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ZSHBUILTINS(1)		    General Commands Manual		ZSHBUILTINS(1)

       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands

       Some shell builtin commands take	options	as described in	individual en-
       tries; these are	often referred to in the  list	below  as  `flags'  to
       avoid  confusion	 with  shell options, which may	also have an effect on
       the behaviour of	builtin	commands.  In this introductory	section,  `op-
       tion'  always  has the meaning of an option to a	command	that should be
       familiar	to most	command	line users.

       Typically, options are single letters preceded by a  hyphen  (-).   Op-
       tions  that take	an argument accept it either immediately following the
       option letter or	after white space, for example `print -C3  {1..9}'  or
       `print  -C  3 {1..9}' are equivalent.  Arguments	to options are not the
       same as arguments to the	command; the documentation indicates which  is
       which.	Options	that do	not take an argument may be combined in	a sin-
       gle word, for example `print -rca -- *' and `print -r -c	-a --  *'  are

       Some  shell  builtin commands also take options that begin with `+' in-
       stead of	`-'.  The list below makes clear which commands	these are.

       Options (together with their individual arguments, if any) must	appear
       in  a  group before any non-option arguments; once the first non-option
       argument	has been found,	option processing is terminated.

       All builtin commands other than `echo' and precommand  modifiers,  even
       those that have no options, can be given	the argument `--' to terminate
       option processing.  This	indicates that the following words are non-op-
       tion  arguments,	 but  is  otherwise  ignored.  This is useful in cases
       where arguments to the command may begin	with `-'.  For historical rea-
       sons,  most builtin commands (including `echo') also recognize a	single
       `-' in a	separate word for this purpose;	note that this is  less	 stan-
       dard and	use of `--' is recommended.

       - simple	command
	      See the section `Precommand Modifiers' in	zshmisc(1).

       . file [	arg ...	]
	      Read  commands  from  file and execute them in the current shell

	      If file does not contain a slash,	or if PATH_DIRS	 is  set,  the
	      shell  looks  in	the  components	of $path to find the directory
	      containing file.	Files in the current directory	are  not  read
	      unless  `.'  appears  somewhere  in  $path.   If	a  file	 named
	      `file.zwc' is found, is newer than file,	and  is	 the  compiled
	      form  (created with the zcompile builtin)	of file, then commands
	      are read from that file instead of file.

	      If any arguments arg are given, they become the  positional  pa-
	      rameters;	 the  old  positional parameters are restored when the
	      file is done executing.  However,	if no arguments	are given, the
	      positional  parameters  remain those of the calling context, and
	      no restoring is done.

	      If file was not found the	return status  is  127;	 if  file  was
	      found  but  contained  a	syntax error the return	status is 126;
	      else the return status is	the exit status	of  the	 last  command

       : [ arg ... ]
	      This  command  does nothing, although normal argument expansions
	      is performed which may have effects on shell parameters.	A zero
	      exit status is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrsL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
	      For  each	 name with a corresponding value, define an alias with
	      that value.  A trailing space in value causes the	next  word  to
	      be  checked for alias expansion.	If the -g flag is present, de-
	      fine a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if they do
	      not occur	in command position.

	      If the -s	flag is	present, define	a suffix alias:	if the command
	      word on a	command	line is	in the form `', where text is
	      any  non-empty  string,  it  is  replaced	 by  the  text	`value'.  Note	that name is treated as	a literal string,  not
	      a	 pattern.   A  trailing	 space in value	is not special in this
	      case.  For example,

		     alias -s ps='gv --'

	      will cause the command `*.ps' to be expanded to  `gv  --	*.ps'.
	      As  alias	 expansion  is	carried	out earlier than globbing, the
	      `*.ps' will then be expanded.  Suffix aliases constitute a  dif-
	      ferent name space	from other aliases (so in the above example it
	      is still possible	to create an alias for the command ps) and the
	      two sets are never listed	together.

	      For  each	 name  with no value, print the	value of name, if any.
	      With no arguments, print all  currently  defined	aliases	 other
	      than  suffix aliases.  If	the -m flag is given the arguments are
	      taken as patterns	(they should be	quoted to preserve  them  from
	      being  interpreted  as  glob patterns), and the aliases matching
	      these patterns are printed.  When	printing aliases  and  one  of
	      the  -g,	-r  or	-s  flags is present, restrict the printing to
	      global, regular or suffix	aliases, respectively; a regular alias
	      is one which is neither a	global nor a suffix alias.   Using `+'
	      instead of `-', or ending	the option list	 with  a  single  `+',
	      prevents the values of the aliases from being printed.

	      If  the  -L  flag	 is present, then print	each alias in a	manner
	      suitable for putting in a	startup	script.	 The  exit  status  is
	      nonzero  if  a  name (with no value) is given for	which no alias
	      has been defined.

	      For more on aliases, include common problems,  see  the  section
	      ALIASING in zshmisc(1).

       autoload	[ {+|-}RTUXdkmrtWz ] [ -w ] [ name ... ]
	      See  the	section	`Autoloading Functions'	in zshmisc(1) for full
	      details.	The fpath parameter will be searched to	find the func-
	      tion definition when the function	is first referenced.

	      If name consists of an absolute path, the	function is defined to
	      load from	the file given (searching as usual for dump  files  in
	      the  given  location).  The name of the function is the basename
	      (non-directory part) of the file.	 It is normally	 an  error  if
	      the function is not found	in the given location; however,	if the
	      option -d	is given,  searching  for  the	function  defaults  to
	      $fpath.  If a function is	loaded by absolute path, any functions
	      loaded from it that are marked for autoload without an  absolute
	      path  have  the  load  path  of  the parent function temporarily
	      prepended	to $fpath.

	      If the option -r or -R is	given, the function  is	 searched  for
	      immediately and the location is recorded internally for use when
	      the function is executed;	a relative path	is expanded using  the
	      value  of	 $PWD.	This protects against a	change to $fpath after
	      the call to autoload.  With -r, if the function is not found, it
	      is  silently  left unresolved until execution; with -R, an error
	      message is printed and command  processing  aborted  immediately
	      the  search  fails,  i.e.	at the autoload	command	rather than at
	      function execution..

	      The flag -X may be used only inside a shell function.  It	causes
	      the calling function to be marked	for autoloading	and then imme-
	      diately loaded and executed, with	the  current  array  of	 posi-
	      tional parameters	as arguments.  This replaces the previous def-
	      inition of the function.	If no function definition is found, an
	      error  is	 printed and the function remains undefined and	marked
	      for autoloading.	If an argument is given, it is used as	a  di-
	      rectory  (i.e.  it does not include the name of the function) in
	      which the	function is to be found; this may be combined with the
	      -d  option  to allow the function	search to default to $fpath if
	      it is not	in the given location.

	      The flag +X attempts to load each	name as	 an  autoloaded	 func-
	      tion,  but  does	not execute it.	 The exit status is zero (suc-
	      cess) if the function was	not previously defined and  a  defini-
	      tion for it was found.  This does	not replace any	existing defi-
	      nition of	the function.  The exit	status is nonzero (failure) if
	      the  function  was  already  defined  or	when no	definition was
	      found.  In the latter case the function  remains	undefined  and
	      marked  for  autoloading.	  If ksh-style autoloading is enabled,
	      the function created will	contain	the contents of	the file  plus
	      a	call to	the function itself appended to	it, thus giving	normal
	      ksh autoloading behaviour	on the first call to the function.  If
	      the  -m flag is also given each name is treated as a pattern and
	      all functions already marked for autoload	that match the pattern
	      are loaded.

	      With  the	 -t  flag, turn	on execution tracing; with -T, turn on
	      execution	tracing	only for the current function, turning it  off
	      on  entry	 to any	called functions that do not also have tracing

	      With the -U flag,	alias expansion	is suppressed when  the	 func-
	      tion is loaded.

	      With the -w flag,	the names are taken as names of	files compiled
	      with the zcompile	builtin, and all functions defined in them are
	      marked for autoloading.

	      The flags	-z and -k mark the function to be autoloaded using the
	      zsh or ksh style,	as if the option KSH_AUTOLOAD  were  unset  or
	      were  set,  respectively.	 The flags override the	setting	of the
	      option at	the time the function is loaded.

	      Note that	the autoload command makes no attempt  to  ensure  the
	      shell  options  set  during the loading or execution of the file
	      have any particular value.  For this, the	emulate	command	can be

		     emulate zsh -c 'autoload -Uz func'

	      arranges that when func is loaded	the shell is in	native zsh em-
	      ulation, and this	emulation is also applied when func is run.

	      Some of the functions of autoload	are also provided by functions
	      -u  or functions -U, but autoload	is a more comprehensive	inter-

       bg [ job	... ]
       job ... &
	      Put each specified job in	the background,	or the current job  if
	      none is specified.

	      See the section `Zle Builtins' in	zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
	      Exit from	an enclosing for, while, until,	select or repeat loop.
	      If an arithmetic expression n is specified, then break n	levels
	      instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
	      Executes the builtin name, with the given	args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -qsLP ] old	new
       cd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
	      Change  the  current  directory.	 In the	first form, change the
	      current directory	to arg,	or to the value	of $HOME if arg	is not
	      specified.  If arg is `-', change	to the previous	directory.

	      Otherwise,  if arg begins	with a slash, attempt to change	to the
	      directory	given by arg.

	      If arg does not begin with a slash,  the	behaviour  depends  on
	      whether the current directory `.'	occurs in the list of directo-
	      ries contained in	the shell parameter cdpath.  If	it  does  not,
	      first  attempt  to change	to the directory arg under the current
	      directory, and if	that fails but cdpath is set and  contains  at
	      least  one  element attempt to change to the directory arg under
	      each component of	cdpath in turn until successful.  If  `.'  oc-
	      curs  in	cdpath,	 then  cdpath is searched strictly in order so
	      that `.' is only tried at	the appropriate	point.

	      The order	of testing cdpath is modified if the  option  POSIX_CD
	      is set, as described in the documentation	for the	option.

	      If  no  directory	is found, the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a
	      parameter	named arg exists whose	value  begins  with  a	slash,
	      treat  its  value	as the directory.  In that case, the parameter
	      is added to the named directory hash table.

	      The second form of cd substitutes	the string new for the	string
	      old in the name of the current directory,	and tries to change to
	      this new directory.

	      The third	form of	cd extracts an entry from the directory	stack,
	      and  changes  to	that  directory.  An argument of the form `+n'
	      identifies a stack entry by counting from	the left of  the  list
	      shown  by	 the dirs command, starting with zero.	An argument of
	      the form `-n' counts from	the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS	option
	      is set, the meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.
	      If the POSIX_CD option is	set, this form of cd is	not recognised
	      and will be interpreted as the first form.

	      If  the  -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook	function chpwd
	      and the functions	in the array chpwd_functions are  not  called.
	      This  is	useful for calls to cd that do not change the environ-
	      ment seen	by an interactive user.

	      If the -s	option is specified, cd	refuses	to change the  current
	      directory	 if  the  given	pathname contains symlinks.  If	the -P
	      option is	given or the CHASE_LINKS option	is set,	symbolic links
	      are  resolved  to	 their true values.  If	the -L option is given
	      symbolic links are retained in the directory (and	not  resolved)
	      regardless of the	state of the CHASE_LINKS option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section `The zsh/clone Module' in	zshmodules(1).

       command [ -pvV ]	simple command
	      The  simple command argument is taken as an external command in-
	      stead  of	 a  function  or  builtin  and	is  executed.  If  the
	      POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, builtins will also be executed but
	      certain special properties of them are suppressed. The  -p  flag
	      causes  a	 default path to be searched instead of	that in	$path.
	      With the -v flag,	command	is similar to whence and with  -V,  it
	      is equivalent to whence -v.

	      See also the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

	      See the section `The zsh/computil	Module'	in zshmodules(1).

	      See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

	      See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

	      See the section `The zsh/computil	Module'	in zshmodules(1).

	      See the section `The zsh/computil	Module'	in zshmodules(1).

	      See the section `The zsh/computil	Module'	in zshmodules(1).

	      See the section `The zsh/computil	Module'	in zshmodules(1).

	      See the section `The zsh/computil	Module'	in zshmodules(1).

	      See the section `The zsh/computil	Module'	in zshmodules(1).

	      See the section `The zsh/computil	Module'	in zshmodules(1).

       continue	[ n ]
	      Resume  the  next	 iteration of the enclosing for, while,	until,
	      select or	repeat loop. If	an arithmetic expression n  is	speci-
	      fied,  break  out	 of  n-1 loops and resume at the nth enclosing

	      Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -c ] [ arg ... ]
       dirs [ -lpv ]
	      With no arguments, print the contents of	the  directory	stack.
	      Directories  are added to	this stack with	the pushd command, and
	      removed with the cd or popd commands.  If	arguments  are	speci-
	      fied,  load  them	 onto  the directory stack, replacing anything
	      that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack.

	      -c     clear the directory stack.

	      -l     print directory names in full instead of using of using ~
		     expressions  (see Dynamic and Static named	directories in

	      -p     print directory entries one per line.

	      -v     number the	directories in the stack when printing.

       disable [ -afmprs ] name	...
	      Temporarily disable the named hash table elements	 or  patterns.
	      The  default is to disable builtin commands.  This allows	you to
	      use an external command with the same name as a builtin command.
	      The  -a  option  causes  disable	to  act	 on  regular or	global
	      aliases.	The -s option causes disable to	act on suffix aliases.
	      The  -f option causes disable to act on shell functions.	The -r
	      options causes disable to	act on reserved	words.	Without	 argu-
	      ments  all  disabled  hash table elements	from the corresponding
	      hash table are printed.  With the	 -m  flag  the	arguments  are
	      taken  as	 patterns (which should	be quoted to prevent them from
	      undergoing filename expansion), and all hash table elements from
	      the  corresponding  hash	table matching these patterns are dis-
	      abled.  Disabled objects can be enabled with the enable command.

	      With the option -p, name ... refer to elements  of  the  shell's
	      pattern  syntax  as  described  in the section `Filename Genera-
	      tion'.  Certain elements can be disabled	separately,  as	 given

	      Note  that  patterns not allowed by the current settings for the
	      options EXTENDED_GLOB, KSH_GLOB and SH_GLOB are  never  enabled,
	      regardless  of  the setting here.	 For example, if EXTENDED_GLOB
	      is not active, the pattern ^ is ineffective even if `disable  -p
	      "^"'  has	 not been issued.  The list below indicates any	option
	      settings that restrict the use of	the  pattern.	It  should  be
	      noted  that  setting SH_GLOB has a wider effect than merely dis-
	      abling patterns as certain expressions, in particular those  in-
	      volving parentheses, are parsed differently.

