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ZSHBUILTINS(1)          FreeBSD General Commands Manual         ZSHBUILTINS(1)

NAME
       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS
       - simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       . file [ arg ... ]
              Read commands from file and execute them in the current shell
              environment.

              If file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS is set, the
              shell looks in the components of $path to find the directory
              containing file.  Files in the current directory are not read
              unless `.' appears somewhere in $path.  If a file named
              `file.zwc' is found, is newer than file, and is the compiled
              form (created with the zcompile builtin) of file, then commands
              are read from that file instead of file.

              If any arguments arg are given, they become the positional
              parameters; the old positional parameters are restored when the
              file is done executing.  The exit status is the exit status of
              the last command executed.

       : [ arg ... ]
              This command does nothing, although normal argument expansions
              is performed which may have effects on shell parameters.  A zero
              exit code is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              For each name with a corresponding value, define an alias with
              that value.  A trailing space in value causes the next word to
              be checked for alias expansion.  If the -g flag is present,
              define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if they
              do not occur in command position.

              For each name with no value, print the value of name, if any.
              With no arguments, print all currently defined aliases.  If the
              -m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (they
              should be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as glob
              patterns), and the aliases matching these patterns are printed.
              When printing aliases and the -g or -r flags are present, then
              restrict the printing to global or regular aliases,
              respectively.  Using `+' instead of `-', or ending the option
              list with a single `+', prevents the values of the aliases from
              being printed.

              If the -L flag is present, then print each alias in a manner
              suitable for putting in a startup script.  The exit status is
              nonzero if a name (with no value) is given for which no alias
              has been defined.

       autoload [ {+|-}UXmt ] [ -wkz ] [ name ... ]
              Equivalent to functions -u, with the exception of -X/+X, -w, -k
              and -z.

              The flag -X may be used only inside a shell function, and may
              not be followed by a name.  It causes the calling function to be
              marked for autoloading and then immediately loaded and executed,
              with the current array of positional parameters as arguments.
              This replaces the previous definition of the function.  If no
              function definition is found, an error is printed and the
              function remains undefined and marked for autoloading.

              The flag +X attempts to load each name as an autoloaded
              function, but does not execute it.  The exit status is zero
              (success) if the function was not previously defined and a
              definition for it was found.  This does not replace any existing
              definition of the function.  The exit status is nonzero
              (failure) if the function was already defined or when no
              definition was found.  In the latter case the function remains
              undefined and marked for autoloading.

              The flag +X may be combined with either -k or -z to make the
              function be loaded using ksh-style or zsh-style autoloading,
              respectively. If neither is given, the current setting of the
              KSH_AUTOLOAD options determines how the function is loaded. With
              ksh-style autoloading, the contents of the file will not be
              executed immediately. Instead, the function created will contain
              the contents of the file plus a call to the function itself
              appended to it, thus given normal ksh autoloading behaviour on
              the first call to the function.

              With the -w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled
              with the zcompile builtin, and all functions defined in them are
              marked for autoloading.

       bg [ job ... ]
       job ... &
              Put each specified job in the background, or the current job if
              none is specified.

       bindkey
              See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
              Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop.
              If n is specified, then break n levels instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
              Executes the builtin name, with the given args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -sLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -sLP ] old new
       cd [ -sLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory.  In the first form, change the
              current directory to arg, or to the value of $HOME if arg is not
              specified.  If arg is `-', change to the value of $OLDPWD, the
              previous directory.  Otherwise, if a directory named arg is not
              found in the current directory and arg does not begin with a
              slash, search each component of the shell parameter cdpath.  If
              no directory is found and the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a
              parameter named arg exists whose value begins with a slash,
              treat its value as the directory.  In that case, the parameter
              is added to the named directory hash table.

              The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string
              old in the name of the current directory, and tries to change to
              this new directory.

              The third form of cd extracts an entry from the directory stack,
              and changes to that directory.  An argument of the form `+n'
              identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list
              shown by the dirs command, starting with zero.  An argument of
              the form `-n' counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option
              is set, the meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -s option is specified, cd refuses to change the current
              directory if the given pathname contains symlinks.  If the -P
              option is given or the CHASE_LINKS option is set, symbolic links
              are resolved to their true values.  If the -L option is given
              symbolic links are followed regardless of the state of the
              CHASE_LINKS option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section `The zsh/clone Module' in zshmodules(1).

       command simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       comparguments
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compcall
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compctl
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compdescribe
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compfiles
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compgroups
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compquote
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptags
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptry
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compvalues
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       continue [ n ]
              Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for, while, until,
              select or repeat loop.  If n is specified, break out of n-1
              loops and resume at the nth enclosing loop.

       declare
              Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -v ] [ arg ... ]
              With no arguments, print the contents of the directory stack.
              If the -v option is given, number the directories in the stack
              when printing.  Directories are added to this stack with the
              pushd command, and removed with the cd or popd commands.  If
              arguments are specified, load them onto the directory stack,
              replacing anything that was there, and push the current
              directory onto the stack.

       disable [ -afmr ] name ...
              Temporarily disable the named hash table elements.  The default
              is to disable builtin commands.  This allows you to use an
              external command with the same name as a builtin command.  The
              -a option causes disable to act on aliases.  The -f option
              causes disable to act on shell functions.  The -r options causes
              disable to act on reserved words.  Without arguments all
              disabled hash table elements from the corresponding hash table
              are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are taken as
              patterns (which should be quoted to prevent them from undergoing
              filename expansion), and all hash table elements from the
              corresponding hash table matching these patterns are disabled.
              Disabled objects can be enabled with the enable command.

       disown [ job ... ]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
              Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will no
              longer report their status, and will not complain if you try to
              exit an interactive shell with them running or stopped.  If no
              job is specified, disown the current job.

