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ZSH(1)									ZSH(1)

NAME
       zsh - the Z shell

OVERVIEW
       Because	zsh contains many features, the	zsh manual has been split into
       a number	of sections:

       zsh	    Zsh	overview (this section)
       zshroadmap   Informal introduction to the manual
       zshmisc	    Anything not fitting into the other	sections
       zshexpn	    Zsh	command	and parameter expansion
       zshparam	    Zsh	parameters
       zshoptions   Zsh	options
       zshbuiltins  Zsh	built-in functions
       zshzle	    Zsh	command	line editing
       zshcompwid   Zsh	completion widgets
       zshcompsys   Zsh	completion system
       zshcompctl   Zsh	completion control
       zshmodules   Zsh	loadable modules
       zshcalsys    Zsh	built-in calendar functions
       zshtcpsys    Zsh	built-in TCP functions
       zshzftpsys   Zsh	built-in FTP client
       zshcontrib   Additional zsh functions and utilities
       zshall	    Meta-man page containing all of the	above

DESCRIPTION
       Zsh is a	UNIX command interpreter  (shell)  usable  as  an  interactive
       login  shell  and as a shell script command processor.  Of the standard
       shells, zsh most	closely	resembles ksh but includes many	 enhancements.
       Zsh has command line editing, builtin spelling correction, programmable
       command completion, shell functions (with autoloading), a history mech-
       anism, and a host of other features.

AUTHOR
       Zsh  was	 originally  written by	Paul Falstad <pf@zsh.org>.  Zsh	is now
       maintained by the members of the	zsh-workers  mailing  list  <zsh-work-
       ers@zsh.org>.   The  development	 is  currently	coordinated  by	 Peter
       Stephenson <pws@zsh.org>.  The coordinator can be contacted at <coordi-
       nator@zsh.org>, but matters relating to the code	should generally go to
       the mailing list.

AVAILABILITY
       Zsh is available	from the following anonymous FTP sites.	 These	mirror
       sites are kept frequently up to date.  The sites	marked with (H)	may be
       mirroring ftp.cs.elte.hu	instead	of the primary site.

       Primary site
	      ftp://ftp.zsh.org/pub/
	      http://www.zsh.org/pub/

       Australia
	      ftp://ftp.zsh.org/pub/
	      http://www.zsh.org/pub/
	      http://mirror.dejanseo.com.au/pub/zsh/

       Hungary
	      ftp://ftp.cs.elte.hu/pub/zsh/
	      http://www.cs.elte.hu/pub/zsh/

       The up-to-date source code is available via Git from Sourceforge.   See
       http://sourceforge.net/projects/zsh/   for   details.	A  summary  of
       instructions  for  the  archive	can  be	 found	at  http://zsh.source-
       forge.net/.

MAILING	LISTS
       Zsh has 3 mailing lists:

       <zsh-announce@zsh.org>
	      Announcements about releases, major changes in the shell and the
	      monthly posting of the Zsh FAQ.  (moderated)

       <zsh-users@zsh.org>
	      User discussions.

       <zsh-workers@zsh.org>
	      Hacking, development, bug	reports	and patches.

       To subscribe or unsubscribe, send mail to the associated	administrative
       address for the mailing list.

       <zsh-announce-subscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-users-subscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-workers-subscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-announce-unsubscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-users-unsubscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-workers-unsubscribe@zsh.org>

       YOU ONLY	NEED TO	JOIN ONE OF THE	MAILING	LISTS AS THEY ARE NESTED.  All
       submissions to zsh-announce are automatically forwarded	to  zsh-users.
       All  submissions	 to zsh-users are automatically	forwarded to zsh-work-
       ers.

       If you have problems subscribing/unsubscribing to any  of  the  mailing
       lists,  send mail to <listmaster@zsh.org>.  The mailing lists are main-
       tained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@kom.auc.dk>.

       The mailing lists are archived; the archives can	be  accessed  via  the
       administrative  addresses  listed above.	 There is also a hypertext ar-
       chive,  maintained  by	Geoff	Wing   <gcw@zsh.org>,	available   at
       http://www.zsh.org/mla/.