	      The  following  patterns	may  be	disabled; all the strings need
	      quoting on the command line to prevent them  from	 being	inter-
	      preted  immediately as patterns and the patterns are shown below
	      in single	quotes as a reminder.

	      '?'    The pattern character ?  wherever	it  occurs,  including
		     when preceding a parenthesis with KSH_GLOB.

	      '*'    The pattern character * wherever it occurs, including re-
		     cursive globbing and when preceding  a  parenthesis  with

	      '['    Character classes.

	      '<' (NO_SH_GLOB)
		     Numeric ranges.

	      '|' (NO_SH_GLOB)
		     Alternation  in  grouped  patterns,  case	statements, or
		     KSH_GLOB parenthesised expressions.

	      '(' (NO_SH_GLOB)
		     Grouping using single parentheses.	 Disabling  this  does
		     not  disable  the	use  of	parentheses for	KSH_GLOB where
		     they are introduced by a special character, nor for  glob
		     qualifiers	 (use  `setopt	NO_BARE_GLOB_QUAL'  to disable
		     glob qualifiers that use parentheses only).

	      '~' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
		     Exclusion in the form A~B.

	      '^' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
		     Exclusion in the form A^B.

	      '#' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
		     The pattern character # wherever it occurs, both for rep-
		     etition of	a previous pattern and for indicating globbing

	      '?(' (KSH_GLOB)
		     The grouping form ?(...).	Note this is also disabled  if
		     '?' is disabled.

	      '*(' (KSH_GLOB)
		     The  grouping form	*(...).	 Note this is also disabled if
		     '*' is disabled.

	      '+(' (KSH_GLOB)
		     The grouping form +(...).

	      '!(' (KSH_GLOB)
		     The grouping form !(...).

	      '@(' (KSH_GLOB)
		     The grouping form @(...).

       disown [	job ...	]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
	      Remove the specified jobs	from the job table; the	shell will  no
	      longer  report their status, and will not	complain if you	try to
	      exit an interactive shell	with them running or stopped.	If  no
	      job is specified,	disown the current job.

	      If  the  jobs are	currently stopped and the AUTO_CONTINUE	option
	      is not set, a warning is printed	containing  information	 about
	      how  to make them	running	after they have	been disowned.	If one
	      of the latter two	forms is used, the jobs	will automatically  be
	      made  running,  independent  of the setting of the AUTO_CONTINUE

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
	      Write each arg on	the standard output, with a  space  separating
	      each one.	 If the	-n flag	is not present,	print a	newline	at the
	      end.  echo recognizes the	following escape sequences:

	      \a     bell character
	      \b     backspace
	      \c     suppress subsequent characters and	final newline
	      \e     escape
	      \f     form feed
	      \n     linefeed (newline)
	      \r     carriage return
	      \t     horizontal	tab
	      \v     vertical tab
	      \\     backslash
	      \0NNN  character code in octal
	      \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
	      \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
		     unicode character code in hexadecimal

	      The -E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option,  can	 be  used  to  disable
	      these escape sequences.  In the latter case, -e flag can be used
	      to enable	them.

	      Note that	for standards compliance a double dash does not	termi-
	      nate  option  processing;	instead, it is printed directly.  How-
	      ever, a single dash does terminate  option  processing,  so  the
	      first  dash, possibly following options, is not printed, but ev-
	      erything following it is printed as  an  argument.   The	single
	      dash  behaviour is different from	other shells.  For a more por-
	      table way	of printing text, see printf, and for a	more  control-
	      lable way	of printing text within	zsh, see print.

       echotc See the section `The zsh/termcap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section `The zsh/terminfo	Module'	in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -lLR ]	[ {zsh|sh|ksh|csh} [ flags ... ] ]
	      Without any argument print current emulation mode.

	      With single argument set up zsh options to emulate the specified
	      shell as much as possible.  csh will never  be  fully  emulated.
	      If  the argument is not one of the shells	listed above, zsh will
	      be used as a default; more precisely, the	tests performed	on the
	      argument	are  the same as those used to determine the emulation
	      at startup based on the shell name, see the section  COMPATIBIL-
	      ITY  in zsh(1) .	In addition to setting shell options, the com-
	      mand also	restores the pristine state of pattern enables,	as  if
	      all patterns had been enabled using enable -p.

	      If  the  emulate	command	occurs inside a	function that has been
	      marked for execution tracing with	functions -t then  the	xtrace
	      option  will  be turned on regardless of emulation mode or other
	      options.	Note that code executed	inside the function by the  .,
	      source,  or  eval	 commands  is not considered to	be running di-
	      rectly from the function,	hence does not provoke this behaviour.

	      If the -R	switch is given, all settable  options	are  reset  to
	      their  default  value  corresponding  to the specified emulation
	      mode, except for certain options describing the interactive  en-
	      vironment;  otherwise, only those	options	likely to cause	porta-
	      bility problems in scripts and functions are altered.  If	the -L
	      switch  is  given, the options LOCAL_OPTIONS, LOCAL_PATTERNS and
	      LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the effects of the emu-
	      late  command  and any setopt, disable -p	or enable -p, and trap
	      commands to be local to the immediately surrounding shell	 func-
	      tion,  if	any; normally these options are	turned off in all emu-
	      lation modes except ksh. The -L  switch  is  mutually  exclusive
	      with the use of -c in flags.

	      If  there	 is  a single argument and the -l switch is given, the
	      options that would be set	or unset (the  latter  indicated  with
	      the  prefix  `no') are listed.  -l can be	combined with -L or -R
	      and the list will	be modified in the appropriate way.  Note  the
	      list  does not depend on the current setting of options, i.e. it
	      includes all options that	may  in	 principle  change,  not  just
	      those that would actually	change.

	      The  flags  may be any of	the invocation-time flags described in
	      the section INVOCATION in	zsh(1),	except that `-o	EMACS' and `-o
	      VI'  may not be used.  Flags such	as `+r'/`+o RESTRICTED'	may be
	      prohibited in some circumstances.

	      If -c arg	appears	in flags, arg is evaluated while the requested
	      emulation	 is temporarily	in effect.  In this case the emulation
	      mode and all options are restored	to their previous  values  be-
	      fore emulate returns.  The -R switch may precede the name	of the
	      shell to emulate;	note this has a	meaning	distinct from  includ-
	      ing -R in	flags.

	      Use  of -c enables `sticky' emulation mode for functions defined
	      within the evaluated expression:	the emulation mode is  associ-
	      ated  thereafter with the	function so that whenever the function
	      is executed the emulation	(respecting the	-R switch, if present)
	      and  all	options	 are set (and pattern disables cleared)	before
	      entry to the function, and the state is restored after exit.  If
	      the  function  is	called when the	sticky emulation is already in
	      effect, either within an `emulate	shell -c' expression or	within
	      another  function	with the same sticky emulation,	entry and exit
	      from the function	do not cause options to	be altered (except due
	      to  standard processing such as the LOCAL_OPTIONS	option).  This
	      also applies to functions	marked for autoload within the	sticky
	      emulation; the appropriate set of	options	will be	applied	at the
	      point the	function is loaded as well as when it is run.

	      For example:

		     emulate sh	-c 'fni() { setopt cshnullglob;	}
		     fno() { fni; }'

	      The two functions	fni and	fno are	defined	with sticky sh	emula-
	      tion.  fno is then executed, causing options associated with em-
	      ulations to be set to their values in sh.	 fno then  calls  fni;
	      because  fni  is	also marked for	sticky sh emulation, no	option
	      changes take place on entry to or	exit from it.  Hence  the  op-
	      tion  cshnullglob, turned	off by sh emulation, will be turned on
	      within fni and remain on return to fno.  On exit from  fno,  the
	      emulation	 mode  and  all	 options will be restored to the state
	      they were	in before entry	to the temporary emulation.

	      The documentation	above is typically sufficient for the intended
	      purpose  of  executing code designed for other shells in a suit-
	      able environment.	 More detailed rules follow.
	      1.     The sticky	emulation  environment	provided  by  `emulate
		     shell  -c'	 is  identical	to that	provided by entry to a
		     function marked for sticky	emulation as a consequence  of
		     being  defined  in	such an	environment.  Hence, for exam-
		     ple, the sticky emulation is  inherited  by  subfunctions
		     defined within functions with sticky emulation.
	      2.     No	change of options takes	place on entry to or exit from
		     functions that are	not marked for sticky emulation, other
		     than  those that would normally take place, even if those
		     functions are called within sticky	emulation.
	      3.     No	special	handling is provided for functions marked  for
		     autoload nor for functions	present	in wordcode created by
		     the zcompile command.
	      4.     The presence or absence of	the -R switch to emulate  cor-
		     responds  to different sticky emulation modes, so for ex-
		     ample `emulate sh -c', `emulate -R	sh  -c'	 and  `emulate
		     csh -c' are treated as three distinct sticky emulations.
	      5.     Difference	 in  shell options supplied in addition	to the
		     basic emulation also mean the sticky emulations are  dif-
		     ferent,  so for example `emulate zsh -c' and `emulate zsh
		     -o	cbases -c' are treated as distinct sticky emulations.

       enable [	-afmprs	] name ...
	      Enable the named hash table elements, presumably	disabled  ear-
	      lier  with  disable.  The	default	is to enable builtin commands.
	      The -a option causes enable to act on regular or global aliases.
	      The  -s  option  causes enable to	act on suffix aliases.	The -f
	      option causes enable to act on shell functions.  The  -r	option
	      causes  enable  to act on	reserved words.	 Without arguments all
	      enabled hash table elements from the  corresponding  hash	 table
	      are  printed.   With the -m flag the arguments are taken as pat-
	      terns (should be quoted) and all hash table  elements  from  the
	      corresponding  hash  table  matching these patterns are enabled.
	      Enabled objects can be disabled with the	disable	 builtin  com-

	      enable  -p  reenables  patterns  disabled	with disable -p.  Note
	      that it does not override	globbing options; for example, `enable
	      -p  "~"' does not	cause the pattern character ~ to be active un-
	      less the EXTENDED_GLOB option is also set.  To enable all	possi-
	      ble  patterns  (so  that	they may be individually disabled with
	      disable -p), use `setopt EXTENDED_GLOB KSH_GLOB NO_SH_GLOB'.

       eval [ arg ... ]
	      Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the result-
	      ing  command(s) in the current shell process.  The return	status
	      is the same as if	the commands had been executed directly	by the
	      shell;  if  there	 are no	args or	they contain no	commands (i.e.
	      are an empty string or whitespace) the return status is zero.

       exec [ -cl ] [ -a argv0 ] [ command [ arg ... ] ]
	      Replace the current shell	with command rather than forking.   If
	      command  is  a  shell  builtin  command or a shell function, the
	      shell executes it, and exits when	the command is complete.

	      With -c clear the	environment; with -l prepend - to the  argv[0]
	      string of	the command executed (to simulate a login shell); with
	      -a argv0 set the argv[0] string of the  command  executed.   See
	      the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

	      If  the  option  POSIX_BUILTINS  is set, command is never	inter-
	      preted as	a shell	builtin	command	or shell function.  This means
	      further precommand modifiers such	as builtin and noglob are also
	      not interpreted within the shell.	 Hence command is always found
	      by searching the command path.

	      If  command  is omitted but any redirections are specified, then
	      the redirections will take effect	in the current shell.

       exit [ n	]
	      Exit the shell with the exit status specified by	an  arithmetic
	      expression n; if none is specified, use the exit status from the
	      last command executed.  An EOF condition	will  also  cause  the
	      shell to exit, unless the	IGNORE_EOF option is set.

	      See  notes at the	end of the section JOBS	in zshmisc(1) for some
	      possibly unexpected interactions of the exit command with	jobs.

       export [	name[=value] ... ]
	      The specified names are marked for automatic export to the envi-
	      ronment  of subsequently executed	commands.  Equivalent to type-
	      set -gx.	If a parameter specified does not already exist, it is
	      created in the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
	      Do nothing and return an exit status of 1.

       fc [ -e ename ] [ -LI ] [ -m match ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -l [ -LI ] [ -nrdfEiD	] [ -t timefmt ] [ -m match ]
	     [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -p [ -a ] [ filename [ histsize [ savehistsize ] ] ]
       fc -P
       fc -ARWI	[ filename ]
	      The fc command controls the interactive history mechanism.  Note
	      that reading and writing of history options is only performed if
	      the  shell  is  interactive.  Usually this is detected automati-
	      cally, but it can	be forced by setting  the  interactive	option
	      when starting the	shell.

	      The  first  two  forms  of this command select a range of	events
	      from first to last from the history list.	 The  arguments	 first
	      and  last	 may be	specified as a number or as a string.  A nega-
	      tive number is used as an	offset to the  current	history	 event
	      number.  A string	specifies the most recent event	beginning with
	      the given	string.	 All substitutions old=new, if any,  are  then
	      performed	on the text of the events.

	      In addition to the number	range,
	      -I     restricts to only internal	events (not from $HISTFILE)
	      -L     restricts	to  only  local	events (not from other shells,
		     see SHARE_HISTORY in zshoptions(1)	-- note	that $HISTFILE
		     is	considered local when read at startup)
	      -m     takes  the	first argument as a pattern (should be quoted)
		     and only the history events  matching  this  pattern  are

	      If first is not specified, it will be set	to -1 (the most	recent
	      event), or to -16	if the -l flag is given.  If last is not spec-
	      ified,  it  will	be  set	 to  first, or to -1 if	the -l flag is
	      given.  However, if the current event has	added entries  to  the
	      history with `print -s' or `fc -R', then the default last	for -l
	      includes all new history entries since the current event began.

	      When the -l flag is given, the resulting events  are  listed  on
	      standard	output.	  Otherwise the	editor program specified by -e
	      ename is invoked on a file containing these history events.   If
	      -e  is  not given, the value of the parameter FCEDIT is used; if
	      that is not set the value	of the parameter EDITOR	 is  used;  if
	      that  is	not  set  a builtin default, usually `vi' is used.  If
	      ename is `-', no editor is invoked.  When	editing	 is  complete,
	      the edited command is executed.

