       must be set and the left parenthesis should be preceded by @.  Note
       also that the flags do not affect letters inside [...] groups, in other
       words (#i)[a-z] still matches only lowercase letters.  Finally, note
       that when examining whole paths case-insensitively every directory must
       be searched for all files which match, so that a pattern of the form
       (#i)/foo/bar/... is potentially slow.

   Approximate Matching
       When matching approximately, the shell keeps a count of the errors
       found, which cannot exceed the number specified in the (#anum) flags.
       Four types of error are recognised:

       1.     Different characters, as in fooxbar and fooybar.

       2.     Transposition of characters, as in banana and abnana.

       3.     A character missing in the target string, as with the pattern
              road and target string rod.

       4.     An extra character appearing in the target string, as with stove
              and strove.

       Thus, the pattern (#a3)abcd matches dcba, with the errors occurring by
       using the first rule twice and the second once, grouping the string as
       [d][cb][a] and [a][bc][d].

       Non-literal parts of the pattern must match exactly, including
       characters in character ranges: hence (#a1)???  matches strings of
       length four, by applying rule 4 to an empty part of the pattern, but
       not strings of length two, since all the ? must match.  Other
       characters which must match exactly are initial dots in filenames
       (unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set), and all slashes in filenames, so
       that a/bc is two errors from ab/c (the slash cannot be transposed with
       another character).  Similarly, errors are counted separately for
       non-contiguous strings in the pattern, so that (ab|cd)ef is two errors
       from aebf.

       When using exclusion via the ~ operator, approximate matching is
       treated entirely separately for the excluded part and must be activated
       separately.  Thus, (#a1)README~READ_ME matches READ.ME but not READ_ME,
       as the trailing READ_ME is matched without approximation.  However,
       (#a1)README~(#a1)READ_ME does not match any pattern of the form READ?ME
       as all such forms are now excluded.

       Apart from exclusions, there is only one overall error count; however,
       the maximum errors allowed may be altered locally, and this can be
       delimited by grouping.  For example, (#a1)cat((#a0)dog)fox allows one
       error in total, which may not occur in the dog section, and the pattern
       (#a1)cat(#a0)dog(#a1)fox is equivalent.  Note that the point at which
       an error is first found is the crucial one for establishing whether to
       use approximation; for example, (#a1)abc(#a0)xyz will not match
       abcdxyz, because the error occurs at the `x', where approximation is
       turned off.

       Entire path segments may be matched approximately, so that
       `(#a1)/foo/d/is/available/at/the/bar' allows one error in any path
       segment.  This is much less efficient than without the (#a1), however,
       since every directory in the path must be scanned for a possible
       approximate match.  It is best to place the (#a1) after any path
       segments which are known to be correct.

   Recursive Globbing
       A pathname component of the form `(foo/)#' matches a path consisting of
       zero or more directories matching the pattern foo.

       As a shorthand, `**/' is equivalent to `(*/)#'; note that this
       therefore matches files in the current directory as well as
       subdirectories.  Thus:

              ls (*/)#bar


              ls **/bar

       does a recursive directory search for files named `bar' (potentially
       including the file `bar' in the current directory).  This form does not
       follow symbolic links; the alternative form `***/' does, but is
       otherwise identical.  Neither of these can be combined with other forms
       of globbing within the same path segment; in that case, the `*'
       operators revert to their usual effect.

   Glob Qualifiers
       Patterns used for filename generation may end in a list of qualifiers
       enclosed in parentheses.  The qualifiers specify which filenames that
       otherwise match the given pattern will be inserted in the argument

       If the option BARE_GLOB_QUAL is set, then a trailing set of parentheses
       containing no `|' or `(' characters (or `~' if it is special) is taken
       as a set of glob qualifiers.  A glob subexpression that would normally
       be taken as glob qualifiers, for example `(^x)', can be forced to be
       treated as part of the glob pattern by doubling the parentheses, in
       this case producing `((^x))'.