THE ZSH	FAQ
       Zsh has a list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), maintained by Peter
       Stephenson <pws@zsh.org>.  It is	 regularly  posted  to	the  newsgroup
       comp.unix.shell	and the	zsh-announce mailing list.  The	latest version
       can   be	  found	  at   any   of	  the	Zsh   FTP   sites,    or    at
       http://www.zsh.org/FAQ/.	  The  contact address for FAQ-related matters
       is <faqmaster@zsh.org>.

THE ZSH	WEB PAGE
       Zsh has a web page which	is located at  http://www.zsh.org/.   This  is
       maintained  by  Karsten	Thygesen <karthy@zsh.org>, of SunSITE Denmark.
       The contact address for web-related matters is <webmaster@zsh.org>.

THE ZSH	USERGUIDE
       A userguide is currently	in preparation.	 It is intended	to  complement
       the  manual, with explanations and hints	on issues where	the manual can
       be cabbalistic, hierographic, or	downright mystifying (for example, the
       word  `hierographic'  does not exist).  It can be viewed	in its current
       state at	http://zsh.sourceforge.net/Guide/.  At the  time  of  writing,
       chapters	dealing	with startup files and their contents and the new com-
       pletion system were essentially complete.

THE ZSH	WIKI
       A `wiki'	website	for zsh	has been created  at  http://www.zshwiki.org/.
       This  is	 a  site  which	can be added to	and modified directly by users
       without any special permission.	You can	add your own zsh tips and con-
       figurations.

INVOCATION
       The following flags are interpreted by the shell	when invoked to	deter-
       mine where the shell will read commands from:

       -c     Take the first argument as a command  to	execute,  rather  than
	      reading  commands	 from a	script or standard input.  If any fur-
	      ther arguments are given,	the  first  one	 is  assigned  to  $0,
	      rather than being	used as	a positional parameter.

       -i     Force  shell to be interactive.  It is still possible to specify
	      a	script to execute.

       -s     Force shell to read commands from	the standard input.  If	the -s
	      flag is not present and an argument is given, the	first argument
	      is taken to be the pathname of a script to execute.

       If there	are any	remaining arguments after option processing, and  nei-
       ther  of	the options -c or -s was supplied, the first argument is taken
       as the file name	of a script containing shell commands to be  executed.
       If  the option PATH_SCRIPT is set, and the file name does not contain a
       directory path (i.e. there is no	`/' in the name),  first  the  current
       directory  and  then  the  command  path	given by the variable PATH are
       searched	for the	script.	 If the	option is not set  or  the  file  name
       contains	a `/' it is used directly.

       After  the  first  one  or  two	arguments  have	 been  appropriated as
       described above,	the remaining arguments	are assigned to	the positional
       parameters.

       For  further  options,  which  are  common  to  invocation  and the set
       builtin,	see zshoptions(1).

       Options may be specified	by name	using the -o option.  -o acts  like  a
       single-letter  option, but takes	a following string as the option name.
       For example,

	      zsh -x -o	shwordsplit scr

       runs the	script scr, setting the	XTRACE	option	by  the	 corresponding
       letter  `-x'  and  the  SH_WORD_SPLIT  option  by name.	Options	may be
       turned off by name by using +o instead of -o.  -o  can  be  stacked  up
       with  preceding single-letter options, so for example `-xo shwordsplit'
       or `-xoshwordsplit' is equivalent to `-x	-o shwordsplit'.

       Options may also	be  specified  by  name	 in  GNU  long	option	style,
       `--option-name'.	  When this is done, `-' characters in the option name
       are permitted: they are translated into `_', and	thus ignored.  So, for
       example,	 `zsh  --sh-word-split'	 invokes  zsh  with  the SH_WORD_SPLIT
       option turned on.  Like other option syntaxes, options  can  be	turned
       off  by replacing the initial `-' with a	`+'; thus `+-sh-word-split' is
       equivalent to  `--no-sh-word-split'.   Unlike  other  option  syntaxes,
       GNU-style long options cannot be	stacked	with any other options,	so for
       example `-x-shwordsplit'	is an error, rather than  being	 treated  like
       `-x --shwordsplit'.

       The  special GNU-style option `--version' is handled; it	sends to stan-
       dard output the shell's version information, then  exits	 successfully.
       `--help'	is also	handled; it sends to standard output a list of options
       that can	be used	when invoking the shell, then exits successfully.