	      The  flag	 -r  reverses  the order of the	events and the flag -n
	      suppresses event numbers when listing.

	      Also when	listing,
	      -d     prints timestamps for each	event
	      -f     prints full time-date stamps in the US  `MM/DD/YY	hh:mm'
	      -E     prints  full time-date stamps in the European `
		     hh:mm' format
	      -i     prints  full  time-date  stamps  in  ISO8601  `yyyy-mm-dd
		     hh:mm' format
	      -t fmt prints  time  and date stamps in the given	format;	fmt is
		     formatted with the	strftime function with the zsh	exten-
		     sions  described  for the %D{string} prompt format	in the
		     section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).  The
		     resulting formatted string	must be	no more	than 256 char-
		     acters or will not	be printed
	      -D     prints elapsed times; may be combined with	one of the op-
		     tions above

	      `fc  -p'	pushes	the  current  history  list  onto  a stack and
	      switches to a new	history	list.  If the -a option	is also	speci-
	      fied,  this  history  list will be automatically popped when the
	      current function scope is	exited,	which is a much	 better	 solu-
	      tion than	creating a trap	function to call `fc -P' manually.  If
	      no arguments are specified, the  history	list  is  left	empty,
	      $HISTFILE	 is  unset, and	$HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are set to their
	      default values.  If one argument is given, $HISTFILE is  set  to
	      that filename, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are left unchanged, and the
	      history file is read in (if it exists)  to  initialize  the  new
	      list.   If a second argument is specified, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST
	      are instead set to the single specified numeric value.  Finally,
	      if a third argument is specified,	$SAVEHIST is set to a separate
	      value from $HISTSIZE.  You are free to change these  environment
	      values  for  the new history list	however	you desire in order to
	      manipulate the new history list.

	      `fc -P' pops the history list back to an older list saved	by `fc
	      -p'.   The  current  list	is saved to its	$HISTFILE before it is
	      destroyed	(assuming that $HISTFILE and $SAVEHIST are set	appro-
	      priately,	 of  course).  The values of $HISTFILE,	$HISTSIZE, and
	      $SAVEHIST	are restored to	the values they	had when `fc  -p'  was
	      called.	Note  that  this  restoration can conflict with	making
	      these variables "local", so your best bet	is to avoid local dec-
	      larations	 for  these  variables	in functions that use `fc -p'.
	      The one other guaranteed-safe  combination  is  declaring	 these
	      variables	 to be local at	the top	of your	function and using the
	      automatic	option (-a) with `fc -p'.  Finally, note  that	it  is
	      legal to manually	pop a push marked for automatic	popping	if you
	      need to do so before the function	exits.

	      `fc -R' reads the	history	from the given file,  `fc  -W'	writes
	      the  history out to the given file, and `fc -A' appends the his-
	      tory out to the given file.  If no filename  is  specified,  the
	      $HISTFILE	 is  assumed.	If  the	-I option is added to -R, only
	      those events that	are not	already	contained within the  internal
	      history  list are	added.	If the -I option is added to -A	or -W,
	      only those events	 that  are  new	 since	last  incremental  ap-
	      pend/write  to  the  history  file are appended/written.	In any
	      case, the	created	file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job	... ]
       job ...
	      Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground.  If  no  job
	      is specified, resume the current job.

       float [ {+|-}Hghlprtux ]	[ {+|-}EFLRZ [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ...	]
	      Equivalent  to  typeset  -E,  except  that options irrelevant to
	      floating point numbers are not permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UkmtTuWz ] [ -x	num ] [	name ... ]
       functions -c oldfn newfn
       functions -M [-s] mathfn	[ min [	max [ shellfn ]	] ]
       functions -M [ -m pattern ... ]
       functions +M [ -m ] mathfn ...
	      Equivalent to typeset -f,	with the exception of the -c,  -x,  -M
	      and  -W  options.	  For  functions  -u and functions -U, see au-
	      toload, which provides additional	options.

	      The -x option indicates that any functions output	will have each
	      leading  tab for indentation, added by the shell to show syntac-
	      tic structure, expanded to the given number num of spaces.   num
	      can also be 0 to suppress	all indentation.

	      The  -W option turns on the option WARN_NESTED_VAR for the named
	      function or functions only.  The option is  turned  off  at  the
	      start  of	nested functions (apart	from anonoymous	functions) un-
	      less the called function also has	the -W attribute.

	      The -c option causes oldfn to be copied to newfn.	 The  copy  is
	      efficiently  handled internally by reference counting.  If oldfn
	      was marked for autoload it is first loaded and if	this fails the
	      copy fails.  Either function may subsequently be redefined with-
	      out affecting the	other.	A typical idiom	is that	oldfn  is  the
	      name of a	library	shell function which is	then redefined to call
	      newfn, thereby installing	a modified version of the function.

	      Use of the -M option may not be combined with any	of the options
	      handled by typeset -f.

	      functions	-M mathfn defines mathfn as the	name of	a mathematical
	      function recognised in all forms	of  arithmetical  expressions;
	      see  the	section	`Arithmetic Evaluation'	in zshmisc(1).	By de-
	      fault mathfn may take any	number of  comma-separated  arguments.
	      If  min  is given, it must have exactly min args;	if min and max
	      are both given, it must have at least min	and at most max	 args.
	      max may be -1 to indicate	that there is no upper limit.

	      By  default  the	function is implemented	by a shell function of
	      the same name; if	shellfn	is specified it	gives the name of  the
	      corresponding  shell function while mathfn remains the name used
	      in arithmetical expressions.  The	name of	the function in	$0  is
	      mathfn  (not shellfn as would usually be the case), provided the
	      option FUNCTION_ARGZERO is in effect.  The positional parameters
	      in  the shell function correspond	to the arguments of the	mathe-
	      matical function call.  The result of the	last arithmetical  ex-
	      pression	evaluated  inside  the shell function (even if it is a
	      form that	normally only returns a	status)	gives  the  result  of
	      the mathematical function.

	      If  the additional option	-s is given to functions -M, the argu-
	      ment to the function is a	single string:	anything  between  the
	      opening  and matching closing parenthesis	is passed to the func-
	      tion as a	single argument, even if it includes commas  or	 white
	      space.   The minimum and maximum argument	specifiers must	there-
	      fore be 1	if given.  An empty  argument  list  is	 passed	 as  a
	      zero-length string.

	      functions	-M with	no arguments lists all such user-defined func-
	      tions in the same	form as	a definition.  With the	additional op-
	      tion  -m	and  a	list  of arguments, all	functions whose	mathfn
	      matches one of the pattern arguments are listed.

	      function +M removes the list of mathematical functions; with the
	      additional  option  -m the arguments are treated as patterns and
	      all functions whose mathfn  matches  the	pattern	 are  removed.
	      Note  that  the shell function implementing the behaviour	is not
	      removed (regardless of whether its name coincides	with mathfn).

	      For example, the following prints	the cube of 3:

		     zmath_cube() { (( $1 * $1 * $1 )) }
		     functions -M cube 1 1 zmath_cube
		     print $(( cube(3) ))

	      The following string function takes a single argument, including
	      the commas, so prints 11:

		     stringfn()	{ (( $#1 )) }
		     functions -Ms stringfn
		     print $(( stringfn(foo,bar,rod) ))

       getcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
	      Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell
	      parameter	name.  Equivalent to read -zr.

       getopts optstring name [	arg ...	]
	      Checks the args for legal	options.  If the args are omitted, use
	      the  positional parameters.  A valid option argument begins with
	      a	`+' or a `-'.  An argument not beginning with a	`+' or a  `-',
	      or  the argument `--', ends the options.	Note that a single `-'
	      is not considered	a valid	option argument.   optstring  contains
	      the letters that getopts recognizes.  If a letter	is followed by
	      a	`:', that option requires an argument.	 The  options  can  be
	      separated	from the argument by blanks.

	      Each  time  it  is  invoked, getopts places the option letter it
	      finds in the shell parameter name, prepended with	a `+' when arg
	      begins  with  a  `+'.   The  index  of the next arg is stored in
	      OPTIND.  The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

	      The first	option to be examined may be changed by	explicitly as-
	      signing  to  OPTIND.   OPTIND  has an initial value of 1,	and is
	      normally set to 1	upon entry to a	shell  function	 and  restored
	      upon  exit (this is disabled by the POSIX_BUILTINS option).  OP-
	      TARG is not reset	and retains its	value  from  the  most	recent
	      call  to	getopts.   If either of	OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly
	      unset, it	remains	unset, and the index or	option argument	is not
	      stored.  The option itself is still stored in name in this case.

	      A	leading	`:' in optstring causes	getopts	to store the letter of
	      any invalid option in OPTARG, and	to set name to `?' for an  un-
	      known  option  and  to  `:' when a required argument is missing.
	      Otherwise, getopts sets name to `?' and prints an	error  message
	      when  an	option	is  invalid.   The exit	status is nonzero when
	      there are	no more	options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ]	[ name[=value] ] ...
	      hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the  command
	      hash  table,  and	 the named directory hash table.  Normally one
	      would modify these tables	by modifying one's PATH	(for the  com-
	      mand  hash  table)  or  by creating appropriate shell parameters
	      (for the named directory hash table).  The choice	of hash	 table
	      to  work	on  is determined by the -d option; without the	option
	      the command hash table is	used, and with the  option  the	 named
	      directory	hash table is used.

	      A	command	name starting with a / is never	hashed,	whether	by ex-
	      plicit use of the	hash command or	otherwise.  Such a command  is
	      always found by direct look up in	the file system.

	      Given  no	 arguments,  and neither the -r	or -f options, the se-
	      lected hash table	will be	listed in full.

	      The -r option causes the selected	hash table to be emptied.   It
	      will  be subsequently rebuilt in the normal fashion.  The	-f op-
	      tion causes the selected hash table to be	fully rebuilt  immedi-
	      ately.   For the command hash table this hashes all the absolute
	      directories in the PATH, and for the named directory hash	 table
	      this adds	all users' home	directories.  These two	options	cannot
	      be used with any arguments.

	      The -m option causes the	arguments  to  be  taken  as  patterns
	      (which  should  be  quoted)  and	the elements of	the hash table
	      matching those patterns are printed.  This is the	 only  way  to
	      display a	limited	selection of hash table	elements.

	      For  each	name with a corresponding value, put `name' in the se-
	      lected hash table, associating it	with the pathname `value'.  In
	      the  command hash	table, this means that whenever	`name' is used
	      as a command argument, the shell will try	to  execute  the  file
	      given by `value'.	 In the	named directory	hash table, this means
	      that `value' may be referred to as `~name'.

	      For each name with no corresponding value, attempt to  add  name
	      to the hash table, checking what the appropriate value is	in the
	      normal manner for	that hash  table.   If	an  appropriate	 value
	      can't be found, then the hash table will be unchanged.

	      The -v option causes hash	table entries to be listed as they are
	      added by explicit	specification.	If has no effect if used  with

	      If the -L	flag is	present, then each hash	table entry is printed
	      in the form of a call to hash.

	      Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}Hghlprtux	] [ {+|-}LRZi [	n ] ] [	name[=value] ... ]
	      Equivalent to typeset -i,	except that options irrelevant to  in-
	      tegers are not permitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
	      Lists  information  about	 each given job, or all	jobs if	job is
	      omitted.	The -l flag lists process IDs, and the -p  flag	 lists
	      process  groups.	 If the	-r flag	is specified only running jobs
	      will be listed and if the	-s flag	is given only stopped jobs are
	      shown.   If  the	-d flag	is given, the directory	from which the
	      job was started (which may not be	the current directory  of  the
	      job) will	also be	shown.

	      The  -Z  option  replaces	 the  shell's argument and environment
	      space with the given string,  truncated  if  necessary  to  fit.
	      This will	normally be visible in ps (ps(1)) listings.  This fea-
	      ture is typically	used by	daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name | -n signal_number	| -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
	      Sends either SIGTERM or the specified signal to the  given  jobs
	      or  processes.  Signals are given	by number or by	names, with or
	      without the `SIG'	prefix.	 If  the  signal  being	 sent  is  not
	      `KILL'  or  `CONT', then the job will be sent a `CONT' signal if
	      it is stopped.  The argument job can be the process ID of	a  job
	      not in the job list.  In the second form,	kill -l, if sig	is not
	      specified	the signal names are listed.  Otherwise, for each  sig
	      that  is a name, the corresponding signal	number is listed.  For
	      each sig that is a signal	number or a  number  representing  the
	      exit  status  of	a process which	was terminated or stopped by a
	      signal the name of the signal is printed.

	      On some systems, alternative signal names	are allowed for	a  few
	      signals.	Typical	examples are SIGCHLD and SIGCLD	or SIGPOLL and
	      SIGIO, assuming they correspond to the same signal number.  kill
	      -l  will	only list the preferred	form, however kill -l alt will
	      show if the alternative form corresponds	to  a  signal  number.
	      For example, under Linux kill -l IO and kill -l POLL both	output
	      29, hence	kill -IO and kill -POLL	have the same effect.

	      Many systems will	allow process IDs to be	 negative  to  kill  a
	      process group or zero to kill the	current	process	group.

       let arg ...
	      Evaluate	each arg as an arithmetic expression.  See the section
	      `Arithmetic Evaluation'  in  zshmisc(1)  for  a  description  of
	      arithmetic  expressions.	 The  exit status is 0 if the value of
	      the last expression is nonzero, 1	if it is zero, and 2 if	an er-
	      ror occurred.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource	[ limit	] ] ...
	      Set  or  display	resource limits.  Unless the -s	flag is	given,
	      the limit	applies	only the children of  the  shell.   If	-s  is
	      given  without  other arguments, the resource limits of the cur-
	      rent shell is set	to the previously set resource limits  of  the

	      If limit is not specified, print the current limit placed	on re-
	      source, otherwise	set the	limit to the specified value.  If  the
	      -h flag is given,	use hard limits	instead	of soft	limits.	 If no
	      resource is given, print all limits.