       A qualifier may be any one of the following:

       /      directories

       .      plain files

       @      symbolic links

       =      sockets

       p      named pipes (FIFOs)

       *      executable plain files (0100)

       %      device files (character or block special)

       %b     block special files

       %c     character special files

       r      owner-readable files (0400)

       w      owner-writable files (0200)

       x      owner-executable files (0100)

       A      group-readable files (0040)

       I      group-writable files (0020)

       E      group-executable files (0010)

       R      world-readable files (0004)

       W      world-writable files (0002)

       X      world-executable files (0001)

       s      setuid files (04000)

       S      setgid files (02000)

       t      files with the sticky bit (01000)

       fspec  files with access rights matching spec. This spec may be a octal
              number optionally preceded by a `=', a `+', or a `-'. If none of
              these characters is given, the behavior is the same as for `='.
              The octal number describes the mode bits to be expected, if
              combined with a `=', the value given must match the file-modes
              exactly, with a `+', at least the bits in the given number must
              be set in the file-modes, and with a `-', the bits in the number
              must not be set. Giving a `?' instead of a octal digit anywhere
              in the number ensures that the corresponding bits in the
              file-modes are not checked, this is only useful in combination
              with `='.

              If the qualifier `f' is followed by any other character anything
              up to the next matching character (`[', `{', and `<' match `]',
              `}', and `>' respectively, any other character matches itself)
              is taken as a list of comma-separated sub-specs. Each sub-spec
              may be either an octal number as described above or a list of
              any of the characters `u', `g', `o', and `a', followed by a `=',
              a `+', or a `-', followed by a list of any of the characters
              `r', `w', `x', `s', and `t', or an octal digit. The first list
              of characters specify which access rights are to be checked. If
              a `u' is given, those for the owner of the file are used, if a
              `g' is given, those of the group are checked, a `o' means to
              test those of other users, and the `a' says to test all three
              groups. The `=', `+', and `-' again says how the modes are to be
              checked and have the same meaning as described for the first
              form above. The second list of characters finally says which
              access rights are to be expected: `r' for read access, `w' for
              write access, `x' for the right to execute the file (or to
              search a directory), `s' for the setuid and setgid bits, and `t'
              for the sticky bit.

              Thus, `*(f70?)' gives the files for which the owner has read,
              write, and execute permission, and for which other group members
              have no rights, independent of the permissions for other users.
              The pattern `*(f-100)' gives all files for which the owner does
              not have execute permission, and `*(f:gu+w,o-rx:)' gives the
              files for which the owner and the other members of the group
              have at least write permission, and for which other users don't
              have read or execute permission.

              The string will be executed as shell code.  The filename will be
              included in the list if and only if the code returns a zero
              status (usually the status of the last command).  The first
              character after the `e' will be used as a separator and anything
              up to the next matching separator will be taken  as the string;
              `[', `{', and `<' match `]', `}', and `>', respectively, while
              any other character matches itself. Note that expansions must be
              quoted in the string to prevent them from being expanded before
              globbing is done.

              During the execution of string the filename currently being
              tested is available in the parameter REPLY; the parameter may be
              altered to a string to be inserted into the list instead of the
              original filename.  In addition, the parameter reply may be set
              to an array or a string, which overrides the value of REPLY.  If
              set to an array, the latter is inserted into the command line
              word by word.

              For example, suppose a directory contains a single file
              `lonely'.  Then the expression `*(e:'reply=(${REPLY}{1,2})':)'
              will cause the words `lonely1 lonely2' to be inserted into the
              command line.  Note the quotation marks.

       ddev   files on the device dev

              files having a link count less than ct (-), greater than ct (+),
              or equal to ct

       U      files owned by the effective user ID

       G      files owned by the effective group ID

       uid    files owned by user ID id if it is a number, if not, than the
              character after the `u' will be used as a separator and the
              string between it and the next matching separator (`[', `{', and
              `<' match `]', `}', and `>' respectively, any other character
              matches itself) will be taken as a user name, and the user ID of
              this user will be taken (e.g. `u:foo:' or `u[foo]' for user

       gid    like uid but with group IDs or names

              files accessed exactly n days ago.  Files accessed within the
              last n days are selected using a negative value for n (-n).
              Files accessed more than n days ago are selected by a positive n
              value (+n).  Optional unit specifiers `M', `w', `h', `m' or `s'
              (e.g. `ah5') cause the check to be performed with months (of 30
              days), weeks, hours, minutes or seconds instead of days,
              respectively.  For instance, `echo *(ah-5)' would echo files
              accessed within the last five hours.