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
              Write each arg on the standard output, with a space separating
              each one.  If the -n flag is not present, print a newline at the
              end.  echo recognizes the following escape sequences:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress final newline
              \e     escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \0NNN  character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal

              The -E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option, can be used to disable
              these escape sequences.  In the latter case, -e flag can be used
              to enable them.

       echotc See the section `The zsh/termcap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section `The zsh/terminfo Module' in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -LR ] {zsh|sh|ksh|csh}
              Set up zsh options to emulate the specified shell as much as
              possible.  csh will never be fully emulated.  If the argument is
              not one of the shells listed above, zsh will be used as a
              default; more precisely, the tests performed on the argument are
              the same as those used to determine the emulation at startup
              based on the shell name, see the section `Compatibility' in
              zshmisc(1) .  If the -R option is given, all options are reset
              to their default value corresponding to the specified emulation
              mode, except for certain options describing the interactive
              environment; otherwise, only those options likely to cause
              portability problems in scripts and functions are altered.  If
              the -L option is given, the options LOCAL_OPTIONS and
              LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the effects of the
              emulate command and any setopt and trap commands to be local to
              the immediately surrounding shell function, if any; normally
              these options are turned off in all emulation modes except ksh.

       enable [ -afmr ] name ...
              Enable the named hash table elements, presumably disabled
              earlier with disable.  The default is to enable builtin
              commands.  The -a option causes enable to act on aliases.  The
              -f option causes enable to act on shell functions.  The -r
              option causes enable to act on reserved words.  Without
              arguments all enabled hash table elements from the corresponding
              hash table are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are
              taken as patterns (should be quoted) and all hash table elements
              from the corresponding hash table matching these patterns are
              enabled.  Enabled objects can be disabled with the disable
              builtin command.

       eval [ arg ... ]
              Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the
              resulting command in the current shell process.

       exec simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       exit [ n ]
              Exit the shell with the exit code specified by n; if none is
              specified, use the exit code from the last command executed.  An
              EOF condition will also cause the shell to exit, unless the
              IGNORE_EOF option is set.

       export [ name[=value] ... ]
              The specified names are marked for automatic export to the
              environment of subsequently executed commands.  Equivalent to
              typeset -gx.  If a parameter specified does not already exist,
              it is created in the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit code of 1.

       fc [ -e ename ] [ -nlrdDfEim ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -ARWI [ filename ]
              Select a range of commands from first to last from the history
              list.  The arguments first and last may be specified as a number
              or as a string.  A negative number is used as an offset to the
              current history event number.  A string specifies the most
              recent event beginning with the given string.  All substitutions
              old=new, if any, are then performed on the commands.

              If the -l flag is given, the resulting commands are listed on
              standard output.  If the -m flag is also given the first
              argument is taken as a pattern (should be quoted) and only the
              history events matching this pattern will be shown.  Otherwise
              the editor program ename is invoked on a file containing these
              history events.  If ename is not given, the value of the
              parameter FCEDIT is used.  If ename is `-', no editor is
              invoked.  When editing is complete, the edited command is
              executed.

              If first is not specified, it will be set to -1 (the most recent
              event), or to -16 if the -l flag is given.  If last is not
              specified, it will be set to first, or to -1 if the -l flag is
              given.

              The flag -r reverses the order of the commands and the flag -n
              suppresses command numbers when listing.  Also when listing, -d
              prints timestamps for each command, and -f prints full time-date
              stamps.  Adding the -E flag causes the dates to be printed as
              `dd.mm.yyyy', instead of the default `mm/dd/yyyy'.  Adding the
              -i flag causes the dates to be printed in ISO8601 `yyyy-mm-dd'
              format.  With the -D flag, fc prints elapsed times.

              `fc -R' reads the history from the given file, `fc -W' writes
              the history out to the given file, and `fc -A' appends the
              history out to the given file.  If no filename is specified, the
              $HISTFILE is assumed.  If the -I option is added to -R, only
              those events that are not already contained within the internal
              history list are added.  If the -I option is added to -A or -W,
              only those events that are new since last incremental
              append/write to the history file are appended/written.  In any
              case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job ... ]
       job ...
              Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground.  If no job
              is specified, resume the current job.

       float [ {+|-}EFghlrtux ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -E, except that options irrelevant to
              floating point numbers are not permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UXmtu ] [ name ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -f.

       getcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
              Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell
              parameter name.  Equivalent to read -zr.

       getopts optstring name [ arg ... ]
              Checks the args for legal options.  If the args are omitted, use
              the positional parameters.  A valid option argument begins with
              a `+' or a `-'.  An argument not beginning with a `+' or a `-',
              or the argument `--', ends the options.  optstring contains the
              letters that getopts recognizes.  If a letter is followed by a
              `:', that option is expected to have an argument.  The options
              can be separated from the argument by blanks.

              Each time it is invoked, getopts places the option letter it
              finds in the shell parameter name, prepended with a `+' when arg
              begins with a `+'.  The index of the next arg is stored in
              OPTIND.  The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

              The first option to be examined may be changed by explicitly
              assigning to OPTIND.  OPTIND has an initial value of 1, and is
              normally reset to 1 upon exit from a shell function.  OPTARG is
              not reset and retains its value from the most recent call to
              getopts.  If either of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly unset, it
              remains unset, and the index or option argument is not stored.
              The option itself is still stored in name in this case.

              A leading `:' in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of
              any invalid option in OPTARG, and to set name to `?' for an
              unknown option and to `:' when a required option is missing.
              Otherwise, getopts sets name to `?' and prints an error message
              when an option is invalid.  The exit status is nonzero when
              there are no more options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...
              hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the command
              hash table, and the named directory hash table.  Normally one
              would modify these tables by modifying one's PATH (for the
              command hash table) or by creating appropriate shell parameters
              (for the named directory hash table).  The choice of hash table
              to work on is determined by the -d option; without the option
              the command hash table is used, and with the option the named
              directory hash table is used.

              Given no arguments, and neither the -r or -f options, the
              selected hash table will be listed in full.

              The -r option causes the selected hash table to be emptied.  It
              will be subsequently rebuilt in the normal fashion.  The -f
              option causes the selected hash table to be fully rebuilt
              immediately.  For the command hash table this hashes all the
              absolute directories in the PATH, and for the named directory
              hash table this adds all users' home directories.  These two
              options cannot be used with any arguments.