	      When looping over	multiple resources, the	shell will abort imme-
	      diately  if  it detects a	badly formed argument.	However, if it
	      fails to set a limit for some other reason it will continue try-
	      ing to set the remaining limits.

	      resource can be one of:

		     Maximum amount of address space used.
		     Maximum  amount  of  memory  locked in RAM	for AIO	opera-
		     Maximum number of AIO operations.
		     Maximum number of cached threads.
		     Maximum size of a core dump.
		     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
		     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
		     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
		     Largest single file allowed.
		     Maximum number of kqueues allocated.
		     Maximum number of processes.
		     Maximum number of threads per process.
		     Maximum amount of memory locked in	RAM.
		     Maximum resident set size.
		     Maximum number of bytes in	POSIX message queues.
		     Maximum number of POSIX locks per user.
		     Maximum number of pseudo-terminals.
		     Maximum resident set size.
		     Maximum number of pending signals.
		     Maximum size of all socket	buffers.
		     Maximum stack size	for each process.
		     Maximum amount of swap used.
		     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

	      Which of these resource limits are available depends on the sys-
	      tem.  resource can be abbreviated	to any unambiguous prefix.  It
	      can also be an integer, which corresponds	to the integer defined
	      for the resource by the operating	system.

	      If argument corresponds to a number which	is out of the range of
	      the resources configured into the	shell, the shell will  try  to
	      read or write the	limit anyway, and will report an error if this
	      fails.  As the shell does	not store such	resources  internally,
	      an  attempt  to  set the limit will fail unless the -s option is

	      limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

	      nh     hours
	      nk     kilobytes (default)
	      nm     megabytes or minutes
	      ng     gigabytes
		     minutes and seconds

	      The limit	command	is not made  available	by  default  when  the
	      shell  starts in a mode emulating	another	shell.	It can be made
	      available	with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:limit'.

       local [ {+|-}AHUahlprtux	] [ {+|-}EFLRZi	[ n ] ]	[ name[=value] ... ]
	      Same as typeset, except that the options -g, and -f are not per-
	      mitted.	In  this  case the -x option does not force the	use of
	      -g, i.e. exported	variables will be local	to functions.

       log    List all users currently logged in who are affected by the  cur-
	      rent setting of the watch	parameter.

       logout [	n ]
	      Same as exit, except that	it only	works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
	      See the section `Precommand Modifiers' in	zshmisc(1).

       popd [ -q ] [ {+|-}n ]
	      Remove  an  entry	 from the directory stack, and perform a cd to
	      the new top directory.  With no argument,	the current top	 entry
	      is removed.  An argument of the form `+n'	identifies a stack en-
	      try by counting from the left of the list	shown by the dirs com-
	      mand,  starting  with  zero.   An	argument of the	form -n	counts
	      from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the  meanings
	      of `+' and `-' in	this context are swapped.

	      If  the  -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook	function chpwd
	      and the functions	in the array $chpwd_functions are not  called,
	      and  the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful for
	      calls to popd that do not	change the environment seen by an  in-
	      teractive	user.

       print [ -abcDilmnNoOpPrsSz ] [ -u n ] [ -f format ] [ -C	cols ]
	     [ -v name ] [ -xX tabstop ] [ -R [	-en ]] [ arg ... ]
	      With  the	 `-f' option the arguments are printed as described by
	      printf.  With no flags or	with the flag `-', the	arguments  are
	      printed  on  the	standard output	as described by	echo, with the
	      following	differences: the escape	 sequence  `\M-x'  (or	`\Mx')
	      metafies	the  character	x  (sets  the highest bit), `\C-x' (or
	      `\Cx') produces a	control	character (`\C-@' and `\C-?' give  the
	      characters NULL and delete), a character code in octal is	repre-
	      sented by	`\NNN' (instead	of `\0NNN'), and `\E' is a synonym for
	      `\e'.   Finally,	if  not	in an escape sequence, `\' escapes the
	      following	character and is not printed.

	      -a     Print arguments with the column incrementing first.  Only
		     useful with the -c	and -C options.

	      -b     Recognize	all the	escape sequences defined for the bind-
		     key command, see the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

	      -c     Print the arguments in columns.  Unless -a	is also	given,
		     arguments are printed with	the row	incrementing first.

	      -C cols
		     Print  the	 arguments in cols columns.  Unless -a is also
		     given, arguments are printed with	the  row  incrementing

	      -D     Treat  the	 arguments  as paths, replacing	directory pre-
		     fixes  with  ~  expressions  corresponding	 to  directory
		     names, as appropriate.

	      -i     If	 given	together  with	-o or -O, sorting is performed

	      -l     Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spa-
		     ces.   Note:  if the list of arguments is empty, print -l
		     will still	output one  empty  line.  To  print  a	possi-
		     bly-empty	list of	arguments one per line,	use print -C1,
		     as	in `print -rC1 -- "$list[@]"'.

	      -m     Take the first argument as	a pattern (should be  quoted),
		     and remove	it from	the argument list together with	subse-
		     quent arguments that do not match this pattern.

	      -n     Do	not add	a newline to the output.

	      -N     Print the arguments separated and	terminated  by	nulls.
		     Again,  print  -rNC1  -- "$list[@]" is a canonical	way to
		     print an arbitrary	list as	null-delimited records.

	      -o     Print the arguments sorted	in ascending order.

	      -O     Print the arguments sorted	in descending order.

	      -p     Print the arguments to the	input of the coprocess.

	      -P     Perform prompt expansion (see  EXPANSION  OF  PROMPT  SE-
		     QUENCES in	zshmisc(1)).  In combination with `-f',	prompt
		     escape sequences are parsed only within interpolated  ar-
		     guments, not within the format string.

	      -r     Ignore the	escape conventions of echo.

	      -R     Emulate  the BSD echo command, which does not process es-
		     cape sequences unless the -e flag is given.  The -n  flag
		     suppresses	 the  trailing	newline.   Only	 the -e	and -n
		     flags are recognized after	-R; all	 other	arguments  and
		     options are printed.

	      -s     Place  the	 results in the	history	list instead of	on the
		     standard output.  Each argument to	the print  command  is
		     treated  as  a  single word in the	history, regardless of
		     its content.

	      -S     Place the results in the history list instead of  on  the
		     standard  output.	In this	case only a single argument is
		     allowed; it will be split into words as if	it were	a full
		     shell command line.  The effect is	similar	to reading the
		     line from a history file with the	HIST_LEX_WORDS	option

	      -u n   Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

	      -v name
		     Store the printed arguments as the	value of the parameter

	      -x tab-stop
		     Expand leading tabs on each line of output	in the printed
		     string  assuming  a  tab  stop every tab-stop characters.
		     This is appropriate for formatting	code that may  be  in-
		     dented with tabs.	Note that leading tabs of any argument
		     to	print, not just	the first, are expanded, even if print
		     is	 using	spaces to separate arguments (the column count
		     is	maintained across arguments but	may  be	 incorrect  on
		     output owing to previous unexpanded tabs).

		     The  start	of the output of each print command is assumed
		     to	be aligned with	a tab stop.  Widths of multibyte char-
		     acters  are handled if the	option MULTIBYTE is in effect.
		     This option is ignored if other formatting	options	are in
		     effect,  namely  column  alignment	or printf style, or if
		     output is to a special location such as shell history  or
		     the command line editor.

	      -X tab-stop
		     This  is  similar	to  -x,	 except	 that  all tabs	in the
		     printed string are	expanded.  This	is appropriate if tabs
		     in	 the  arguments	are being used to produce a table for-

	      -z     Push the arguments	onto the editing buffer	 stack,	 sepa-
		     rated by spaces.

	      If  any  of `-m',	`-o' or	`-O' are used in combination with `-f'
	      and there	are no arguments (after	the  removal  process  in  the
	      case of `-m') then nothing is printed.

       printf [	-v name	] format [ arg ... ]
	      Print  the arguments according to	the format specification. For-
	      matting rules are	the same as used in C.	The  same  escape  se-
	      quences  as for echo are recognised in the format. All C conver-
	      sion specifications ending in one	of csdiouxXeEfgGn are handled.
	      In  addition  to this, `%b' can be used instead of `%s' to cause
	      escape sequences in the argument to be recognised	and  `%q'  can
	      be used to quote the argument in such a way that allows it to be
	      reused as	shell input. With the numeric  format  specifiers,  if
	      the  corresponding  argument  starts with	a quote	character, the
	      numeric value of the following character is used as  the	number
	      to  print;  otherwise the	argument is evaluated as an arithmetic
	      expression. See the  section  `Arithmetic	 Evaluation'  in  zsh-
	      misc(1)  for a description of arithmetic expressions. With `%n',
	      the corresponding	argument is taken as an	 identifier  which  is
	      created as an integer parameter.

	      Normally,	conversion specifications are applied to each argument
	      in order but they	can explicitly specify the nth argument	is  to
	      be  used by replacing `%'	by `%n$' and `*' by `*n$'.  It is rec-
	      ommended that you	do not mix references of this  explicit	 style
	      with  the	normal style and the handling of such mixed styles may
	      be subject to future change.

	      If arguments remain unused after formatting, the	format	string
	      is reused	until all arguments have been consumed.	With the print
	      builtin, this can	be suppressed by using the -r option. If  more
	      arguments	 are  required by the format than have been specified,
	      the behaviour is as if zero or an	empty string had  been	speci-
	      fied as the argument.

	      The -v option causes the output to be stored as the value	of the
	      parameter	name, instead of printed. If name is an	array and  the
	      format  string is	reused when consuming arguments	then one array
	      element will be used for each use	of the format string.

       pushd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       pushd [ -qsLP ] old new
       pushd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
	      Change the current directory, and	push the old current directory
	      onto the directory stack.	 In the	first form, change the current
	      directory	to arg.	 If arg	is not specified, change to the	second
	      directory	 on the	stack (that is,	exchange the top two entries),
	      or change	to $HOME if the	PUSHD_TO_HOME  option  is  set	or  if
	      there  is	only one entry on the stack.  Otherwise, arg is	inter-
	      preted as	it would be by cd.  The	meaning	of old and new in  the
	      second form is also the same as for cd.

	      The third	form of	pushd changes directory	by rotating the	direc-
	      tory list.  An argument of the form `+n' identifies a stack  en-
	      try by counting from the left of the list	shown by the dirs com-
	      mand, starting with zero.	 An argument of	the form  `-n'	counts
	      from  the	right.	If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings
	      of `+' and `-' in	this context are swapped.

	      If the -q	(quiet)	option is specified, the hook  function	 chpwd
	      and  the functions in the	array $chpwd_functions are not called,
	      and the new directory stack is not printed.  This	is useful  for
	      calls to pushd that do not change	the environment	seen by	an in-
	      teractive	user.

	      If  the  option  -q  is  not  specified  and  the	 shell	option
	      PUSHD_SILENT is not set, the directory stack will	be printed af-
	      ter a pushd is performed.

	      The options -s, -L and -P	have the same meanings as for  the  cd

       pushln [	arg ...	]
	      Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
	      Print  the  absolute  pathname of	the current working directory.
	      If the -r	or the -P flag is specified, or	the CHASE_LINKS	option
	      is  set  and the -L flag is not given, the printed path will not
	      contain symbolic links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.

       read [ -rszpqAclneE ] [ -t [ num	] ] [ -k [ num ] ] [ -d	delim ]
	    [ -u n ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
	      Read one line and	break it into fields using the	characters  in
	      $IFS  as	separators, except as noted below.  The	first field is
	      assigned to the first name, the second field to the second name,
	      etc.,  with  leftover fields assigned to the last	name.  If name
	      is omitted then REPLY is used for	scalars	and reply for arrays.

	      -r     Raw mode: a `\' at	the end	of a  line  does  not  signify
		     line continuation and backslashes in the line don't quote
		     the following character and are not removed.

	      -s     Don't echo	back characters	if reading from	the terminal.

	      -q     Read only one character from the terminal and set name to
		     `y'  if  this  character was `y' or `Y' and to `n'	other-
		     wise.  With this flag set the return status is zero  only
		     if	the character was `y' or `Y'.  This option may be used
		     with a timeout (see -t); if the read times	 out,  or  en-
		     counters  end  of	file,  status 2	is returned.  Input is
		     read from the terminal unless one of -u or	-p is present.
		     This option may also be used within zle widgets.

	      -k [ num ]
		     Read  only	 one (or num) characters.  All are assigned to
		     the first name, without word splitting.  This flag	is ig-
		     nored  when -q is present.	 Input is read from the	termi-
		     nal unless	one of -u or -p	is present.  This  option  may
		     also be used within zle widgets.

		     Note  that	 despite  the  mnemonic	`key' this option does
		     read full characters, which may consist of	multiple bytes
		     if	the option MULTIBYTE is	set.

	      -z     Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it
		     to	the first  name,  without  word	 splitting.   Text  is
		     pushed  onto  the stack with `print -z' or	with push-line
		     from the line editor (see zshzle(1)).  This flag  is  ig-
		     nored when	the -k or -q flags are present.

	      -E     The  input	 read is printed (echoed) to the standard out-
		     put.  If the -e flag is used, no input is assigned	to the

	      -A     The  first	 name is taken as the name of an array and all
		     words are assigned	to it.

	      -l     These flags are allowed only if called inside a  function
		     used  for	completion (specified with the -K flag to com-
		     pctl).  If	the -c flag is given, the words	of the current
		     command are read. If the -l flag is given,	the whole line
		     is	assigned as a scalar.  If both flags are  present,  -l
		     is	used and -c is ignored.

	      -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on
		     is	read.  With -l,	the index of the character the	cursor
		     is	on is read.  Note that the command name	is word	number
		     1,	not word 0, and	that when the cursor is	at the end  of
		     the  line,	 its character index is	the length of the line
		     plus one.

	      -u n   Input is read from	file descriptor	n.

	      -p     Input is read from	the coprocess.

	      -d delim
		     Input is terminated by the	first character	of  delim  in-
		     stead of by newline.

	      -t [ num ]
		     Test if input is available	before attempting to read.  If
		     num is present, it	must begin with	a digit	 and  will  be
		     evaluated	to  give  a  number of seconds,	which may be a
		     floating point number; in this case the read times	out if
		     input  is	not available within this time.	 If num	is not
		     present, it is taken to be	zero, so that read returns im-
		     mediately	if  no	input  is  available.	If no input is
		     available,	return status 1	and do not set any variables.

		     This option is not	available when reading from the	editor
		     buffer  with  -z, when called from	within completion with
		     -c	or -l, with -q which clears  the  input	 queue	before
		     reading,  or  within zle where other mechanisms should be
		     used to test for input.