              like the file access qualifier, except that it uses the file
              modification time.

              like the file access qualifier, except that it uses the file
              inode change time.

              files less than n bytes (-), more than n bytes (+), or exactly n
              bytes in length. If this flag is directly followed by a `k'
              (`K'), `m' (`M'), or `p' (`P') (e.g. `Lk-50') the check is
              performed with kilobytes, megabytes, or blocks (of 512 bytes)

       ^      negates all qualifiers following it

       -      toggles between making the qualifiers work on symbolic links
              (the default) and the files they point to

       M      sets the MARK_DIRS option for the current pattern

       T      appends a trailing qualifier mark to the filenames, analogous to
              the LIST_TYPES option, for the current pattern (overrides M)

       N      sets the NULL_GLOB option for the current pattern

       D      sets the GLOB_DOTS option for the current pattern

       n      sets the NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT option for the current pattern

       oc     specifies how the names of the files should be sorted. If c is n
              they are sorted by name (the default); if it is L they are
              sorted depending on the size (length) of the files; if l they
              are sorted by the number of links; if a, m, or c they are sorted
              by the time of the last access, modification, or inode change
              respectively; if d, files in subdirectories appear before those
              in the current directory at each level of the search --- this is
              best combined with other criteria, for example `odon' to sort on
              names for files within the same directory.  Note that a, m, and
              c compare the age against the current time, hence the first name
              in the list is the youngest file. Also note that the modifiers ^
              and - are used, so `*(^-oL)' gives a list of all files sorted by
              file size in descending order, following any symbolic links.

       Oc     like `o', but sorts in descending order; i.e. `*(^oc)' is the
              same as `*(Oc)' and `*(^Oc)' is the same as `*(oc)'; `Od' puts
              files in the current directory before those in subdirectories at
              each level of the search.

              specifies which of the matched filenames should be included in
              the returned list. The syntax is the same as for array
              subscripts. beg and the optional end may be mathematical
              expressions. As in parameter subscripting they may be negative
              to make them count from the last match backward. E.g.:
              `*(-OL[1,3])' gives a list of the names of the three largest

       More than one of these lists can be combined, separated by commas. The
       whole list matches if at least one of the sublists matches (they are
       `or'ed, the qualifiers in the sublists are `and'ed).  Some qualifiers,
       however, affect all matches generated, independent of the sublist in
       which they are given.  These are the qualifiers `M', `T', `N', `D',
       `n', `o', `O' and the subscripts given in brackets (`[...]').

       If a `:' appears in a qualifier list, the remainder of the expression
       in parenthesis is interpreted as a modifier (see the section
       `Modifiers' in the section `History Expansion').  Note that each
       modifier must be introduced by a separate `:'.  Note also that the
       result after modification does not have to be an existing file.  The
       name of any existing file can be followed by a modifier of the form
       `(:..)' even if no actual filename generation is performed.  Thus:

              ls *(-/)

       lists all directories and symbolic links that point to directories, and

              ls *(%W)

       lists all world-writable device files in the current directory, and

              ls *(W,X)

       lists all files in the current directory that are world-writable or
       world-executable, and

              echo /tmp/foo*(u0^@:t)

       outputs the basename of all root-owned files beginning with the string
       `foo' in /tmp, ignoring symlinks, and

              ls *.*~(lex|parse).[ch](^D^l1)

       lists all files having a link count of one whose names contain a dot
       (but not those starting with a dot, since GLOB_DOTS is explicitly
       switched off) except for lex.c, lex.h, parse.c and parse.h.

zsh 4.0.6                       August 14, 2002                     ZSHEXPN(1)


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