              The -m option causes the arguments to be taken as patterns
              (which should be quoted) and the elements of the hash table
              matching those patterns are printed.  This is the only way to
              display a limited selection of hash table elements.

              For each name with a corresponding value, put `name' in the
              selected hash table, associating it with the pathname `value'.
              In the command hash table, this means that whenever `name' is
              used as a command argument, the shell will try to execute the
              file given by `value'.  In the named directory hash table, this
              means that `value' may be referred to as `~name'.

              For each name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name
              to the hash table, checking what the appropriate value is in the
              normal manner for that hash table.  If an appropriate value
              can't be found, then the hash table will be unchanged.

              The -v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are
              added by explicit specification.  If has no effect if used with
              -f.

              If the -L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed
              in the form of a call to hash.

       history
              Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}ghilrtux ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -i, except that options irrelevant to
              integers are not permitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
              Lists information about each given job, or all jobs if job is
              omitted.  The -l flag lists process IDs, and the -p flag lists
              process groups.  If the -r flag is specified only running jobs
              will be listed and if the -s flag is given only stopped jobs are
              shown.  If the -d flag is given, the directory from which the
              job was started (which may not be the current directory of the
              job) will also be shown.

              The -Z option replaces the shell's argument and environment
              space with the given string, truncated if necessary to fit.
              This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1)) listings.  This
              feature is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name ] job ...
       kill [ -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
              Sends either SIGTERM or the specified signal to the given jobs
              or processes.  Signals are given by number or by names, without
              the `SIG' prefix.  If the signal being sent is not `KILL' or
              `CONT', then the job will be sent a `CONT' signal if it is
              stopped.  The argument job can be the process ID of a job not in
              the job list.  In the third form, kill -l, if sig is not
              specified the signal names are listed.  Otherwise, for each sig
              that is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed.  For
              each sig that is a signal number or a number representing the
              exit status of a process which was terminated or stopped by a
              signal the name of the signal is printed.

       let arg ...
              Evaluate each arg as an arithmetic expression.  See the section
              `Arithmetic Evaluation' for a description of arithmetic
              expressions.  The exit status is 0 if the value of the last
              expression is nonzero, and 1 otherwise.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ...
              Set or display resource limits.  Unless the -s flag is given,
              the limit applies only the children of the shell.  If -s is
              given without other arguments, the resource limits of the
              current shell is set to the previously set resource limits of
              the children.

              If limit is not specified, print the current limit placed on
              resource, otherwise set the limit to the specified value.  If
              the -h flag is given, use hard limits instead of soft limits.
              If no resource is given, print all limits.

              resource can be one of:

              addressspace
                     Maximum amount of address space used.
              aiomemorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM for AIO
                     operations.
              aiooperations
                     Maximum number of AIO operations.
              cachedthreads
                     Maximum number of cached threads.
              coredumpsize
                     Maximum size of a core dump.
              cputime
                     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
              datasize
                     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
              descriptors
                     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
              filesize
                     Largest single file allowed.
              maxproc
                     Maximum number of processes.
              maxpthreads
                     Maximum number of threads per process.
              memorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM.
              memoryuse
                     Maximum resident set size.
              resident
                     Maximum resident set size.
              sockbufsize
                     Maximum size of all socket buffers.
              stacksize
                     Maximum stack size for each process.
              vmemorysize
                     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

              Which of these resource limits are available depends on the
              system.  resource can be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix.

              limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

              nh     hours
              nk     kilobytes (default)
              nm     megabytes or minutes
              [mm:]ss
                     minutes and seconds

       local [ {+|-}AEFLRUZahilrtux [n]] [ name[=value] ] ...
              Same as typeset, except that the options -g, and -f are not
              permitted.  In this case the -x option does not force the use of
              -g, i.e. exported variables will be local to functions.

       log    List all users currently logged in who are affected by the
              current setting of the watch parameter.

       logout [ n ]
              Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       popd [ {+|-}n ]
              Remove an entry from the directory stack, and perform a cd to
              the new top directory.  With no argument, the current top entry
              is removed.  An argument of the form `+n' identifies a stack
              entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs
              command, starting with zero.  An argument of the form -n counts
              from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings
              of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

       print [ -bnrslzpNDPoOicm ] [ -un ] [ -R [ -en ]] [ arg ... ]
              With no flags or with the flag `-', the arguments are printed on
              the standard output as described by echo, with the following
              differences: the escape sequence `\M-x' metafies the character x
              (sets the highest bit), `\C-x' produces a control character
              (`\C-@' and `\C-?' give the characters NUL and delete), and `\E'
              is a synonym for `\e'.  Finally, if not in an escape sequence,
              `\' escapes the following character and is not printed.

              -r     Ignore the escape conventions of echo.

              -R     Emulate the BSD echo command, which does not process
                     escape sequences unless the -e flag is given.  The -n
                     flag suppresses the trailing newline.  Only the -e and -n
                     flags are recognized after -R; all other arguments and
                     options are printed.

              -b     Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the
                     bindkey command, see zshzle(1).

              -m     Take the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted),
                     and remove it from the argument list together with
                     subsequent arguments that do not match this pattern.

              -s     Place the results in the history list instead of on the
                     standard output.

              -n     Do not add a newline to the output.

              -l     Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of
                     spaces.

              -N     Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls.

              -o     Print the arguments sorted in ascending order.

              -O     Print the arguments sorted in descending order.

              -i     If given together with -o or -O, sorting is performed
                     case-independently.

              -c     Print the arguments in columns.

              -un    Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

              -p     Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess.

              -z     Push the arguments onto the editing buffer stack,
                     separated by spaces.

              -D     Treat the arguments as directory names, replacing
                     prefixes with ~ expressions, as appropriate.

              -P     Perform prompt expansion (see zshmisc(1)).

       pushd [ arg ]
       pushd old new
       pushd {+|-}n
              Change the current directory, and push the old current directory
              onto the directory stack.  In the first form, change the current
              directory to arg.  If arg is not specified, change to the second
              directory on the stack (that is, exchange the top two entries),
              or change to $HOME if the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set or if
              there is only one entry on the stack.  Otherwise, arg is
              interpreted as it would be by cd.  The meaning of old and new in
              the second form is also the same as for cd.