		     Note that read does not attempt to	alter the  input  pro-
		     cessing  mode.   The  default mode	is canonical input, in
		     which an entire line is read at a time, so	usually	 `read
		     -t'  will not read	anything until an entire line has been
		     typed.  However, when reading from	the terminal  with  -k
		     input  is processed one key at a time; in this case, only
		     availability of the first character is  tested,  so  that
		     e.g. `read	-t -k 2' can still block on the	second charac-
		     ter.  Use two instances of	`read -t -k' if	 this  is  not
		     what is wanted.

	      If the first argument contains a `?', the	remainder of this word
	      is used as a prompt on standard error when the shell is interac-

	      The  value (exit status) of read is 1 when an end-of-file	is en-
	      countered, or when -c or -l is present and the  command  is  not
	      called  from a compctl function, or as described for -q.	Other-
	      wise the value is	0.

	      The behavior of some combinations	of the -k, -p, -q, -u  and  -z
	      flags  is	 undefined.   Presently	 -q cancels all	the others, -p
	      cancels -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z cancels both -p  and

	      The -c or	-l flags cancel	any and	all of -kpquz.

	      Same as typeset -r.  With	the POSIX_BUILTINS option set, same as
	      typeset -gr.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [	n ]
	      Causes a shell function or `.' script to return to the  invoking
	      script with the return status specified by an arithmetic expres-
	      sion n. If n is omitted, the return status is that of  the  last
	      command executed.

	      If  return  was  executed	from a trap in a TRAPNAL function, the
	      effect is	different for zero and non-zero	return	status.	  With
	      zero  status  (or	 after	an  implicit  return at	the end	of the
	      trap), the shell will return to whatever it was previously  pro-
	      cessing; with a non-zero status, the shell will behave as	inter-
	      rupted except that the return status of the  trap	 is  retained.
	      Note  that the numeric value of the signal which caused the trap
	      is passed	as  the	 first	argument,  so  the  statement  `return
	      $((128+$1))'  will  return  the same status as if	the signal had
	      not been trapped.

       sched  See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in	zshmodules(1).

       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o [ option_name ] ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ]
	   [ arg ... ]
	      Set the options for the shell and/or set the positional  parame-
	      ters,  or	 declare and set an array.  If the -s option is	given,
	      it causes	the specified arguments	to be sorted before  assigning
	      them to the positional parameters	(or to the array name if -A is
	      used).  With +s sort arguments in	 descending  order.   For  the
	      meaning  of  the	other  flags, see zshoptions(1).  Flags	may be
	      specified	by name	using the -o option. If	no option name is sup-
	      plied  with  -o, the current option states are printed:  see the
	      description of setopt below for more information on the  format.
	      With  +o they are	printed	in a form that can be used as input to
	      the shell.

	      If the -A	flag is	specified, name	is set to an array  containing
	      the  given args; if no name is specified,	all arrays are printed
	      together with their values.

	      If +A is used and	name is	an array, the given arguments will re-
	      place  the  initial elements of that array; if no	name is	speci-
	      fied, all	arrays are printed without their values.

	      The behaviour of arguments after -A name or +A name  depends  on
	      whether the option KSH_ARRAYS is set.  If	it is not set, all ar-
	      guments following	name are treated as values for the array,  re-
	      gardless	of  their  form.   If the option is set, normal	option
	      processing continues at that point; only regular	arguments  are
	      treated as values	for the	array.	This means that

		     set -A array -x --	foo

	      sets array to `-x	-- foo'	if KSH_ARRAYS is not set, but sets the
	      array to foo and turns on	the option `-x'	if it is set.

	      If the -A	flag is	not present, but there	are  arguments	beyond
	      the  options,  the positional parameters are set.	 If the	option
	      list (if any) is terminated by `--', and there  are  no  further
	      arguments, the positional	parameters will	be unset.

	      If no arguments and no `--' are given, then the names and	values
	      of all parameters	are printed on the standard  output.   If  the
	      only argument is `+', the	names of all parameters	are printed.

	      For historical reasons, `set -' is treated as `set +xv' and `set
	      -	args' as `set +xv -- args' when	in any	other  emulation  mode
	      than zsh's native	mode.

       setcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [	{+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ -m ] [ name ... ]
	      Set  the	options	 for  the shell.  All options specified	either
	      with flags or by name are	set.

	      If no arguments are supplied, the	names of all options currently
	      set  are printed.	 The form is chosen so as to minimize the dif-
	      ferences from the	default	options	for the	current	emulation (the
	      default  emulation  being	 native	 zsh,  shown  as <Z> in	zshop-
	      tions(1)).  Options that are on by default for the emulation are
	      shown  with  the prefix no only if they are off, while other op-
	      tions are	shown without the prefix no and	only if	they  are  on.
	      In  addition  to	options	 changed from the default state	by the
	      user, any	options	activated automatically	by the shell (for  ex-
	      ample,  SHIN_STDIN  or  INTERACTIVE)  will be shown in the list.
	      The format is further modified by	the  option  KSH_OPTION_PRINT,
	      however  the  rationale for choosing options with	or without the
	      no prefix	remains	the same in this case.

	      If the -m	flag is	given the  arguments  are  taken  as  patterns
	      (which  should  be  quoted  to protect them from filename	expan-
	      sion), and all options with names	matching  these	 patterns  are

	      Note  that  a bad	option name does not cause execution of	subse-
	      quent shell code to be aborted; this is behaviour	 is  different
	      from  that  of  `set  -o'.  This is because set is regarded as a
	      special builtin by the POSIX standard, but setopt	is not.

       shift [ -p ] [ n	] [ name ... ]
	      The positional parameters	${n+1} ...  are	 renamed  to  $1  ...,
	      where  n is an arithmetic	expression that	defaults to 1.	If any
	      names are	given then the arrays with these names are shifted in-
	      stead of the positional parameters.

	      If the option -p is given	arguments are instead removed (popped)
	      from the end rather than the start of the	array.

       source file [ arg ... ]
	      Same as  `.',  except  that  the	current	 directory  is	always
	      searched	and  is	 always	 searched first, before	directories in

       stat   See the section `The zsh/stat Module' in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
	      Suspend the execution of the shell (send it a SIGTSTP) until  it
	      receives	a  SIGCONT.   Unless the -f option is given, this will
	      refuse to	suspend	a login	shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
	      Like the system version of test.	Added for  compatibility;  use
	      conditional  expressions	instead	 (see the section `Conditional
	      Expressions').  The main differences between the conditional ex-
	      pression syntax and the test and [ builtins are:	these commands
	      are not handled syntactically, so	for example an empty  variable
	      expansion	 may  cause  an	 argument to be	omitted; syntax	errors
	      cause status 2 to	be returned instead  of	 a  shell  error;  and
	      arithmetic operators expect integer arguments rather than	arith-
	      metic expressions.

	      The command attempts to implement	POSIX and its extensions where
	      these are	specified.  Unfortunately there	are intrinsic ambigui-
	      ties in the syntax; in particular	there is  no  distinction  be-
	      tween  test operators and	strings	that resemble them.  The stan-
	      dard attempts to resolve these for small	numbers	 of  arguments
	      (up to four); for	five or	more arguments compatibility cannot be
	      relied on.  Users	are urged wherever possible to	use  the  `[['
	      test syntax which	does not have these ambiguities.

       times  Print  the  accumulated  user and	system times for the shell and
	      for processes run	from the shell.

       trap [ arg ] [ sig ... ]
	      arg is a series of commands (usually quoted to protect  it  from
	      immediate	 evaluation by the shell) to be	read and executed when
	      the shell	receives any of	the signals specified by one  or  more
	      sig  args.  Each sig can be given	as a number, or	as the name of
	      a	signal either with or without the string SIG in	front (e.g. 1,
	      HUP, and SIGHUP are all the same signal).

	      If arg is	`-', then the specified	signals	are reset to their de-
	      faults, or, if no	sig args are present, all traps	are reset.

	      If arg is	an empty string, then the specified  signals  are  ig-
	      nored by the shell (and by the commands it invokes).

	      If  arg  is  omitted but one or more sig args are	provided (i.e.
	      the first	argument is a valid signal number or name), the	effect
	      is the same as if	arg had	been specified as `-'.

	      The trap command with no arguments prints	a list of commands as-
	      sociated with each signal.

	      If sig is	ZERR then arg will be executed after each command with
	      a	nonzero	exit status.  ERR is an	alias for ZERR on systems that
	      have no SIGERR signal (this is the usual case).

	      If sig is	DEBUG then arg will be executed	before each command if
	      the  option  DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set (as it is by	default), else
	      after each command.  Here, a `command' is	what is	described as a
	      `sublist'	 in the	shell grammar, see the section SIMPLE COMMANDS
	      &	PIPELINES in zshmisc(1).  If DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is  set  various
	      additional  features  are	 available.   First, it	is possible to
	      skip the next command by setting the option  ERR_EXIT;  see  the
	      description  of the ERR_EXIT option in zshoptions(1).  Also, the
	      shell parameter ZSH_DEBUG_CMD is set to the string corresponding
	      to  the  command	to  be executed	following the trap.  Note that
	      this string is reconstructed from	the internal  format  and  may
	      not be formatted the same	way as the original text.  The parame-
	      ter is unset after the trap is executed.

	      If sig is	0 or EXIT and the trap statement  is  executed	inside
	      the  body	 of a function,	then the command arg is	executed after
	      the function completes.  The value of $? at the start of	execu-
	      tion is the exit status of the shell or the return status	of the
	      function exiting.	 If sig	is 0 or	EXIT and the trap statement is
	      not executed inside the body of a	function, then the command arg
	      is executed when the shell terminates; the trap runs before  any
	      zshexit hook functions.

	      ZERR, DEBUG, and EXIT traps are not executed inside other	traps.
	      ZERR and DEBUG traps are	kept  within  subshells,  while	 other
	      traps are	reset.

	      Note  that traps defined with the	trap builtin are slightly dif-
	      ferent from those	defined	as `TRAPNAL () { ... }', as the	latter
	      have  their  own function	environment (line numbers, local vari-
	      ables, etc.) while the former use	the environment	of the command
	      in which they were called.  For example,

		     trap 'print $LINENO' DEBUG

	      will  print  the	line number of a command executed after	it has
	      run, while

		     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

	      will always print	the number zero.

	      Alternative signal names are allowed  as	described  under  kill
	      above.   Defining	a trap under either name causes	any trap under
	      an alternative name to be	removed.  However, it  is  recommended
	      that  for	consistency users stick	exclusively to one name	or an-

       true [ arg ... ]
	      Do nothing and return an exit status of 0.

       ttyctl [	-fu ]
	      The -f option freezes the	tty (i.e. terminal or terminal	emula-
	      tor),  and  -u unfreezes it.  When the tty is frozen, no changes
	      made to the tty settings by external programs will be honored by
	      the  shell,  except  for	changes	in the size of the screen; the
	      shell will simply	reset the settings to their previous values as
	      soon as each command exits or is suspended.  Thus, stty and sim-
	      ilar programs have no effect when	the tty	is  frozen.   Freezing
	      the  tty	does not cause the current state to be remembered: in-
	      stead, it	causes future changes to the state to be blocked.

	      Without options it reports whether the  terminal	is  frozen  or

	      Note  that,  regardless of whether the tty is frozen or not, the
	      shell needs to change the	settings when the line editor  starts,
	      so  unfreezing  the  tty does not	guarantee settings made	on the
	      command line are preserved.  Strings  of	commands  run  between
	      editing  the  command line will see a consistent tty state.  See
	      also the shell variable STTY for a means of initialising the tty
	      before running external commands.

       type [ -wfpamsS ] name ...
	      Equivalent to whence -v.

       typeset [ {+|-}AHUaghlmrtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZip [ n	] ]
	       [ + ] [ name[=value] ...	]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}Uglrux	] [ {+|-}LRZp [	n ] ]
	       [ + | SCALAR[=value] array[=(value ...)]	[ sep ]	]
       typeset -f [ {+|-}TUkmtuz ] [ + ] [ name	... ]
	      Set or display attributes	and values for shell parameters.

	      Except  as  noted	below for control flags	that change the	behav-
	      ior, a parameter is created for each name	that does not  already
	      refer  to	 one.  When inside a function, a new parameter is cre-
	      ated for every name (even	those that already exist), and is  un-
	      set  again  when the function completes.	See `Local Parameters'
	      in zshparam(1).  The same	rules apply to special	shell  parame-
	      ters, which retain their special attributes when made local.

	      For  each	 name=value  assignment,  the parameter	name is	set to

	      If the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not	set, for each  remain-
	      ing  name	 that  refers  to a parameter that is already set, the
	      name and value of	the parameter are printed in the  form	of  an
	      assignment.  Nothing is printed for newly-created	parameters, or
	      when any attribute flags listed below are	given along  with  the
	      name.   Using  `+'  instead  of  minus to	introduce an attribute
	      turns it off.

	      If no name is present, the names and values  of  all  parameters
	      are printed.  In this case the attribute flags restrict the dis-
	      play to only  those  parameters  that  have  the	specified  at-
	      tributes,	 and  using  `+' rather	than `-' to introduce the flag
	      suppresses printing of the values	of parameters when there is no
	      parameter	name.

	      All  forms  of  the command handle scalar	assignment.  Array as-
	      signment is possible if any of the reserved words	 declare,  ex-
	      port, float, integer, local, readonly or typeset is matched when
	      the line is parsed (N.B. not when	it is executed).  In this case
	      the  arguments  are  parsed as assignments, except that the `+='
	      syntax and the GLOB_ASSIGN option	are not	supported, and	scalar
	      values  after  =	are  not split further into words, even	if ex-
	      panded (regardless of the	setting	 of  the  KSH_TYPESET  option;
	      this option is obsolete).

