Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages

  
 
  

home | help
ZSH(1)			    General Commands Manual			ZSH(1)

NAME
       zsh - the Z shell

OVERVIEW
       Because	zsh contains many features, the	zsh manual has been split into
       a number	of sections:

       zsh	    Zsh	overview (this section)
       zshroadmap   Informal introduction to the manual
       zshmisc	    Anything not fitting into the other	sections
       zshexpn	    Zsh	command	and parameter expansion
       zshparam	    Zsh	parameters
       zshoptions   Zsh	options
       zshbuiltins  Zsh	built-in functions
       zshzle	    Zsh	command	line editing
       zshcompwid   Zsh	completion widgets
       zshcompsys   Zsh	completion system
       zshcompctl   Zsh	completion control
       zshmodules   Zsh	loadable modules
       zshcalsys    Zsh	built-in calendar functions
       zshtcpsys    Zsh	built-in TCP functions
       zshzftpsys   Zsh	built-in FTP client
       zshcontrib   Additional zsh functions and utilities
       zshall	    Meta-man page containing all of the	above

DESCRIPTION
       Zsh is a	UNIX command interpreter (shell) usable	as an interactive  lo-
       gin  shell  and	as  a shell script command processor.  Of the standard
       shells, zsh most	closely	resembles ksh but includes many	 enhancements.
       Zsh has command line editing, builtin spelling correction, programmable
       command completion, shell functions (with autoloading), a history mech-
       anism, and a host of other features.

AUTHOR
       Zsh  was	 originally  written by	Paul Falstad <pf@zsh.org>.  Zsh	is now
       maintained by the members of the	zsh-workers  mailing  list  <zsh-work-
       ers@zsh.org>.   The  development	 is  currently	coordinated  by	 Peter
       Stephenson <pws@zsh.org>.  The coordinator can be contacted at <coordi-
       nator@zsh.org>, but matters relating to the code	should generally go to
       the mailing list.

AVAILABILITY
       Zsh is available	from the following anonymous FTP sites.	 These	mirror
       sites are kept frequently up to date.  The sites	marked with (H)	may be
       mirroring ftp.cs.elte.hu	instead	of the primary site.

       Primary site
	      ftp://ftp.zsh.org/pub/
	      http://www.zsh.org/pub/

       Australia
	      ftp://ftp.zsh.org/pub/
	      http://www.zsh.org/pub/
	      http://mirror.dejanseo.com.au/pub/zsh/

       Hungary
	      ftp://ftp.cs.elte.hu/pub/zsh/
	      http://www.cs.elte.hu/pub/zsh/

       The up-to-date source code is available via Git from Sourceforge.   See
       http://sourceforge.net/projects/zsh/  for  details.   A	summary	of in-
       structions for the archive can be found at http://zsh.sourceforge.net/.

MAILING	LISTS
       Zsh has 3 mailing lists:

       <zsh-announce@zsh.org>
	      Announcements about releases, major changes in the shell and the
	      monthly posting of the Zsh FAQ.  (moderated)

       <zsh-users@zsh.org>
	      User discussions.

       <zsh-workers@zsh.org>
	      Hacking, development, bug	reports	and patches.

       To subscribe or unsubscribe, send mail to the associated	administrative
       address for the mailing list.

       <zsh-announce-subscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-users-subscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-workers-subscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-announce-unsubscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-users-unsubscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-workers-unsubscribe@zsh.org>

       YOU ONLY	NEED TO	JOIN ONE OF THE	MAILING	LISTS AS THEY ARE NESTED.  All
       submissions  to	zsh-announce are automatically forwarded to zsh-users.
       All submissions to zsh-users are	automatically forwarded	 to  zsh-work-
       ers.

       If  you	have  problems subscribing/unsubscribing to any	of the mailing
       lists, send mail	to <listmaster@zsh.org>.  The mailing lists are	 main-
       tained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@kom.auc.dk>.

       The  mailing  lists  are	archived; the archives can be accessed via the
       administrative addresses	listed above.  There is	also a	hypertext  ar-
       chive,	maintained   by	  Geoff	  Wing	 <gcw@zsh.org>,	 available  at
       http://www.zsh.org/mla/.