              The third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the
              directory list.  An argument of the form `+n' identifies a stack
              entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs
              command, starting with zero.  An argument of the form `-n'
              counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the
              meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the option PUSHD_SILENT is not set, the directory stack will
              be printed after a pushd is performed.

       pushln [ arg ... ]
              Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
              Print the absolute pathname of the current working directory.
              If the -r or the -P flag is specified, or the CHASE_LINKS option
              is set and the -L flag is not given, the printed path will not
              contain symbolic links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.

       read [ -rzpqAclneEt ] [ -k [ num ] ]
        [ -un ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
              Read one line and break it into fields using the characters in
              $IFS as separators, except as noted below.  The first field is
              assigned to the first name, the second field to the second name,
              etc., with leftover fields assigned to the last name.  If name
              is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for arrays.

              -r     Raw mode: a `\' at the end of a line does not signify
                     line continuation and backslashes in the line don't quote
                     the following character and are not removed.

              -q     Read only one character from the terminal and set name to
                     `y' if this character was `y' or `Y' and to `n'
                     otherwise.  With this flag set the return value is zero
                     only if the character was `y' or `Y'.  Note that this
                     always reads from the terminal, even if used with the -p
                     or -u or -z flags or with redirected input.  This option
                     may also be used within zle widgets.

              -k [ num ]
                     Read only one (or num) characters.  All are assigned to
                     the first name, without word splitting.  This flag is
                     ignored when -q is present.  Input is read from the
                     terminal unless one of -u or -p is present.  This option
                     may also be used within zle widgets.

                     Note that num must be in the argument word that follows
                     -k, not in the same word.  See -u.

              -z     Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it
                     to the first name, without word splitting.  Text is
                     pushed onto the stack with `print -z' or with push-line
                     from the line editor (see zshzle(1)).  This flag is
                     ignored when the -k or -q flags are present.

              -e
              -E     The input read is printed (echoed) to the standard
                     output.  If the -e flag is used, no input is assigned to
                     the parameters.

              -A     The first name is taken as the name of an array and all
                     words are assigned to it.

              -c
              -l     These flags are allowed only if called inside a function
                     used for completion (specified with the -K flag to
                     compctl).  If the -c flag is given, the words of the
                     current command are read. If the -l flag is given, the
                     whole line is assigned as a scalar.  If both flags are
                     present, -l is used and -c is ignored.

              -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on
                     is read.  With -l, the index of the character the cursor
                     is on is read.  Note that the command name is word number
                     1, not word 0, and that when the cursor is at the end of
                     the line, its character index is the length of the line
                     plus one.

              -un    Input is read from file descriptor n, where n is a single
                     digit and must not be separated from -u by any
                     whitespace.

              -p     Input is read from the coprocess.

              -t     Test if input is available before attempting to read; if
                     none is, return status 1 and do not set any variables.
                     This is not available when reading from the editor buffer
                     with -z, when called from within completion with -c or
                     -l, with -q which clears the input queue before reading,
                     or within zle where other mechanisms should be used to
                     test for input.

                     Note that read does not attempt to alter the input
                     processing mode.  The default mode is canonical input, in
                     which an entire line is read at a time, so usually `read
                     -t' will not read anything until an entire line has been
                     typed.  However, when reading from the terminal with -k
                     this is automatically handled; note that only
                     availability of the first character is tested, so that
                     e.g. `read -t -k 2' can still block on the second
                     character.  If the first argument contains a `?', the
                     remainder of this word is used as a prompt on standard
                     error when the shell is interactive.

              The value (exit status) of read is 1 when an end-of-file is
              encountered, or when -c or -l is present and the command is not
              called from a compctl function, or as described for -q.
              Otherwise the value is 0.

              The behavior of some combinations of the -k, -p, -q, -u and -z
              flags is undefined.  Presently -q cancels all the others, -p
              cancels -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z cancels both -p and
              -u.

              The -c or -l flags cancel any and all of -kpquz.

       readonly
              Same as typeset -r.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [ n ]
              Causes a shell function or . script to return to the invoking
              script with the return status specified by n.  If n is omitted,
              the return status is that of the last command executed.

              If return was executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function, the
              effect is different for zero and non-zero return status.  With
              zero status (or after an implicit return at the end of the
              trap), the shell will return to whatever it was previously
              processing; with a non-zero status, the shell will behave as
              interrupted except that the return status of the trap is
              retained.  Note that the numeric value of the signal which
              caused the trap is passed as the first argument, so the
              statement `return $((128+$1))' will return the same status as if
              the signal had not been trapped.

       sched  See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).

       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ] [ arg
       ... ]  Set the options for the shell and/or set the positional
              parameters, or declare and set an array.  If the -s option is
              given, it causes the specified arguments to be sorted before
              assigning them to the positional parameters (or to the array
              name if -A is used).  With +s sort arguments in descending
              order.  For the meaning of the other flags, see zshoptions(1).
              Flags may be specified by name using the -o option.

              If the -A flag is specified, name is set to an array containing
              the given args. if +A is used and name is an array, the given
              arguments will replace the initial elements of that array; if no
              name is specified, all arrays are printed.  Otherwise the
              positional parameters are set.  If no arguments are given, then
              the names and values of all parameters are printed on the
              standard output.  If the only argument is `+', the names of all
              parameters are printed.

       setcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Set the options for the shell.  All options specified either
              with flags or by name are set.  If no arguments are supplied,
              the names of all options currently set are printed.  If the -m
              flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should
              be quoted to protect them from filename expansion), and all
              options with names matching these patterns are set.

       shift [ n ] [ name ... ]
              The positional parameters ${n+1} ... are renamed to $1 ...,
              where n is an arithmetic expression that defaults to 1.  If any
              names are given then the arrays with these names are shifted
              instead of the positional parameters.

       source file [ arg ... ]
              Same as ., except that the current directory is always searched
              and is always searched first, before directories in $path.

       stat   See the section `The zsh/stat Module' in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
              Suspend the execution of the shell (send it a SIGTSTP) until it
              receives a SIGCONT.  Unless the -f option is given, this will
              refuse to suspend a login shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
              Like the system version of test.  Added for compatibility; use
              conditional expressions instead (see the section `Conditional
              Expressions').

       times  Print the accumulated user and system times for the shell and
              for processes run from the shell.

       trap [ arg [ sig ... ] ]
              arg is a series of commands (usually quoted to protect it from
              immediate evaluation by the shell) to be read and executed when
              the shell receives sig.  Each sig can be given as a number or as
              the name of a signal.  If arg is `-', then all traps sig are
              reset to their default values.  If arg is the empty string, then
              this signal is ignored by the shell and by the commands it
              invokes.