	      Examples	of  the	 differences between command and reserved word

		     # Reserved	word parsing
		     typeset svar=$(echo one word) avar=(several words)

	      The above	creates	a scalar parameter svar	and an array parameter
	      avar as if the assignments had been

		     svar="one word"
		     avar=(several words)

	      On the other hand:

		     # Normal builtin interface
		     builtin typeset svar=$(echo two words)

	      The builtin keyword causes the above to use the standard builtin
	      interface	to typeset in which argument parsing is	 performed  in
	      the  same	 way  as  for  other commands.	This example creates a
	      scalar svar containing the value two and another scalar  parame-
	      ter  words with no value.	 An array value	in this	case would ei-
	      ther cause an error or be	treated	as  an	obscure	 set  of  glob

	      Arbitrary	arguments are allowed if they take the form of assign-
	      ments after command line expansion; however, these only  perform
	      scalar assignment:

		     typeset $var

	      The  above  sets	the  scalar  parameter	svar to	the value val.
	      Parentheses around the value within var would  not  cause	 array
	      assignment  as  they will	be treated as ordinary characters when
	      $var is substituted.  Any	non-trivial expansion in the name part
	      of  the  assignment  causes  the	argument to be treated in this

		     typeset {var1,var2,var3}=name

	      The above	syntax is valid, and has the expected effect  of  set-
	      ting  the	 three	parameters  to the same	value, but the command
	      line is parsed as	a set of three normal command  line  arguments
	      to  typeset after	expansion.  Hence it is	not possible to	assign
	      to multiple arrays by this means.

	      Note that	each interface to any of the commands my  be  disabled
	      separately.   For	example, `disable -r typeset' disables the re-
	      served word interface to typeset,	exposing  the  builtin	inter-
	      face,  while  `disable typeset' disables the builtin.  Note that
	      disabling	the reserved word  interface  for  typeset  may	 cause
	      problems	with the output	of `typeset -p', which assumes the re-
	      served word interface is available in order to restore array and
	      associative array	values.

	      Unlike parameter assignment statements, typeset's	exit status on
	      an assignment that involves a command substitution does not  re-
	      flect  the  exit status of the command substitution.  Therefore,
	      to test for an error in a	 command  substitution,	 separate  the
	      declaration of the parameter from	its initialization:

		     # WRONG
		     typeset var1=$(exit 1) || echo "Trouble with var1"

		     # RIGHT
		     typeset var1 && var1=$(exit 1) || echo "Trouble with var1"

	      To  initialize a parameter param to a command output and mark it
	      readonly,	use typeset -r param or	readonly param after  the  pa-
	      rameter assignment statement.

	      If  no  attribute	 flags are given, and either no	name arguments
	      are present or the flag +m is used,  then	 each  parameter  name
	      printed  is preceded by a	list of	the attributes of that parame-
	      ter (array, association, exported, float,	integer, readonly,  or
	      undefined	 for  autoloaded parameters not	yet loaded).  If +m is
	      used with	attribute flags, and all those	flags  are  introduced
	      with  +, the matching parameter names are	printed	but their val-
	      ues are not.

	      The following control flags change the behavior of typeset:

	      +	     If	`+' appears by itself in a separate word as  the  last
		     option,  then the names of	all parameters (functions with
		     -f) are printed, but the  values  (function  bodies)  are
		     not.   No	name  arguments	may appear, and	it is an error
		     for any other options to follow `+'.  The effect  of  `+'
		     is	 as if all attribute flags which precede it were given
		     with a `+'	prefix.	 For example, `typeset -U +' is	equiv-
		     alent  to	`typeset +U' and displays the names of all ar-
		     rays having the uniqueness	attribute, whereas `typeset -f
		     -U	 +'  displays the names	of all autoloadable functions.
		     If	+ is the only option, then  type  information  (array,
		     readonly,	etc.)  is  also	printed	for each parameter, in
		     the same manner as	`typeset +m "*"'.

	      -g     The -g (global) means that	any resulting  parameter  will
		     not  be  restricted  to local scope.  Note	that this does
		     not necessarily mean that the parameter will  be  global,
		     as	the flag will apply to any existing parameter (even if
		     unset) from an enclosing function.	 This  flag  does  not
		     affect  the parameter after creation, hence it has	no ef-
		     fect when listing existing	parameters, nor	does the  flag
		     +g	have any effect	except in combination with -m (see be-

	      -m     If	the -m flag is given the name arguments	are  taken  as
		     patterns  (use quoting to prevent these from being	inter-
		     preted as file patterns).	With no	attribute  flags,  all
		     parameters	 (or functions with the	-f flag) with matching
		     names are printed (the shell option TYPESET_SILENT	is not
		     used in this case).

		     If	the +g flag is combined	with -m, a new local parameter
		     is	created	for every matching parameter that is  not  al-
		     ready local.  Otherwise -m	applies	all other flags	or as-
		     signments to the existing parameters.

		     Except when assignments are made with  name=value,	 using
		     +m	forces the matching parameters and their attributes to
		     be	printed, even inside a function.  Note that -m is  ig-
		     nored  if no patterns are given, so `typeset -m' displays
		     attributes	but `typeset -a	+m' does not.

	      -p [ n ]
		     If	the -p option is  given,  parameters  and  values  are
		     printed  in the form of a typeset command with an assign-
		     ment, regardless of other flags and options.   Note  that
		     the  -H flag on parameters	is respected; no value will be
		     shown for these parameters.

		     -p	may be followed	by an optional integer argument.  Cur-
		     rently  only  the value 1 is supported.  In this case ar-
		     rays and associative arrays are printed with newlines be-
		     tween indented elements for readability.

	      -T [ scalar[=value] array[=(value	...)] [	sep ] ]
		     This  flag	has a different	meaning	when used with -f; see
		     below.  Otherwise the -T option requires  zero,  two,  or
		     three  arguments  to  be present.	With no	arguments, the
		     list of parameters	created	 in  this  fashion  is	shown.
		     With  two	or three arguments, the	first two are the name
		     of	a scalar and of	an array  parameter  (in  that	order)
		     that  will	 be  tied  together in the manner of $PATH and
		     $path.  The optional third	argument is a single-character
		     separator	which will be used to join the elements	of the
		     array to form the scalar; if absent, a colon is used,  as
		     with $PATH.  Only the first character of the separator is
		     significant;  any	remaining  characters	are   ignored.
		     Multibyte characters are not yet supported.

		     Only  one	of  the	scalar and array parameters may	be as-
		     signed an initial value (the restrictions	on  assignment
		     forms described above also	apply).

		     Both  the scalar and the array may	be manipulated as nor-
		     mal.  If one is unset, the	other  will  automatically  be
		     unset  too.   There  is  no  way of untying the variables
		     without unsetting them, nor of converting the type	of one
		     of	 them  with another typeset command; +T	does not work,
		     assigning an array	to scalar is an	error, and assigning a
		     scalar to array sets it to	be a single-element array.

		     Note  that	 both  `typeset	 -xT ...'  and `export -T ...'
		     work, but only the	scalar	will  be  marked  for  export.
		     Setting the value using the scalar	version	causes a split
		     on	all separators (which cannot be	quoted).  It is	possi-
		     ble to apply -T to	two previously tied variables but with
		     a different separator character, in which case the	 vari-
		     ables  remain  joined  as	before	but  the  separator is

		     When an existing scalar is	tied to	a new array, the value
		     of	 the  scalar  is preserved but no attribute other than
		     export will be preserved.

	      Attribute	flags that transform the final value (-L, -R, -Z,  -l,
	      -u) are only applied to the expanded value at the	point of a pa-
	      rameter expansion	expression using `$'.  They  are  not  applied
	      when  a  parameter  is retrieved internally by the shell for any

	      The following attribute flags may	be specified:

	      -A     The names refer to	associative array parameters; see `Ar-
		     ray Parameters' in	zshparam(1).

	      -L [ n ]
		     Left  justify  and	 remove	 leading blanks	from the value
		     when the parameter	is expanded.  If n is nonzero, it  de-
		     fines the width of	the field.  If n is zero, the width is
		     determined	by the width of	the value of the first assign-
		     ment.   In	 the case of numeric parameters, the length of
		     the complete value	assigned to the	parameter is  used  to
		     determine the width, not the value	that would be output.

		     The width is the count of characters, which may be	multi-
		     byte characters if	the MULTIBYTE  option  is  in  effect.
		     Note  that	the screen width of the	character is not taken
		     into account; if this is required,	use padding  with  pa-
		     rameter  expansion	 flags	${(ml...)...}  as described in
		     `Parameter	Expansion Flags' in zshexpn(1).

		     When the parameter	is expanded, it	is filled on the right
		     with  blanks  or truncated	if necessary to	fit the	field.
		     Note truncation can lead to unexpected results  with  nu-
		     meric  parameters.	  Leading  zeros are removed if	the -Z
		     flag is also set.

	      -R [ n ]
		     Similar to	-L, except that	right justification  is	 used;
		     when  the parameter is expanded, the field	is left	filled
		     with blanks or truncated from the end.  May not  be  com-
		     bined with	the -Z flag.

	      -U     For  arrays  (but	not for	associative arrays), keep only
		     the first occurrence of each duplicated value.  This  may
		     also  be  set for tied parameters (see -T)	or colon-sepa-
		     rated special parameters like PATH	or FIGNORE, etc.  Note
		     the  flag takes effect on assignment, and the type	of the
		     variable being assigned to	is  determinative;  for	 vari-
		     ables  with  shared values	it is therefore	recommended to
		     set the flag for all interfaces, e.g.  `typeset  -U  PATH

		     This  flag	has a different	meaning	when used with -f; see

	      -Z [ n ]
		     Specially handled if set along with the -L	flag.	Other-
		     wise,  similar  to	-R, except that	leading	zeros are used
		     for padding instead of  blanks  if	 the  first  non-blank
		     character	is  a digit.  Numeric parameters are specially
		     handled: they are always eligible for  padding  with  ze-
		     roes, and the zeroes are inserted at an appropriate place
		     in	the output.

	      -a     The names refer to	array parameters.  An array  parameter
		     may be created this way, but it may be assigned to	in the
		     typeset statement only if the reserved word form of type-
		     set  is  enabled (as it is	by default).  When displaying,
		     both normal and associative arrays	are shown.

	      -f     The names refer to	functions rather than parameters.   No
		     assignments  can  be made,	and the	only other valid flags
		     are -t, -T, -k, -u, -U and	-z.  The flag -t turns on exe-
		     cution  tracing  for  this	function; the flag -T does the
		     same, but turns off tracing for any named (not anonymous)
		     function  called  from the	present	one, unless that func-
		     tion also has the -t or -T	flag.  The  -u	and  -U	 flags
		     cause  the	function to be marked for autoloading; -U also
		     causes alias expansion to be suppressed when the function
		     is	loaded.	 See the description of	the `autoload' builtin
		     for details.

		     Note that the builtin functions provides the  same	 basic
		     capabilities  as typeset -f but gives access to a few ex-
		     tra options; autoload gives  further  additional  options
		     for the case typeset -fu and typeset -fU.

	      -h     Hide:  only  useful  for special parameters (those	marked
		     `<S>' in the table	in zshparam(1)), and for local parame-
		     ters  with	 the  same name	as a special parameter,	though
		     harmless for others.  A special parameter with  this  at-
		     tribute  will not retain its special effect when made lo-
		     cal.  Thus	after `typeset -h PATH', a function containing
		     `typeset  PATH'  will  create an ordinary local parameter
		     without the usual behaviour of PATH.  Alternatively,  the
		     local parameter may itself	be given this attribute; hence
		     inside a function `typeset	-h PATH' creates  an  ordinary
		     local parameter and the special PATH parameter is not al-
		     tered in any way.	It is also possible to create a	 local
		     parameter	using  `typeset	 +h  special', where the local
		     copy of special will retain its  special  properties  re-
		     gardless  of having the -h	attribute.  Global special pa-
		     rameters loaded from shell	modules	 (currently  those  in
		     zsh/mapfile  and  zsh/parameter)  are automatically given
		     the -h attribute to avoid name clashes.

	      -H     Hide value: specifies that	typeset	will not  display  the
		     value  of the parameter when listing parameters; the dis-
		     play for such parameters is always	as if the `+' flag had
		     been  given.   Use	 of the	parameter is in	other respects
		     normal, and the option does not apply if the parameter is
		     specified	by  name,  or  by  pattern with	the -m option.
		     This is on	by default for the parameters in  the  zsh/pa-
		     rameter and zsh/mapfile modules.  Note, however, that un-
		     like the -h flag this is also useful for non-special  pa-

	      -i [ n ]
		     Use  an internal integer representation.  If n is nonzero
		     it	defines	the output arithmetic base,  otherwise	it  is
		     determined	 by  the first assignment.  Bases from 2 to 36
		     inclusive are allowed.

	      -E [ n ]
		     Use an internal double-precision floating point represen-
		     tation.  On output	the variable will be converted to sci-
		     entific notation.	If n is	nonzero	it defines the	number
		     of	significant figures to display;	the default is ten.

	      -F [ n ]
		     Use an internal double-precision floating point represen-
		     tation.  On output	the  variable  will  be	 converted  to
		     fixed-point decimal notation.  If n is nonzero it defines
		     the number	of digits to display after the decimal	point;
		     the default is ten.

	      -l     Convert  the  result to lower case	whenever the parameter
		     is	expanded.  The value is	not converted when assigned.

	      -r     The given names are marked	readonly.  Note	that  if  name
		     is	 a  special  parameter,	 the readonly attribute	can be
		     turned on,	but cannot then	be turned off.

		     If	the POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, the readonly	attri-
		     bute  is  more restrictive: unset variables can be	marked
		     readonly and cannot then be set; furthermore,  the	 read-
		     only attribute cannot be removed from any variable.

		     It	 is  still  possible to	change other attributes	of the
		     variable though, some of which like -U or -Z would	affect
		     the  value. More generally, the readonly attribute	should
		     not be relied on as a security mechanism.

		     Note that in zsh (like in pdksh  but  unlike  most	 other
		     shells)  it  is still possible to create a	local variable
		     of	the same name as this is considered a different	 vari-
		     able (though this variable, too, can be marked readonly).
		     Special variables that have  been	made  readonly	retain
		     their value and readonly attribute	when made local.

	      -t     Tags  the named parameters.  Tags have no special meaning
		     to	the shell.  This flag has  a  different	 meaning  when
		     used with -f; see above.