THE ZSH	FAQ
       Zsh has a list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), maintained by Peter
       Stephenson  <pws@zsh.org>.   It	is  regularly  posted to the newsgroup
       comp.unix.shell and the zsh-announce mailing list.  The latest  version
       can    be    found   at	 any   of   the	  Zsh	FTP   sites,   or   at
       http://www.zsh.org/FAQ/.	 The contact address for  FAQ-related  matters
       is <faqmaster@zsh.org>.

THE ZSH	WEB PAGE
       Zsh  has	 a  web	page which is located at http://www.zsh.org/.  This is
       maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@zsh.org>,	 of  SunSITE  Denmark.
       The contact address for web-related matters is <webmaster@zsh.org>.

THE ZSH	USERGUIDE
       A  userguide is currently in preparation.  It is	intended to complement
       the manual, with	explanations and hints on issues where the manual  can
       be cabbalistic, hierographic, or	downright mystifying (for example, the
       word `hierographic' does	not exist).  It	can be viewed in  its  current
       state  at  http://zsh.sourceforge.net/Guide/.   At the time of writing,
       chapters	dealing	with startup files and their contents and the new com-
       pletion system were essentially complete.

THE ZSH	WIKI
       A  `wiki'  website for zsh has been created at http://www.zshwiki.org/.
       This is a site which can	be added to and	 modified  directly  by	 users
       without any special permission.	You can	add your own zsh tips and con-
       figurations.

INVOCATION
       The following flags are interpreted by the shell	when invoked to	deter-
       mine where the shell will read commands from:

       -c     Take  the	 first	argument  as a command to execute, rather than
	      reading commands from a script or	standard input.	 If  any  fur-
	      ther  arguments  are  given,  the	 first	one is assigned	to $0,
	      rather than being	used as	a positional parameter.

       -i     Force shell to be	interactive.  It is still possible to  specify
	      a	script to execute.

       -s     Force shell to read commands from	the standard input.  If	the -s
	      flag is not present and an argument is given, the	first argument
	      is taken to be the pathname of a script to execute.

       If  there are any remaining arguments after option processing, and nei-
       ther of the options -c or -s was	supplied, the first argument is	 taken
       as  the file name of a script containing	shell commands to be executed.
       If the option PATH_SCRIPT is set, and the file name does	not contain  a
       directory  path	(i.e.  there is	no `/' in the name), first the current
       directory and then the command path given  by  the  variable  PATH  are
       searched	 for  the  script.   If	the option is not set or the file name
       contains	a `/' it is used directly.

       After the first one or two arguments  have  been	 appropriated  as  de-
       scribed	above,	the remaining arguments	are assigned to	the positional
       parameters.

       For further options,  which  are	 common	 to  invocation	 and  the  set
       builtin,	see zshoptions(1).

       Options	may  be	specified by name using	the -o option.	-o acts	like a
       single-letter option, but takes a following string as the option	 name.
       For example,

	      zsh -x -o	shwordsplit scr

       runs  the  script  scr,	setting	the XTRACE option by the corresponding
       letter `-x' and the SH_WORD_SPLIT  option  by  name.   Options  may  be
       turned  off  by	name  by using +o instead of -o.  -o can be stacked up
       with preceding single-letter options, so	for example `-xo  shwordsplit'
       or `-xoshwordsplit' is equivalent to `-x	-o shwordsplit'.

       Options	may also be specified by name in GNU long option style,	`--op-
       tion-name'.  When this is done, `-' characters in the option  name  are
       permitted: they are translated into `_',	and thus ignored.  So, for ex-
       ample, `zsh --sh-word-split' invokes zsh	with the SH_WORD_SPLIT	option
       turned  on.   Like  other option	syntaxes, options can be turned	off by
       replacing the initial `-' with a	`+'; thus `+-sh-word-split' is equiva-
       lent  to	`--no-sh-word-split'.  Unlike other option syntaxes, GNU-style
       long options cannot be stacked with any other options, so  for  example
       `-x-shwordsplit'	 is  an	 error,	 rather	 than  being  treated like `-x
       --shwordsplit'.

       The special GNU-style option `--version'	is handled; it sends to	 stan-
       dard  output  the shell's version information, then exits successfully.
       `--help'	is also	handled; it sends to standard output a list of options
       that can	be used	when invoking the shell, then exits successfully.