              If sig is ZERR then arg will be executed after each command with
              a nonzero exit status.  If sig is DEBUG then arg will be
              executed after each command.  If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap
              statement is executed inside the body of a function, then the
              command arg is executed after the function completes.  If sig is
              0 or EXIT and the trap statement is not executed inside the body
              of a function, then the command arg is executed when the shell
              terminates.

              The trap command with no arguments prints a list of commands
              associated with each signal.

              Note that traps defined with the trap builtin are slightly
              different from those defined as `TRAPNAL () { ... }', as the
              latter have their own function environment (line numbers, local
              variables, etc.) while the former use the environment of the
              command in which they were called.  For example,

                     trap 'print $LINENO' DEBUG

              will print the line number of a command executed after it has
              run, while

                     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

              will always print the number zero.

       true [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit code of 0.

       ttyctl -fu
              The -f option freezes the tty, and -u unfreezes it.  When the
              tty is frozen, no changes made to the tty settings by external
              programs will be honored by the shell, except for changes in the
              size of the screen; the shell will simply reset the settings to
              their previous values as soon as each command exits or is
              suspended.  Thus, stty and similar programs have no effect when
              the tty is frozen.  Without options it reports whether the
              terminal is frozen or not.

       type [ -wfpams ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -v.

       typeset [ {+|-}AEFLRUZafghilrtuxm [n]] [ name[=value] ... ]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}LRUZrux ] SCALAR[=value] array
              Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.

              A parameter is created for each name that does not already refer
              to one.  When inside a function, a new parameter is created for
              every name (even those that already exist), and is unset again
              when the function completes.  See `Local Parameters' in
              zshparam(1).  The same rules apply to special shell parameters,
              which retain their special attributes when made local.

              For each name=value assignment, the parameter name is set to
              value.  Note that arrays currently cannot be assigned in typeset
              expressions, only scalars and integers.

              For each remaining name that refers to a parameter that is set,
              the name and value of the parameter are printed in the form of
              an assignment.  Nothing is printed for newly-created parameters,
              or when any attribute flags listed below are given along with
              the name.  Using `+' instead of minus to introduce an attribute
              turns it off.

              If the -T option is given, exactly two (or zero) name arguments
              must be present.  They represent a scalar and an array (in that
              order) that will be tied together in the manner of $PATH and
              $path.  In other words, an array present in the latter variable
              appears as a scalar with the elements of the array joined by
              colons in the former.  Only the scalar may have an initial
              value.  Both the scalar and the array may otherwise be
              manipulated as normal.  If one is unset, the other will
              automatically be unset too.  There is no way of untying the
              variables without unsetting them, or converting the type of one
              of them with another typeset command; +T does not work,
              assigning an array to SCALAR is an error, and assigning a scalar
              to array sets it to be a single-element array.  Note that both
              `typeset -xT ...' and `export -T ...' work, but only the scalar
              will be marked for export.

              The -g (global) flag is treated specially: it means that any
              resulting parameter will not be restricted to local scope.  Note
              that this does not necessarily mean that the parameter will be
              global, as the flag will apply to any existing parameter (even
              if unset) from an enclosing function.  This flag does not affect
              the parameter after creation, hence it has no effect when
              listing existing parameters, nor does the flag +g have any
              effect except in combination with -m (see below).

              If no name is present, the names and values of all parameters
              are printed.  In this case the attribute flags restrict the
              display to only those parameters that have the specified
              attributes, and using `+' rather than `-' to introduce the flag
              suppresses printing of the values of parameters when there is no
              parameter name.  Also, if the last option is the word `+', then
              names are printed but values are not.

              If the -m flag is given the name arguments are taken as patterns
              (which should be quoted).  With no attribute flags, all
              parameters (or functions with the -f flag) with matching names
              are printed.  Note that -m is ignored if no patterns are given.
              If the +g flag is combined with -m, a new local parameter is
              created for every matching parameter that is not already local.
              Otherwise -m applies all other flags or assignments to the
              existing parameters.  Except when assignments are made with
              name=value, using +m forces the matching parameters to be
              printed, even inside a function.

              If no attribute flags are given and either no -m flag is present
              or the +m form was used, each parameter name printed is preceded
              by a list of the attributes of that parameter (array,
              association, exported, integer, readonly).  If +m is used with
              attribute flags, and all those flags are introduced with +, the
              matching parameter names are printed but their values are not.

              The following attribute flags may be specified:

              -A     The names refer to associative array parameters; see
                     `Array Parameters' in zshparam(1).

              -L     Left justify and remove leading blanks from value.  If n
                     is nonzero, it defines the width of the field; otherwise
                     it is determined by the width of the value of the first
                     assignment.  When the parameter is expanded, it is filled
                     on the right with blanks or truncated if necessary to fit
                     the field.  Leading zeros are removed if the -Z flag is
                     also set.

              -R     Right justify and fill with leading blanks.  If n is
                     nonzero if defines the width of the field; otherwise it
                     is determined by the width of the value of the first
                     assignment.  When the parameter is expanded, the field is
                     left filled with blanks or truncated from the end.

              -U     For arrays (but not for associative arrays), keep only
                     the first occurrence of each duplicated value.  This may
                     also be set for colon-separated special parameters like
                     PATH or FIGNORE, etc.  This flag has a different meaning
                     when used with -f; see below.