	      -u     Convert  the  result to upper case	whenever the parameter
		     is	expanded.  The value is	not converted  when  assigned.
		     This  flag	has a different	meaning	when used with -f; see

	      -x     Mark for automatic	export to the  environment  of	subse-
		     quently  executed	commands.  If the option GLOBAL_EXPORT
		     is	set, this implies the option -g, unless	+g is also ex-
		     plicitly  given; in other words the parameter is not made
		     local to the enclosing function.  This is for compatibil-
		     ity with previous versions	of zsh.

       ulimit [	-HSa ] [ { -bcdfiklmnpqrsTtvwx | -N resource } [ limit ] ... ]
	      Set  or  display	resource limits	of the shell and the processes
	      started by the shell.  The value of limit	can be a number	in the
	      unit specified below or one of the values	`unlimited', which re-
	      moves the	limit on the resource, or `hard', which	uses the  cur-
	      rent value of the	hard limit on the resource.

	      By  default, only	soft limits are	manipulated. If	the -H flag is
	      given use	hard limits instead of soft limits.  If	the -S flag is
	      given together with the -H flag set both hard and	soft limits.

	      If no options are	used, the file size limit (-f) is assumed.

	      If limit is omitted the current value of the specified resources
	      are printed.  When more than one resource	value is printed,  the
	      limit name and unit is printed before each value.

	      When looping over	multiple resources, the	shell will abort imme-
	      diately if it detects a badly formed argument.  However,	if  it
	      fails to set a limit for some other reason it will continue try-
	      ing to set the remaining limits.

	      Not all the following resources are supported  on	 all  systems.
	      Running ulimit -a	will show which	are supported.

	      -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
	      -b     Socket buffer size	in bytes (N.B. not kilobytes)
	      -c     512-byte blocks on	the size of core dumps.
	      -d     Kilobytes on the size of the data segment.
	      -f     512-byte blocks on	the size of files written.
	      -i     The number	of pending signals.
	      -k     The number	of kqueues allocated.
	      -l     Kilobytes on the size of locked-in	memory.
	      -m     Kilobytes on the size of physical memory.
	      -n     open file descriptors.
	      -p     The number	of pseudo-terminals.
	      -q     Bytes in POSIX message queues.
	      -r     Maximum  real  time priority.  On some systems where this
		     is	not available, such as NetBSD, this has	the  same  ef-
		     fect as -T	for compatibility with sh.
	      -s     Kilobytes on the size of the stack.
	      -T     The number	of simultaneous	threads	available to the user.
	      -t     CPU seconds to be used.
	      -u     The number	of processes available to the user.
	      -v     Kilobytes on the size of virtual memory.  On some systems
		     this refers to the	limit called `address space'.
	      -w     Kilobytes on the size of swapped out memory.
	      -x     The number	of locks on files.

	      A	resource may also be specified by integer in the form `-N  re-
	      source',	where  resource	corresponds to the integer defined for
	      the resource by the operating system.  This may be used  to  set
	      the  limits for resources	known to the shell which do not	corre-
	      spond to option letters.	Such limits will be shown by number in
	      the output of `ulimit -a'.

	      The  number may alternatively be out of the range	of limits com-
	      piled into the shell.  The shell will try	to read	or  write  the
	      limit anyway, and	will report an error if	this fails.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
	      The umask	is set to mask.	 mask can be either an octal number or
	      a	symbolic value as described in chmod(1).  If mask is  omitted,
	      the  current value is printed.  The -S option causes the mask to
	      be printed as a symbolic value.  Otherwise, the mask is  printed
	      as  an octal number.  Note that in the symbolic form the permis-
	      sions you	specify	are those which	are to be allowed (not denied)
	      to the users specified.

       unalias [ -ams ]	name ...
	      Removes  aliases.	 This command works the	same as	unhash -a, ex-
	      cept that	the -a option removes all regular or  global  aliases,
	      or  with	-s  all	suffix aliases:	in this	case no	name arguments
	      may appear.  The options -m (remove by pattern) and  -s  without
	      -a (remove listed	suffix aliases)	behave as for unhash -a.  Note
	      that the meaning of -a is	different between unalias and unhash.

	      Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [	-adfms ] name ...
	      Remove the element named name from an internal hash table.   The
	      default  is remove elements from the command hash	table.	The -a
	      option causes unhash to remove regular or	global	aliases;  note
	      when  removing a global aliases that the argument	must be	quoted
	      to prevent it from being expanded	before	being  passed  to  the
	      command.	 The -s	option causes unhash to	remove suffix aliases.
	      The -f option causes unhash to remove shell functions.   The  -d
	      options  causes  unhash  to remove named directories.  If	the -m
	      flag is given the	arguments are taken  as	 patterns  (should  be
	      quoted)  and  all	 elements of the corresponding hash table with
	      matching names will be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource	...
	      The resource limit for each resource is set to the  hard	limit.
	      If  the  -h  flag	 is given and the shell	has appropriate	privi-
	      leges, the hard resource limit for  each	resource  is  removed.
	      The  resources  of  the shell process are	only changed if	the -s
	      flag is given.

	      The unlimit command is not made available	by  default  when  the
	      shell  starts in a mode emulating	another	shell.	It can be made
	      available	with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:unlimit'.

       unset [ -fmv ] name ...
	      Each named parameter is unset.  Local  parameters	 remain	 local
	      even  if unset; they appear unset	within scope, but the previous
	      value will still reappear	when the scope ends.

	      Individual elements of associative array parameters may be unset
	      by  using	 subscript  syntax on name, which should be quoted (or
	      the entire command prefixed with noglob)	to  protect  the  sub-
	      script from filename generation.

	      If  the -m flag is specified the arguments are taken as patterns
	      (should be quoted) and all parameters with  matching  names  are
	      unset.  Note that	this cannot be used when unsetting associative
	      array elements, as the subscript will be treated as part of  the

	      The  -v  flag  specifies that name refers	to parameters. This is
	      the default behaviour.

	      unset -f is equivalent to	unfunction.

       unsetopt	[ {+|-}options | {+|-}o	option_name ] [	name ... ]
	      Unset the	options	for the	shell.	All options  specified	either
	      with  flags or by	name are unset.	 If no arguments are supplied,
	      the names	of all options currently unset are printed.  If	the -m
	      flag  is given the arguments are taken as	patterns (which	should
	      be quoted	to preserve them from being interpreted	as  glob  pat-
	      terns),  and  all	options	with names matching these patterns are

       vared  See the section `Zle Builtins' in	zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
	      Wait for the specified jobs or processes.	 If job	is  not	 given
	      then  all	currently active child processes are waited for.  Each
	      job can be either	a job specification or the process ID of a job
	      in  the job table.  The exit status from this command is that of
	      the job waited for.  If job represents an	unknown	job or process
	      ID,  a  warning  is printed (unless the POSIX_BUILTINS option is
	      set) and the exit	status is 127.

	      It is possible  to  wait	for  recent  processes	(specified  by
	      process ID, not by job) that were	running	in the background even
	      if the process has exited.  Typically the	 process  ID  will  be
	      recorded	by  capturing the value	of the variable	$! immediately
	      after the	process	has been started.  There is  a	limit  on  the
	      number  of process IDs remembered	by the shell; this is given by
	      the value	of the system configuration parameter CHILD_MAX.  When
	      this  limit  is  reached,	older process IDs are discarded, least
	      recently started processes first.

	      Note there is no protection against  the	process	 ID  wrapping,
	      i.e.  if	the wait is not	executed soon enough there is a	chance
	      the process waited for is	the wrong  one.	  A  conflict  implies
	      both process IDs have been generated by the shell, as other pro-
	      cesses are not recorded, and that	the user is potentially	inter-
	      ested in both, so	this problem is	intrinsic to process IDs.

       whence [	-vcwfpamsS ] [ -x num ]	name ...
	      For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a
	      command name.

	      If name is not an	alias,	built-in  command,  external  command,
	      shell  function,	hashed	command,  or a reserved	word, the exit
	      status shall be non-zero,	and -- if -v, -c, or -w	was passed  --
	      a	 message will be written to standard output.  (This is differ-
	      ent from other shells that write that message  to	 standard  er-

	      whence  is most useful when name is only the last	path component
	      of a command, i.e. does not include a `/'; in  particular,  pat-
	      tern  matching only succeeds if just the non-directory component
	      of the command is	passed.

	      -v     Produce a more verbose report.

	      -c     Print the results	in  a  csh-like	 format.   This	 takes
		     precedence	over -v.

	      -w     For  each	name,  print `name: word' where	word is	one of
		     alias, builtin, command, function,	 hashed,  reserved  or
		     none,  according  as  name	 corresponds  to  an  alias, a
		     built-in command, an external command, a shell  function,
		     a command defined with the	hash builtin, a	reserved word,
		     or	is not recognised.  This takes precedence over -v  and

	      -f     Causes  the contents of a shell function to be displayed,
		     which would otherwise not happen unless the -c flag  were

	      -p     Do	 a  path  search  for name even	if it is an alias, re-
		     served word, shell	function or builtin.

	      -a     Do	a search for all occurrences of	 name  throughout  the
		     command  path.   Normally	only  the  first occurrence is

	      -m     The arguments are taken as	patterns  (pattern  characters
		     should  be	 quoted), and the information is displayed for
		     each command matching one of these	patterns.

	      -s     If	a pathname contains symlinks, print  the  symlink-free
		     pathname as well.

	      -S     As	 -s, but if the	pathname had to	be resolved by follow-
		     ing  multiple  symlinks,  the  intermediate   steps   are
		     printed, too.  The	symlink	resolved at each step might be
		     anywhere in the path.

	      -x num Expand tabs when outputting shell functions using the  -c
		     option.  This has the same	effect as the -x option	to the
		     functions builtin.

       where [ -wpmsS ]	[ -x num ] name	...
	      Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpamsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
	      Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile	[ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R	| -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile	-ca [ -m ] [ -R	| -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile	-t file	[ name ... ]
	      This builtin  command  can  be  used  to	compile	 functions  or
	      scripts,	storing	 the  compiled	form in	a file,	and to examine
	      files containing the compiled  form.   This  allows  faster  au-
	      toloading	of functions and sourcing of scripts by	avoiding pars-
	      ing of the text when the files are read.

	      The first	form (without the -c, -a or -t options)	creates	a com-
	      piled file.  If only the file argument is	given, the output file
	      has the name `file.zwc' and will be placed in the	same directory
	      as  the  file.  The shell	will load the compiled file instead of
	      the normal function file when the	function  is  autoloaded;  see
	      the section `Autoloading Functions' in zshmisc(1)	for a descrip-
	      tion of how autoloaded functions are  searched.	The  extension
	      .zwc stands for `zsh word	code'.

	      If  there	is at least one	name argument, all the named files are
	      compiled into the	output file given as the first	argument.   If
	      file  does  not end in .zwc, this	extension is automatically ap-
	      pended.  Files containing	multiple compiled functions are	called
	      `digest'	files,	and are	intended to be used as elements	of the
	      FPATH/fpath special array.

	      The second form, with the	-c or -a options, writes the  compiled
	      definitions  for all the named functions into file.  For -c, the
	      names must be functions currently	 defined  in  the  shell,  not
	      those  marked  for  autoloading.	 Undefined  functions that are
	      marked for autoloading may be written by using the -a option, in
	      which case the fpath is searched and the contents	of the defini-
	      tion files for those functions,  if  found,  are	compiled  into
	      file.   If both -c and -a	are given, names of both defined func-
	      tions and	functions marked for autoloading may be	given.	In ei-
	      ther  case, the functions	in files written with the -c or	-a op-
	      tion will	be autoloaded as if the	KSH_AUTOLOAD option  were  un-

	      The reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded	functions with
	      different	options	is that	some definition	files for  autoloading
	      define  multiple functions, including the	function with the same
	      name as the file,	and, at	the end, call that function.  In  such
	      cases  the  output  of  `zcompile	-c' does not include the addi-
	      tional functions defined in the file, and	any other  initializa-
	      tion code	in the file is lost.  Using `zcompile -a' captures all
	      this extra information.

	      If the -m	option is combined with	-c or -a, the names  are  used
	      as  patterns  and	 all  functions	whose names match one of these
	      patterns will be written.	If no name is given,  the  definitions
	      of  all functions	currently defined or marked as autoloaded will
	      be written.

	      Note the second form cannot be used for compiling	functions that
	      include  redirections  as	 part  of  the	definition rather than
	      within the body of the function; for example

		     fn1() { { ... } >~/logfile	}

	      can be compiled but

		     fn1() { ... } >~/logfile

	      cannot.  It is possible to use the first	form  of  zcompile  to
	      compile  autoloadable  functions	that include the full function
	      definition instead of just the body of the function.

	      The third	form, with the -t option, examines  an	existing  com-
	      piled  file.  Without further arguments, the names of the	origi-
	      nal files	compiled into it are listed.  The first	line of	output
	      shows  the  version of the shell which compiled the file and how
	      the file will be used (i.e. by reading it	directly or by mapping
	      it  into memory).	 With arguments, nothing is output and the re-
	      turn status is set to zero if definitions	 for  all  names  were
	      found  in	 the compiled file, and	non-zero if the	definition for
	      at least one name	was not	found.

	      Other options:

	      -U     Aliases are not expanded when compiling the named files.

	      -R     When the compiled file is read, its contents  are	copied
		     into  the	shell's	memory,	rather than memory-mapped (see
		     -M).  This	happens	automatically on systems that  do  not
		     support memory mapping.

		     When compiling scripts instead of autoloadable functions,
		     it	is often desirable to use this option;	otherwise  the
		     whole  file, including the	code to	define functions which
		     have already been defined,	 will  remain  mapped,	conse-
		     quently wasting memory.

	      -M     The  compiled file	is mapped into the shell's memory when
		     read. This	is done	in such	a way that multiple  instances
		     of	 the  shell  running  on the same host will share this
		     mapped file.  If neither -R nor -M	is given, the zcompile
		     builtin  decides what to do based on the size of the com-
		     piled file.

	      -z     These options are used when the  compiled	file  contains
		     functions which are to be autoloaded. If -z is given, the
		     function will be autoloaded as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD	option
		     is	 not  set,  even if it is set at the time the compiled
		     file is read, while if the	-k is given, the function will
		     be	 loaded	as if KSH_AUTOLOAD is set.  These options also
		     take precedence over any -k or -z	options	 specified  to
		     the  autoload  builtin.  If  neither  of these options is
		     given, the	function will be loaded	as determined  by  the
		     setting  of  the KSH_AUTOLOAD option at the time the com-
		     piled file	is read.