       Option processing may be	finished, allowing  following  arguments  that
       start  with  `-'	or `+' to be treated as	normal arguments, in two ways.
       Firstly,	a lone `-' (or `+') as an argument by itself ends option  pro-
       cessing.	 Secondly, a special option `--' (or `+-'), which may be spec-
       ified on	its own	(which is the standard POSIX usage) or may be  stacked
       with  preceding	options	 (so `-x-' is equivalent to `-x	--').  Options
       are not permitted to be stacked after `--' (so `-x-f' is	an error), but
       note  the  GNU-style option form	discussed above, where `--shwordsplit'
       is permitted and	does not end option processing.

       Except when the sh/ksh emulation	single-letter options are  in  effect,
       the  option  `-b' (or `+b') ends	option processing.  `-b' is like `--',
       except that further single-letter options can be	stacked	after the `-b'
       and will	take effect as normal.

COMPATIBILITY
       Zsh  tries to emulate sh	or ksh when it is invoked as sh	or ksh respec-
       tively; more precisely, it looks	at the first letter  of	 the  name  by
       which  it  was invoked, excluding any initial `r' (assumed to stand for
       `restricted'), and if that is `b', `s' or `k' it	 will  emulate	sh  or
       ksh.   Furthermore,  if invoked as su (which happens on certain systems
       when the	shell is executed by the su command), the shell	 will  try  to
       find  an	 alternative name from the SHELL environment variable and per-
       form emulation based on that.

       In sh and ksh compatibility modes the following parameters are not spe-
       cial  and  not  initialized  by the shell: ARGC,	argv, cdpath, fignore,
       fpath, HISTCHARS, mailpath, MANPATH,  manpath,  path,  prompt,  PROMPT,
       PROMPT2,	PROMPT3, PROMPT4, psvar, status, watch.

       The  usual zsh startup/shutdown scripts are not executed.  Login	shells
       source /etc/profile followed by $HOME/.profile.	If the ENV environment
       variable	 is  set  on  invocation,  $ENV	 is  sourced after the profile
       scripts.	 The value of ENV is subjected to parameter expansion, command
       substitution,  and  arithmetic  expansion before	being interpreted as a
       pathname.  Note that the	PRIVILEGED option also affects	the  execution
       of startup files.

       The  following  options	are  set if the	shell is invoked as sh or ksh:
       NO_BAD_PATTERN,	 NO_BANG_HIST,	 NO_BG_NICE,	NO_EQUALS,    NO_FUNC-
       TION_ARGZERO,  GLOB_SUBST,  NO_GLOBAL_EXPORT,  NO_HUP, INTERACTIVE_COM-
       MENTS, KSH_ARRAYS, NO_MULTIOS, NO_NOMATCH,  NO_NOTIFY,  POSIX_BUILTINS,
       NO_PROMPT_PERCENT,    RM_STAR_SILENT,	SH_FILE_EXPANSION,    SH_GLOB,
       SH_OPTION_LETTERS,  SH_WORD_SPLIT.   Additionally  the	BSD_ECHO   and
       IGNORE_BRACES  options  are  set	 if  zsh  is invoked as	sh.  Also, the
       KSH_OPTION_PRINT, LOCAL_OPTIONS,	 PROMPT_BANG,  PROMPT_SUBST  and  SIN-
       GLE_LINE_ZLE options are	set if zsh is invoked as ksh.

RESTRICTED SHELL
       When  the  basename  of	the command used to invoke zsh starts with the
       letter `r' or the `-r' command line option is supplied  at  invocation,
       the  shell  becomes  restricted.	  Emulation  mode  is determined after
       stripping the letter `r'	from the invocation name.  The	following  are
       disabled	in restricted mode:

       o      changing directories with	the cd builtin

       o      changing	or unsetting the PATH, path, MODULE_PATH, module_path,
	      SHELL, HISTFILE,	HISTSIZE,  GID,	 EGID,	UID,  EUID,  USERNAME,
	      LD_LIBRARY_PATH,	   LD_AOUT_LIBRARY_PATH,     LD_PRELOAD	   and
	      LD_AOUT_PRELOAD parameters

       o      specifying command names containing /

       o      specifying command pathnames using hash

       o      redirecting output to files

       o      using the	exec builtin command to	replace	the shell with another
	      command

       o      using jobs -Z to overwrite the shell process' argument and envi-
	      ronment space

       o      using the	ARGV0 parameter	to override argv[0] for	external  com-
	      mands

       o      turning off restricted mode with set +r or unsetopt RESTRICTED

       These  restrictions  are	 enforced  after processing the	startup	files.
       The startup files should	set up PATH to point to	a  directory  of  com-
       mands  which can	be safely invoked in the restricted environment.  They
       may also	add further restrictions by disabling selected builtins.