              -Z     Right justify and fill with leading zeros if the first
                     non-blank character is a digit and the -L flag has not
                     been set.  If n is nonzero it defines the width of the
                     field; otherwise it is determined by the width of the
                     value of the first assignment.

              -a     The names refer to array parameters.  An array parameter
                     may be created this way, but it may not be assigned to in
                     the typeset statement.  When displaying, both normal and
                     associative arrays are shown.

              -f     The names refer to functions rather than parameters.  No
                     assignments can be made, and the only other valid flags
                     are -t, -u and -U.  The flag -t turns on execution
                     tracing for this function.  The -u and -U flags cause the
                     function to be marked for autoloading; -U also causes
                     alias expansion to be suppressed when the function is
                     loaded.  The fpath parameter will be searched to find the
                     function definition when the function is first
                     referenced; see the section `Functions'.

              -h     Hide: only useful for special parameters (those marked
                     `<S>' in the table in zshparams(1)), and for local
                     parameters with the same name as a special parameter,
                     though harmless for others.  A special parameter with
                     this attribute will not retain its special effect when
                     made local.  Thus after `typeset -h PATH', a function
                     containing `typeset PATH' will create an ordinary local
                     parameter without the usual behaviour of PATH.
                     Alternatively, the local parameter may itself be given
                     this attribute; hence inside a function `typeset -h PATH'
                     creates an ordinary local parameter and the special PATH
                     parameter is not altered in any way.  It is also possible
                     to create a local parameter using `typeset +h special',
                     where the local copy of special will retain its special
                     properties regardless of having the -h attribute.  Global
                     special parameters loaded from shell modules (currently
                     those in zsh/mapfile and zsh/parameter) are automatically
                     given the -h attribute to avoid name clashes.

              -H     Hide value: specifies that typeset will not display the
                     value of the parameter when listing parameters; the
                     display for such parameters is always as if the `+' flag
                     had been given.  Use of the parameter is in other
                     respects normal, and the option does not apply if the
                     parameter is specified by name, or by pattern with the -m
                     option.  This is on by default for the parameters in the
                     zsh/parameter and zsh/mapfile modules.  Note, however,
                     that unlike the -h flag this is also useful for
                     non-special parameters.

              -i     Use an internal integer representation.  If n is nonzero
                     it defines the output arithmetic base, otherwise it is
                     determined by the first assignment.

              -E     Use an internal double-precision floating point
                     representation.  On output the variable will be converted
                     to scientific notation.  If n is nonzero it defines the
                     number of significant figures to display; the default is
                     ten.

              -F     Use an internal double-precision floating point
                     representation.  On output the variable will be converted
                     to fixed-point decimal notation.  If n is nonzero it
                     defines the number of digits to display after the decimal
                     point; the default is ten.

              -l     Convert the result to lower case whenever the parameter
                     is expanded.  The value is not converted when assigned.

              -r     The given names are marked readonly.

              -t     Tags the named parameters.  Tags have no special meaning
                     to the shell.  This flag has a different meaning when
                     used with -f; see above.

              -u     Convert the result to upper case whenever the parameter
                     is expanded.  The value is not converted when assigned.
                     This flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see
                     above.

              -x     Mark for automatic export to the environment of
                     subsequently executed commands.  If the option
                     GLOBAL_EXPORT is set, this implies the option -g, unless
                     +g is also explicitly given; in other words the parameter
                     is not made local to the enclosing function.  This is for
                     compatibility with previous versions of zsh.

       ulimit [ -SHacdflmnpstv [ limit ] ... ]
              Set or display resource limits of the shell and the processes
              started by the shell.  The value of limit can be a number in the
              unit specified below or the value `unlimited'.  By default, only
              soft limits are manipulated. If the -H flag is given use hard
              limits instead of soft limits.  If the -S flag is given together
              with the -H flag set both hard and soft limits.  If no options
              are used, the file size limit (-f) is assumed.  If limit is
              omitted the current value of the specified resources are
              printed.  When more than one resource values are printed the
              limit name and unit is printed before each value.

              -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
              -c     512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
              -d     K-bytes on the size of the data segment.
              -f     512-byte blocks on the size of files written.
              -l     K-bytes on the size of locked-in memory.
              -m     K-bytes on the size of physical memory.
              -n     open file descriptors.
              -s     K-bytes on the size of the stack.
              -t     CPU seconds to be used.
              -u     processes available to the user.
              -v     K-bytes on the size of virtual memory.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
              The umask is set to mask.  mask can be either an octal number or
              a symbolic value as described in chmod(1).  If mask is omitted,
              the current value is printed.  The -S option causes the mask to
              be printed as a symbolic value.  Otherwise, the mask is printed
              as an octal number.  Note that in the symbolic form the
              permissions you specify are those which are to be allowed (not
              denied) to the users specified.

       unalias
              Same as unhash -a.

       unfunction
              Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [ -adfm ] name ...
              Remove the element named name from an internal hash table.  The
              default is remove elements from the command hash table.  The -a
              option causes unhash to remove aliases.  The -f option causes
              unhash to remove shell functions.  The -d options causes unhash
              to remove named directories.  If the -m flag is given the
              arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted) and all
              elements of the corresponding hash table with matching names
              will be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource ...
              The resource limit for each resource is set to the hard limit.
              If the -h flag is given and the shell has appropriate
              privileges, the hard resource limit for each resource is
              removed.  The resources of the shell process are only changed if
              the -s flag is given.

       unset [ -fm ] name ...
              Each named parameter is unset.  Local parameters remain local
              even if unset; they appear unset within scope, but the previous
              value will still reappear when the scope ends.

              Individual elements of associative array parameters may be unset
              by using subscript syntax on name, which should be quoted (or
              the entire command prefixed with noglob) to protect the
              subscript from filename generation.