       Option  processing  may	be finished, allowing following	arguments that
       start with `-' or `+' to	be treated as normal arguments,	in  two	 ways.
       Firstly,	 a lone	`-' (or	`+') as	an argument by itself ends option pro-
       cessing.	 Secondly, a special option `--' (or `+-'), which may be spec-
       ified  on its own (which	is the standard	POSIX usage) or	may be stacked
       with preceding options (so `-x-'	is equivalent to  `-x  --').   Options
       are not permitted to be stacked after `--' (so `-x-f' is	an error), but
       note the	GNU-style option form discussed	above,	where  `--shwordsplit'
       is permitted and	does not end option processing.

       Except  when  the sh/ksh	emulation single-letter	options	are in effect,
       the option `-b' (or `+b') ends option processing.  `-b' is  like	 `--',
       except that further single-letter options can be	stacked	after the `-b'
       and will	take effect as normal.

COMPATIBILITY
       Zsh tries to emulate sh or ksh when it is invoked as sh or ksh  respec-
       tively;	more  precisely,  it  looks at the first letter	of the name by
       which it	was invoked, excluding any initial `r' (assumed	to  stand  for
       `restricted'),  and  if	that  is `b', `s' or `k' it will emulate sh or
       ksh.  Furthermore, if invoked as	su (which happens on  certain  systems
       when  the  shell	 is executed by	the su command), the shell will	try to
       find an alternative name	from the SHELL environment variable  and  per-
       form emulation based on that.

       In sh and ksh compatibility modes the following parameters are not spe-
       cial and	not initialized	by the shell:  ARGC,  argv,  cdpath,  fignore,
       fpath,  HISTCHARS,  mailpath,  MANPATH,	manpath, path, prompt, PROMPT,
       PROMPT2,	PROMPT3, PROMPT4, psvar, status, watch.

       The usual zsh startup/shutdown scripts are not executed.	 Login	shells
       source /etc/profile followed by $HOME/.profile.	If the ENV environment
       variable	is set on  invocation,	$ENV  is  sourced  after  the  profile
       scripts.	 The value of ENV is subjected to parameter expansion, command
       substitution, and arithmetic expansion before being  interpreted	 as  a
       pathname.   Note	 that the PRIVILEGED option also affects the execution
       of startup files.

       The following options are set if	the shell is invoked  as  sh  or  ksh:
       NO_BAD_PATTERN,	  NO_BANG_HIST,	   NO_BG_NICE,	 NO_EQUALS,   NO_FUNC-
       TION_ARGZERO, GLOB_SUBST,  NO_GLOBAL_EXPORT,  NO_HUP,  INTERACTIVE_COM-
       MENTS,  KSH_ARRAYS,  NO_MULTIOS,	NO_NOMATCH, NO_NOTIFY, POSIX_BUILTINS,
       NO_PROMPT_PERCENT, RM_STAR_SILENT, SH_FILE_EXPANSION,  SH_GLOB,	SH_OP-
       TION_LETTERS,   SH_WORD_SPLIT.	 Additionally  the  BSD_ECHO  and  IG-
       NORE_BRACES options are set if zsh is invoked as	sh.  Also, the KSH_OP-
       TION_PRINT,   LOCAL_OPTIONS,   PROMPT_BANG,   PROMPT_SUBST   and	  SIN-
       GLE_LINE_ZLE options are	set if zsh is invoked as ksh.

RESTRICTED SHELL
       When the	basename of the	command	used to	invoke	zsh  starts  with  the
       letter  `r'  or the `-r'	command	line option is supplied	at invocation,
       the shell becomes  restricted.	Emulation  mode	 is  determined	 after
       stripping  the  letter `r' from the invocation name.  The following are
       disabled	in restricted mode:

       o      changing directories with	the cd builtin

       o      changing or unsetting the	EGID, EUID, GID,  HISTFILE,  HISTSIZE,
	      IFS,   LD_AOUT_LIBRARY_PATH,  LD_AOUT_PRELOAD,  LD_LIBRARY_PATH,
	      LD_PRELOAD, MODULE_PATH, module_path, PATH, path,	SHELL, UID and
	      USERNAME parameters

       o      specifying command names containing /

       o      specifying command pathnames using hash

       o      redirecting output to files

       o      using the	exec builtin command to	replace	the shell with another
	      command

       o      using jobs -Z to overwrite the shell process' argument and envi-
	      ronment space

       o      using  the ARGV0 parameter to override argv[0] for external com-
	      mands

       o      turning off restricted mode with set +r or unsetopt RESTRICTED

       These restrictions are enforced after  processing  the  startup	files.
       The  startup  files  should set up PATH to point	to a directory of com-
       mands which can be safely invoked in the	restricted environment.	  They
       may also	add further restrictions by disabling selected builtins.