       Restricted  mode	 can  also  be	activated  any	time  by  setting  the
       RESTRICTED  option.   This  immediately	enables	 all  the restrictions
       described above even if the shell still has not processed  all  startup
       files.

STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES
       Commands	 are  first  read from /etc/zshenv; this cannot	be overridden.
       Subsequent behaviour is modified	by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options; the
       former  affects all startup files, while	the second only	affects	global
       startup files (those shown here with an path starting with  a  /).   If
       one  of	the  options  is  unset	 at  any point,	any subsequent startup
       file(s) of the corresponding type will not be read.  It is also	possi-
       ble  for	 a  file  in  $ZDOTDIR	to  re-enable GLOBAL_RCS. Both RCS and
       GLOBAL_RCS are set by default.

       Commands	are then read from $ZDOTDIR/.zshenv.  If the shell is a	 login
       shell,  commands	 are  read from	/etc/zprofile and then $ZDOTDIR/.zpro-
       file.  Then, if the  shell  is  interactive,  commands  are  read  from
       /etc/zshrc  and then $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc.  Finally, if the shell is a login
       shell, /etc/zlogin and $ZDOTDIR/.zlogin are read.

       When  a	login  shell  exits,  the  files  $ZDOTDIR/.zlogout  and  then
       /etc/zlogout  are  read.	 This happens with either an explicit exit via
       the exit	or logout commands, or an implicit exit	by reading end-of-file
       from  the  terminal.   However, if the shell terminates due to exec'ing
       another process,	the  logout  files  are	 not  read.   These  are  also
       affected	 by  the  RCS  and GLOBAL_RCS options.	Note also that the RCS
       option affects the saving of history files, i.e.	if RCS is  unset  when
       the shell exits,	no history file	will be	saved.

       If ZDOTDIR is unset, HOME is used instead.  Files listed	above as being
       in /etc may be in another directory, depending on the installation.

       As /etc/zshenv is run for all instances of zsh, it is important that it
       be  kept	as small as possible.  In particular, it is a good idea	to put
       code that does not need to be run for every single shell	behind a  test
       of the form `if [[ -o rcs ]]; then ...' so that it will not be executed
       when zsh	is invoked with	the `-f' option.

       Any of these files may be pre-compiled with the zcompile	 builtin  com-
       mand  (see  zshbuiltins(1)).   If a compiled file exists	(named for the
       original	file plus the .zwc extension) and it is	newer than the	origi-
       nal file, the compiled file will	be used	instead.

FILES
       $ZDOTDIR/.zshenv
       $ZDOTDIR/.zprofile
       $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc
       $ZDOTDIR/.zlogin
       $ZDOTDIR/.zlogout
       ${TMPPREFIX}*   (default	is /tmp/zsh*)
       /etc/zshenv
       /etc/zprofile
       /etc/zshrc
       /etc/zlogin
       /etc/zlogout    (installation-specific -	/etc is	the default)

SEE ALSO
       sh(1), csh(1), tcsh(1), rc(1), bash(1), ksh(1), zshbuiltins(1), zshcom-
       pwid(1),	zshcompsys(1), zshcompctl(1), zshexpn(1), zshmisc(1),  zshmod-
       ules(1),	zshoptions(1), zshparam(1), zshzle(1)

       IEEE  Standard  for  information	Technology - Portable Operating	System
       Interface (POSIX) - Part	2: Shell and Utilities,	IEEE Inc,  1993,  ISBN
       1-55937-255-9.

zsh 5.2			       December	2, 2015				ZSH(1)

NAME | OVERVIEW | DESCRIPTION | AUTHOR | AVAILABILITY | MAILING LISTS | THE ZSH FAQ | THE ZSH WEB PAGE | THE ZSH USERGUIDE | THE ZSH WIKI | INVOCATION | COMPATIBILITY | RESTRICTED SHELL | STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES | FILES | SEE ALSO

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