              If the -m flag is specified the arguments are taken as patterns
              (should be quoted) and all parameters with matching names are
              unset.  Note that this cannot be used when unsetting associative
              array elements, as the subscript will be treated as part of the
              pattern.

              unset -f is equivalent to unfunction.

       unsetopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Unset the options for the shell.  All options specified either
              with flags or by name are unset.  If no arguments are supplied,
              the names of all options currently unset are printed.  If the -m
              flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should
              be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as glob
              patterns), and all options with names matching these patterns
              are unset.

       vared  See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
              Wait for the specified jobs or processes.  If job is not given
              then all currently active child processes are waited for.  Each
              job can be either a job specification or the process ID of a job
              in the job table.  The exit status from this command is that of
              the job waited for.

       whence [ -vcwfpams ] name ...
              For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a
              command name.

              -v     Produce a more verbose report.

              -c     Print the results in a csh-like format.  This takes
                     precedence over -v.

              -w     For each name, print `name: word' where word is one of
                     alias, builtin, command, function, hashed, reserved or
                     none, according as name corresponds to an alias, a
                     built-in command, an external command, a shell function,
                     a command defined with the hash builtin, a reserved word,
                     or is not recognised.  This takes precedence over -v and
                     -c.

              -f     Causes the contents of a shell function to be displayed,
                     which would otherwise not happen unless the -c flag were
                     used.

              -p     Do a path search for name even if it is an alias,
                     reserved word, shell function or builtin.

              -a     Do a search for all occurrences of name throughout the
                     command path.  Normally only the first occurrence is
                     printed.

              -m     The arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted),
                     and the information is displayed for each command
                     matching one of these patterns.

              -s     If a pathname contains symlinks, print the symlink-free
                     pathname as well.

       where [ -wpms ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpams ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile [ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -ca [ -m ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -t file [ name ... ]
              This builtin command can be used to compile functions or
              scripts, storing the compiled form in a file, and to examine
              files containing the compiled form.  This allows faster
              autoloading of functions and execution of scripts by avoiding
              parsing of the text when the files are read.

              The first form (without the -c, -a or -t options) creates a
              compiled file.  If only the file argument is given, the output
              file has the name `file.zwc' and will be placed in the same
              directory as the file.  The shell will load the compiled file
              instead of the normal function file when the function is
              autoloaded; see the section `Autoloading Functions' in
              zshfunc(1) for a description of how autoloaded functions are
              searched.  The extension .zwc stands for `zsh word code'.

              If there is at least one name argument, all the named files are
              compiled into the output file given as the first argument.  If
              file does not end in .zwc, this extension is automatically
              appended.  Files containing multiple compiled functions are
              called `digest' files, and are intended to be used as elements
              of the FPATH/fpath special array.

              The second form, with the -c or -a options, writes the compiled
              definitions for all the named functions into file.  For -c, the
              names must be functions currently defined in the shell, not
              those marked for autoloading.  Undefined functions that are
              marked for autoloading may be written by using the -a option, in
              which case the fpath is searched and the contents of the
              definition files for those functions, if found, are compiled
              into file.  If both -c and -a are given, names of both defined
              functions and functions marked for autoloading may be given.  In
              either case, the functions in files written with the -c or -a
              option will be autoloaded as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option were
              unset.

              The reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded functions with
              different options is that some definition files for autoloading
              define multiple functions, including the function with the same
              name as the file, and, at the end, call that function.  In such
              cases the output of `zcompile -c' does not include the
              additional functions defined in the file, and any other
              initialization code in the file is lost.  Using `zcompile -a'
              captures all this extra information.

              If the -m option is combined with -c or -a, the names are used
              as patterns and all functions whose names match one of these
              patterns will be written. If no name is given, the definitions
              of all functions currently defined or marked as autoloaded will
              be written.

              The third form, with the -t option, examines an existing
              compiled file.  Without further arguments, the names of the
              original files compiled into it are listed.  The first line of
              output shows the version of the shell which compiled the file
              and how the file will be used (i.e. by reading it directly or by
              mapping it into memory).  With arguments, nothing is output and
              the return value is set to zero if definitions for all names
              were found in the compiled file, and non-zero if the definition
              for at least one name was not found.

              Other options:

              -U     Aliases are not expanded when compiling the named files.

              -R     When the compiled file is read, its contents are copied
                     into the shell's memory, rather than memory-mapped (see
                     -M).  This happens automatically on systems that do not
                     support memory mapping.

                     When compiling scripts instead of autoloadable functions,
                     it is often desirable to use this option; otherwise the
                     whole file, including the code to define functions which
                     have already been defined, will remain mapped,
                     consequently wasting memory.

              -M     The compiled file is mapped into the shell's memory when
                     read. This is done in such a way that multiple instances
                     of the shell running on the same host will share this
                     mapped file.  If neither -R nor -M is given, the zcompile
                     builtin decides what to do based on the size of the
                     compiled file.

              -k
              -z     These options are used when the compiled file contains
                     functions which are to be autoloaded. If -z is given, the
                     function will be autoloaded as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option
                     is not set, even if it is set at the time the compiled
                     file is read, while if the -k is given, the function will
                     be loaded as if KSH_AUTOLOAD is set.  If neither of these
                     options is given, the function will be loaded as
                     determined by the setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD option at
                     the time the compiled file is read.

                     These options may also appear as many times as necessary
                     between the listed names to specify the loading style of
                     all following functions, up to the next -k or -z.

                     The created file always contains two versions of the
                     compiled format, one for big-endian machines and one for
                     small-endian machines.  The upshot of this is that the
                     compiled file is machine independent and if it is read or
                     mapped, only one half of the file is actually used (and
                     mapped).

       zformat
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section `The zsh/zftp Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       zmodload [ -dL ] [ ... ]
       zmodload -e [ -A ] [ ... ]
       zmodload [ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload -R modalias ...
              Performs operations relating to zsh's loadable modules.  Loading
              of modules while the shell is running (`dynamical loading') is
              not available on all operating systems, or on all installations
              on a particular operating system, although the zmodload command
              itself is always available and can be used to manipulate modules
              built into versions of the shell executable without dynamical
              loading.