       Restricted  mode	 can  also  be	activated  any time by setting the RE-
       STRICTED	option.	 This immediately enables  all	the  restrictions  de-
       scribed	above  even  if	 the shell still has not processed all startup
       files.

STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES
       Commands	are first read from /etc/zshenv; this  cannot  be  overridden.
       Subsequent behaviour is modified	by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options; the
       former affects all startup files, while the second only affects	global
       startup	files  (those  shown here with an path starting	with a /).  If
       one of the options is  unset  at	 any  point,  any  subsequent  startup
       file(s)	of the corresponding type will not be read.  It	is also	possi-
       ble for a file in  $ZDOTDIR  to	re-enable  GLOBAL_RCS.	Both  RCS  and
       GLOBAL_RCS are set by default.

       Commands	 are then read from $ZDOTDIR/.zshenv.  If the shell is a login
       shell, commands are read	from /etc/zprofile  and	 then  $ZDOTDIR/.zpro-
       file.   Then,  if  the  shell  is  interactive,	commands are read from
       /etc/zshrc and then $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc.  Finally, if the shell is a	 login
       shell, /etc/zlogin and $ZDOTDIR/.zlogin are read.

       When a login shell exits, the files $ZDOTDIR/.zlogout and then /etc/zl-
       ogout are read.	This happens with either an explicit exit via the exit
       or logout commands, or an implicit exit by reading end-of-file from the
       terminal.  However, if the shell	terminates  due	 to  exec'ing  another
       process,	the logout files are not read.	These are also affected	by the
       RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options.  Note also that the RCS option affects  the
       saving  of history files, i.e. if RCS is	unset when the shell exits, no
       history file will be saved.

       If ZDOTDIR is unset, HOME is used instead.  Files listed	above as being
       in /etc may be in another directory, depending on the installation.

       As /etc/zshenv is run for all instances of zsh, it is important that it
       be kept as small	as possible.  In particular, it	is a good idea to  put
       code  that does not need	to be run for every single shell behind	a test
       of the form `if [[ -o rcs ]]; then ...' so that it will not be executed
       when zsh	is invoked with	the `-f' option.

       Any  of	these files may	be pre-compiled	with the zcompile builtin com-
       mand (see zshbuiltins(1)).  If a	compiled file exists  (named  for  the
       original	 file plus the .zwc extension) and it is newer than the	origi-
       nal file, the compiled file will	be used	instead.

FILES
       $ZDOTDIR/.zshenv
       $ZDOTDIR/.zprofile
       $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc
       $ZDOTDIR/.zlogin
       $ZDOTDIR/.zlogout
       ${TMPPREFIX}*   (default	is /tmp/zsh*)
       /etc/zshenv
       /etc/zprofile
       /etc/zshrc
       /etc/zlogin
       /etc/zlogout    (installation-specific -	/etc is	the default)

SEE ALSO
       sh(1), csh(1), tcsh(1), rc(1), bash(1), ksh(1), zshbuiltins(1), zshcom-
       pwid(1),	 zshcompsys(1),	zshcompctl(1), zshexpn(1), zshmisc(1), zshmod-
       ules(1),	zshoptions(1), zshparam(1), zshzle(1)

       IEEE Standard for information Technology	-  Portable  Operating	System
       Interface  (POSIX)  - Part 2: Shell and Utilities, IEEE Inc, 1993, ISBN
       1-55937-255-9.

zsh 5.3.1		       December	21, 2016			ZSH(1)

NAME | OVERVIEW | DESCRIPTION | AUTHOR | AVAILABILITY | MAILING LISTS | THE ZSH FAQ | THE ZSH WEB PAGE | THE ZSH USERGUIDE | THE ZSH WIKI | INVOCATION | COMPATIBILITY | RESTRICTED SHELL | STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES | FILES | SEE ALSO

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=zsh&sektion=1&manpath=FreeBSD+12.0-RELEASE+and+Ports>

home | help