		     These options may also appear as many times as  necessary
		     between  the listed names to specify the loading style of
		     all following functions, up to the	next -k	or -z.

		     The created file always contains two versions of the com-
		     piled  format,  one  for  big-endian machines and one for
		     small-endian machines.  The upshot	of this	 is  that  the
		     compiled file is machine independent and if it is read or
		     mapped, only one half of the file is actually  used  (and

	      See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in	zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section `The zsh/zftp Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section `Zle Builtins' in	zshzle(1).

       zmodload	[ -dL ]	[ -s ] [ ... ]
       zmodload	-F [ -alLme -P param ] module [	[+-]feature ...	]
       zmodload	-e [ -A	] [ ...	]
       zmodload	[ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ]	[ -iL ]	...
       zmodload	-u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [	-iL ] ...
       zmodload	-A [ -L	] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload	-R modalias ...
	      Performs operations relating to zsh's loadable modules.  Loading
	      of modules while the shell is running (`dynamical	 loading')  is
	      not  available on	all operating systems, or on all installations
	      on a particular operating	system,	although the zmodload  command
	      itself is	always available and can be used to manipulate modules
	      built into versions of the shell	executable  without  dynamical

	      Without  arguments the names of all currently loaded binary mod-
	      ules are printed.	 The -L	option causes this list	to be  in  the
	      form  of	a  series  of zmodload commands.  Forms	with arguments

	      zmodload [ -is ] name ...
	      zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
		     In	the simplest case, zmodload  loads  a  binary  module.
		     The  module  must	be in a	file with a name consisting of
		     the specified name	followed by a standard suffix, usually
		     `.so' (`.sl' on HPUX).  If	the module to be loaded	is al-
		     ready loaded the duplicate	module is ignored.   If	 zmod-
		     load  detects an inconsistency, such as an	invalid	module
		     name or circular dependency list, the current code	 block
		     is	 aborted.  If it is available, the module is loaded if
		     necessary,	while if it is not available, non-zero	status
		     is	silently returned.  The	option -i is accepted for com-
		     patibility	but has	no effect.

		     The named module is searched for in the same way  a  com-
		     mand  is,	using $module_path instead of $path.  However,
		     the path search is	performed even when  the  module  name
		     contains  a  `/', which it	usually	does.  There is	no way
		     to	prevent	the path search.

		     If	the module supports  features  (see  below),  zmodload
		     tries  to	enable all features when loading a module.  If
		     the module	was successfully loaded	but not	 all  features
		     could be enabled, zmodload	returns	status 2.

		     If	 the  option  -s  is given, no error is	printed	if the
		     module was	not available (though other errors  indicating
		     a	problem	with the module	are printed).  The return sta-
		     tus indicates if the module was loaded.  This  is	appro-
		     priate if the caller considers the	module optional.

		     With -u, zmodload unloads modules.	 The same name must be
		     given that	was given when the module was loaded,  but  it
		     is	not necessary for the module to	exist in the file sys-
		     tem.  The -i option suppresses the	error if the module is
		     already unloaded (or was never loaded).

		     Each  module has a	boot and a cleanup function.  The mod-
		     ule will not be loaded if its boot	function fails.	 Simi-
		     larly  a module can only be unloaded if its cleanup func-
		     tion runs successfully.

	      zmodload -F [ -almLe -P param ] module [ [+-]feature ... ]
		     zmodload -F allows	more selective control over  the  fea-
		     tures  provided  by  modules.  With no options apart from
		     -F, the module named module is loaded, if it was not  al-
		     ready  loaded, and	the list of features is	set to the re-
		     quired state.  If no features are specified,  the	module
		     is	loaded,	if it was not already loaded, but the state of
		     features is unchanged.  Each feature may be preceded by a
		     +	to  turn the feature on, or - to turn it off; the + is
		     assumed if	neither	character is present.  Any feature not
		     explicitly	mentioned is left in its current state;	if the
		     module was	not previously loaded this means any such fea-
		     tures will	remain disabled.  The return status is zero if
		     all features were set, 1 if the module  failed  to	 load,
		     and  2  if	some features could not	be set (for example, a
		     parameter couldn't	be added because there was a different
		     parameter of the same name) but the module	was loaded.

		     The  standard  features are builtins, conditions, parame-
		     ters and math functions; these are	indicated by the  pre-
		     fix  `b:',	 `c:'  (`C:' for an infix condition), `p:' and
		     `f:', respectively, followed by the name that the	corre-
		     sponding  feature	would have in the shell.  For example,
		     `b:strftime'  indicates  a	 builtin  named	 strftime  and
		     p:EPOCHSECONDS  indicates a parameter named EPOCHSECONDS.
		     The module	may provide other (`abstract') features	of its
		     own as indicated by its documentation; these have no pre-

		     With -l or	 -L,  features	provided  by  the  module  are
		     listed.   With -l alone, a	list of	features together with
		     their states is shown, one	feature	 per  line.   With  -L
		     alone,  a	zmodload  -F  command that would cause enabled
		     features of the module to be turned on  is	 shown.	  With
		     -lL,  a zmodload -F command that would cause all the fea-
		     tures to be set to	their current state is shown.  If  one
		     of	 these	combinations is	given with the option -P param
		     then the parameter	param is set to	an array of  features,
		     either features together with their state or (if -L alone
		     is	given) enabled features.

		     With the option -L	the module name	may be omitted;	then a
		     list  of  all  enabled features for all modules providing
		     features is printed in the	form of	zmodload -F  commands.
		     If	 -l  is	also given, the	state of both enabled and dis-
		     abled features is output in that form.

		     A set of features may be provided together	with -l	or  -L
		     and  a  module name; in that case only the	state of those
		     features is considered.  Each feature may be preceded  by
		     +	or  -  but  the	character has no effect.  If no	set of
		     features is provided, all features	are considered.

		     With -e, the command  first  tests	 that  the  module  is
		     loaded;  if it is not, status 1 is	returned.  If the mod-
		     ule is loaded, the	list of	features given as an  argument
		     is	 examined.  Any	feature	given with no prefix is	simply
		     tested to see if the  module  provides  it;  any  feature
		     given  with  a  prefix + or - is tested to	see if is pro-
		     vided and in the given state.  If the tests on  all  fea-
		     tures  in	the  list  succeed, status 0 is	returned, else
		     status 1.

		     With -m, each entry in the	 given	list  of  features  is
		     taken as a	pattern	to be matched against the list of fea-
		     tures provided by the module.  An initial + or - must  be
		     given  explicitly.	  This may not be combined with	the -a
		     option as autoloads must be specified explicitly.

		     With -a, the given	list of	features  is  marked  for  au-
		     toload  from  the	specified module, which	may not	yet be
		     loaded.  An optional +  may  appear  before  the  feature
		     name.   If	 the  feature is prefixed with -, any existing
		     autoload is removed.  The options -l and -L may  be  used
		     to	list autoloads.	 Autoloading is	specific to individual
		     features; when the	module is loaded  only	the  requested
		     feature  is  enabled.  Autoload requests are preserved if
		     the module	is subsequently	 unloaded  until  an  explicit
		     `zmodload	-Fa  module -feature' is issued.  It is	not an
		     error to request an autoload for a	feature	 of  a	module
		     that is already loaded.

		     When  the	module	is  loaded  each  autoload  is checked
		     against the features actually provided by the module;  if
		     the  feature  is  not  provided  the  autoload request is
		     deleted.  A warning message is output; if the  module  is
		     being loaded to provide a different feature, and that au-
		     toload is successful, there is no effect on the status of
		     the  current command.  If the module is already loaded at
		     the time when zmodload -Fa	is run,	an  error  message  is
		     printed and status	1 returned.

		     zmodload  -Fa  can	be used	with the -l, -L, -e and	-P op-
		     tions for listing and testing the existence of  autoload-
		     able features.  In	this case -l is	ignored	if -L is spec-
		     ified.  zmodload -FaL with	no module name lists autoloads
		     for all modules.

		     Note  that	 only standard features	as described above can
		     be	autoloaded; other features require the	module	to  be
		     loaded before enabling.

	      zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name	]
	      zmodload -d name dep ...
	      zmodload -ud name	[ dep ... ]
		     The -d option can be used to specify module dependencies.
		     The modules named in the second and subsequent  arguments
		     will be loaded before the module named in the first argu-

		     With -d and one argument, all dependencies	for that  mod-
		     ule are listed.  With -d and no arguments,	all module de-
		     pendencies	are listed.  This listing is by	default	 in  a
		     Makefile-like  format.  The -L option changes this	format
		     to	a list of zmodload -d commands.

		     If	-d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If
		     only  one	argument  is  given, all dependencies for that
		     module are	removed.

	      zmodload -ab [ -L	]
	      zmodload -ab [ -i	] name [ builtin ... ]
	      zmodload -ub [ -i	] builtin ...
		     The -ab option defines autoloaded builtins.   It  defines
		     the  specified  builtins.	 When any of those builtins is
		     called, the module	specified in  the  first  argument  is
		     loaded  and  all  its features are	enabled	(for selective
		     control of	features use `zmodload	-F  -a'	 as  described
		     above).   If  only	 the name is given, one	builtin	is de-
		     fined, with the same name as the module.	-i  suppresses
		     the  error	 if  the  builtin  is  already	defined	or au-
		     toloaded, but not if another builtin of the same name  is
		     already defined.

		     With  -ab	and  no	arguments, all autoloaded builtins are
		     listed, with the module  name  (if	 different)  shown  in
		     parentheses  after	 the  builtin  name.   The  -L	option
		     changes this format to a list of zmodload -a commands.

		     If	-b is used together with the  -u  option,  it  removes
		     builtins  previously defined with -ab.  This is only pos-
		     sible if the builtin is not yet  loaded.	-i  suppresses
		     the error if the builtin is already removed (or never ex-

		     Autoload requests are retained if the  module  is	subse-
		     quently unloaded until an explicit	`zmodload -ub builtin'
		     is	issued.

	      zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
	      zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name	[ cond ... ]
	      zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond	...
		     The -ac option is used  to	 define	 autoloaded  condition
		     codes.  The cond strings give the names of	the conditions
		     defined by	the module. The	optional -I option is used  to
		     define  infix condition names. Without this option	prefix
		     condition names are defined.

		     If	given no condition names, all defined names are	listed
		     (as  a  series  of	 zmodload commands if the -L option is

		     The -uc option removes definitions	for autoloaded	condi-

	      zmodload -ap [ -L	]
	      zmodload -ap [ -i	] name [ parameter ... ]
	      zmodload -up [ -i	] parameter ...
		     The  -p  option  is like the -b and -c options, but makes
		     zmodload work on autoloaded parameters instead.

	      zmodload -af [ -L	]
	      zmodload -af [ -i	] name [ function ... ]
	      zmodload -uf [ -i	] function ...
		     The -f option is like the -b, -p,	and  -c	 options,  but
		     makes zmodload work on autoloaded math functions instead.

	      zmodload -a [ -L ]
	      zmodload -a [ -i ] name [	builtin	... ]
	      zmodload -ua [ -i	] builtin ...
		     Equivalent	to -ab and -ub.

	      zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
		     The -e option without arguments lists all loaded modules;
		     if	the -A option is also  given,  module  aliases	corre-
		     sponding  to loaded modules are also shown.  If arguments
		     are provided, nothing is printed; the  return  status  is
		     set  to  zero if all strings given	as arguments are names
		     of	loaded modules and to one if at	least on string	is not
		     the  name	of  a loaded module.  This can be used to test
		     for the availability of things  implemented  by  modules.
		     In	 this case, any	aliases	are automatically resolved and
		     the -A flag is not	used.

	      zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
		     For each argument,	if both	modalias and module are	given,
		     define modalias to	be an alias for	the module module.  If
		     the module	modalias is ever subsequently  requested,  ei-
		     ther via a	call to	zmodload or implicitly,	the shell will
		     attempt to	load module instead.  If module	is not	given,
		     show  the	definition  of	modalias.  If no arguments are
		     given, list all defined module aliases.  When listing, if
		     the  -L  flag  was	 also  given, list the definition as a
		     zmodload command to recreate the alias.

		     The existence of aliases for modules is completely	 inde-
		     pendent  of  whether the name resolved is actually	loaded
		     as	a module: while	the alias exists, loading and  unload-
		     ing  the  module under any	alias has exactly the same ef-
		     fect as using the resolved	name, and does not affect  the
		     connection	 between the alias and the resolved name which
		     can be removed either by zmodload -R or by	redefining the
		     alias.   Chains of	aliases	(i.e. where the	first resolved
		     name is itself an alias) are valid	so long	as  these  are
		     not  circular.   As  the  aliases take the	same format as
		     module names, they	may include path separators:  in  this
		     case,  there  is  no requirement for any part of the path
		     named to exist as the alias will be resolved first.   For
		     example, `any/old/alias' is always	a valid	alias.

		     Dependencies  added to aliased modules are	actually added
		     to	the resolved module; these remain if the alias is  re-
		     moved.   It is valid to create an alias whose name	is one
		     of	the standard shell modules and	which  resolves	 to  a
		     different module.	However, if a module has dependencies,
		     it	will not be possible to	use  the  module  name	as  an
		     alias  as the module will already be marked as a loadable
		     module in its own right.

		     Apart from	the above, aliases can be used in the zmodload
		     command  anywhere	module	names  are required.  However,
		     aliases will not be shown in lists	of loaded modules with
		     a bare `zmodload'.

	      zmodload -R modalias ...
		     For each modalias argument	that was previously defined as
		     a module alias via	zmodload -A, delete the	alias.	If any
		     was  not defined, an error	is caused and the remainder of
		     the line is ignored.

	      Note that	zsh makes no distinction  between  modules  that  were
	      linked  into  the	shell and modules that are loaded dynamically.
	      In both cases this builtin command has to	be used	to make	avail-
	      able  the	 builtins  and other things defined by modules (unless
	      the module is autoloaded on these	 definitions).	This  is  true
	      even for systems that don't support dynamic loading of modules.

	      See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in	zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section `The zsh/zprof Module' in	zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section `The zsh/zpty Module' in zshmodules(1).

	      See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in	zshmodules(1).

	      See the section `The zsh/net/socket Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in	zshmodules(1).

       ztcp   See the section `The zsh/net/tcp Module' in zshmodules(1).

zsh 5.8.1		       February	12, 2022		ZSHBUILTINS(1)


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