              Without arguments the names of all currently loaded binary
              modules are printed.  The -L option causes this list to be in
              the form of a series of zmodload commands.  Forms with arguments
              are:

              zmodload [ -i ] name ...
              zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
                     In the simplest case, zmodload loads a binary module.
                     The module must be in a file with a name consisting of
                     the specified name followed by a standard suffix, usually
                     `.so' (`.sl' on HPUX).  If the module to be loaded is
                     already loaded and the -i option is given, the duplicate
                     module is ignored.  Otherwise zmodload prints an error
                     message.

                     The named module is searched for in the same way a
                     command is, using $module_path instead of $path.
                     However, the path search is performed even when the
                     module name contains a `/', which it usually does.  There
                     is no way to prevent the path search.

                     With -u, zmodload unloads modules.  The same name must be
                     given that was given when the module was loaded, but it
                     is not necessary for the module to exist in the
                     filesystem.  The -i option suppresses the error if the
                     module is already unloaded (or was never loaded).

                     Each module has a boot and a cleanup function.  The
                     module will not be loaded if its boot function fails.
                     Similarly a module can only be unloaded if its cleanup
                     function runs successfully.

              zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name ]
              zmodload -d name dep ...
              zmodload -ud name [ dep ... ]
                     The -d option can be used to specify module dependencies.
                     The modules named in the second and subsequent arguments
                     will be loaded before the module named in the first
                     argument.

                     With -d and one argument, all dependencies for that
                     module are listed.  With -d and no arguments, all module
                     dependencies are listed.  This listing is by default in a
                     Makefile-like format.  The -L option changes this format
                     to a list of zmodload -d commands.

                     If -d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If
                     only one argument is given, all dependencies for that
                     module are removed.

              zmodload -ab [ -L ]
              zmodload -ab [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ub [ -i ] builtin ...
                     The -ab option defines autoloaded builtins.  It defines
                     the specified builtins.  When any of those builtins is
                     called, the module specified in the first argument is
                     loaded.  If only the name is given, one builtin is
                     defined, with the same name as the module.  -i suppresses
                     the error if the builtin is already defined or
                     autoloaded, regardless of which module it came from.

                     With -ab and no arguments, all autoloaded builtins are
                     listed, with the module name (if different) shown in
                     parentheses after the builtin name.  The -L option
                     changes this format to a list of zmodload -a commands.

                     If -b is used together with the -u option, it removes
                     builtins previously defined with -ab.  This is only
                     possible if the builtin is not yet loaded.  -i suppresses
                     the error if the builtin is already removed (or never
                     existed).

              zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
              zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name [ cond ... ]
              zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond ...
                     The -ac option is used to define autoloaded condition
                     codes. The cond strings give the names of the conditions
                     defined by the module. The optional -I option is used to
                     define infix condition names. Without this option prefix
                     condition names are defined.

                     If given no condition names, all defined names are listed
                     (as a series of zmodload commands if the -L option is
                     given).

                     The -uc option removes definitions for autoloaded
                     conditions.

              zmodload -ap [ -L ]
              zmodload -ap [ -i ] name [ parameter ... ]
              zmodload -up [ -i ] parameter ...
                     The -p option is like the -b and -c options, but makes
                     zmodload work on autoloaded parameters instead.

              zmodload -af [ -L ]
              zmodload -af [ -i ] name [ function ... ]
              zmodload -uf [ -i ] function ...
                     The -f option is like the -b, -p, and -c options, but
                     makes zmodload work on autoloaded math functions instead.

              zmodload -a [ -L ]
              zmodload -a [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ua [ -i ] builtin ...
                     Equivalent to -ab and -ub.

              zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
                     The -e option without arguments lists all loaded modules;
                     if the -A option is also given, module aliases
                     corresponding to loaded modules are also shown.  With
                     arguments only the return status is set to zero if all
                     strings given as arguments are names of loaded modules
                     and to one if at least on string is not the name of a
                     loaded module.  This can be used to test for the
                     availability of things implemented by modules.  In this
                     case, any aliases are automatically resolved and the -A
                     flag is not used.

              zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
                     For each argument, if both modalias and module are given,
                     define modalias to be an alias for the module module.  If
                     the module modalias is ever subsequently requested,
                     either via a call to zmodload or implicitly, the shell
                     will attempt to load module instead.  If module is not
                     given, show the definition of modalias.  If no arguments
                     are given, list all defined module aliases.  When
                     listing, if the -L flag was also given, list the
                     definition as a zmodload command to recreate the alias.

                     The existence of aliases for modules is completely
                     independent of whether the name resolved is actually
                     loaded as a module: while the alias exists, loading and
                     unloading the module under any alias has exactly the same
                     effect as using the resolved name, and does not affect
                     the connection between the alias and the resolved name
                     which can be removed either by zmodload -R or by
                     redefining the alias.  Chains of aliases (i.e. where the
                     first resolved name is itself an alias) are valid so long
                     as these are not circular.  As the aliases take the same
                     format as module names, they may include path separators:
                     in this case, there is no requirement for any part of the
                     path named to exist as the alias will be resolved first.
                     For example, `any/old/alias' is always a valid alias.

                     Dependencies added to aliased modules are actually added
                     to the resolved module; these remain if the alias is
                     removed.  It is valid to create an alias whose name is
                     one of the standard shell modules and which resolves to a
                     different module.  However, if a module has dependencies,
                     it will not be possible to use the module name as an
                     alias as the module will already be marked as a loadable
                     module in its own right.

                     Apart from the above, aliases can be used in the zmodload
                     command anywhere module names are required.  However,
                     aliases will not be shown in lists of loaded modules with
                     a bare `zmodload'.

              zmodload -R modalias ...
                     For each modalias argument that was previously defined as
                     a module alias via zmodload -A, delete the alias.  If any
                     was not defined, an error is caused and the remainder of
                     the line is ignored.

              Note that zsh makes no distinction between modules that were
              linked into the shell and modules that are loaded dynamically.
              In both cases this builtin command has to be used to make
              available the builtins and other things defined by modules
              (unless the module is autoloaded on these definitions). This is
              true even for systems that don't support dynamic loading of
              modules.

       zparseopts
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section `The zsh/zprof Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section `The zsh/zpty Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zregexparse
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

zsh 4.0.6                       August 14, 2002                 ZSHBUILTINS(1)

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