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zpool(1M)		System Administration Commands		     zpool(1M)

NAME
       zpool - configures ZFS storage pools

SYNOPSIS
       zpool [-?]

       zpool add [-fn] pool vdev ...

       zpool attach [-f] pool device new_device

       zpool clear pool	[device]

       zpool create [-fn] [-o property=value] ... [-O file-system-property=value]
	    ...	[-m mountpoint]	[-R root] pool vdev ...

       zpool destroy [-f] pool

       zpool detach pool device

       zpool export [-f] pool ...

       zpool get "all" | property[,...]	pool ...

       zpool history [-il] [pool] ...

       zpool import [-d	dir] [-D]

       zpool import [-o	mntopts] [-o property=value] ... [-d dir | -c cachefile]
	    [-D] [-f] [-R root]	-a

       zpool import [-o	mntopts] [-o property=value] ... [-d dir | -c cachefile]
	    [-D] [-f] [-R root]	pool |id [newpool]

       zpool iostat [-T	u | d ]	[-v] [pool] ...	[interval[count]]

       zpool labelclear	[-f] device

       zpool list [-H] [-o property[,...]] [pool] ...

       zpool offline [-t] pool device ...

       zpool online pool device	...

       zpool remove pool device	...

       zpool replace [-f] pool device [new_device]

       zpool scrub [-s]	pool ...

       zpool set property=value	pool

       zpool status [-xv] [pool] ...

       zpool upgrade

       zpool upgrade -v

       zpool upgrade [-V version] -a | pool ...

DESCRIPTION
       The  zpool  command  configures	ZFS storage pools. A storage pool is a
       collection of devices that provides physical storage and	data  replica-
       tion for	ZFS datasets.

       All  datasets  within  a	storage	pool share the same space. See zfs(1M)
       for information on managing datasets.

   Virtual Devices (vdevs)
       A "virtual device" describes a single device or a collection of devices
       organized  according  to	certain	performance and	fault characteristics.
       The following virtual devices are supported:

       disk	 A block device, typically located under /dev/dsk. ZFS can use
		 individual  slices or partitions, though the recommended mode
		 of operation is to use	whole disks. A disk can	 be  specified
		 by  a	full path, or it can be	a shorthand name (the relative
		 portion of the	path under "/dev/dsk").	A whole	 disk  can  be
		 specified by omitting the slice or partition designation. For
		 example, "c0t0d0" is equivalent to "/dev/dsk/c0t0d0s2".  When
		 given	a  whole  disk,	 ZFS automatically labels the disk, if
		 necessary.

       file	 A regular file. The use  of  files  as	 a  backing  store  is
		 strongly discouraged. It is designed primarily	for experimen-
		 tal purposes, as the fault tolerance of a  file  is  only  as
		 good as the file system of which it is	a part.	A file must be
		 specified by a	full path.

       mirror	 A mirror of two or more devices. Data	is  replicated	in  an
		 identical fashion across all components of a mirror. A	mirror
		 with N	disks of size X	can hold X  bytes  and	can  withstand
		 (N-1) devices failing before data integrity is	compromised.

       raidz	 A  variation on RAID-5	that allows for	better distribution of
       raidz1	 parity	and eliminates the "RAID-5 write hole" (in which  data
       raidz2	 and  parity become inconsistent after a power loss). Data and
       raidz3	 parity	is striped across all disks within a raidz group.

		 A raidz group can have	single-, double- , or  triple  parity,
		 meaning  that	the raidz group	can sustain one, two, or three
		 failures, respectively, without losing	any data.  The	raidz1
		 vdev  type  specifies a single-parity raidz group; the	raidz2
		 vdev type specifies a	double-parity  raidz  group;  and  the
		 raidz3	 vdev  type specifies a	triple-parity raidz group. The
		 raidz vdev type is an alias for raidz1.

		 A raidz group with N disks of size X with P parity disks  can
		 hold  approximately  (N-P)*X  bytes  and  can withstand P de-
		 vice(s) failing before	data  integrity	 is  compromised.  The
		 minimum  number  of devices in	a raidz	group is one more than
		 the number of parity disks. The recommended number is between
		 3 and 9 to help increase performance.

       spare	 A  special  pseudo-vdev  which	 keeps	track of available hot
		 spares	for a pool. For	more information, see the "Hot Spares"
		 section.

       log	 A  separate-intent log	device.	If more	than one log device is
		 specified, then writes	are load-balanced between devices. Log
		 devices  can  be  mirrored. However, raidz vdev types are not
		 supported for the intent log. For more	information,  see  the
		 "Intent Log" section.

       cache	 A device used to cache	storage	pool data. A cache device can-
		 not be	cannot be configured as	a mirror or raidz  group.  For
		 more information, see the "Cache Devices" section.

       Virtual	devices	 cannot	be nested, so a	mirror or raidz	virtual	device
       can only	contain	files or disks.	Mirrors	of mirrors (or other  combina-
       tions) are not allowed.

       A pool can have any number of virtual devices at	the top	of the config-
       uration (known as "root vdevs").	Data is	dynamically distributed	across
       all top-level devices to	balance	data among devices. As new virtual de-
       vices are added,	ZFS automatically places data on the  newly  available
       devices.

       Virtual	devices	are specified one at a time on the command line, sepa-
       rated by	whitespace. The	keywords "mirror" and "raidz" are used to dis-
       tinguish	 where	a group	ends and another begins. For example, the fol-
       lowing creates two root vdevs, each a mirror of two disks:

	 # zpool create	mypool mirror c0t0d0 c0t1d0 mirror c1t0d0 c1t1d0

   Device Failure and Recovery
       ZFS supports a rich set of mechanisms for handling device  failure  and
       data corruption.	All metadata and data is checksummed, and ZFS automat-
       ically repairs bad data from a good copy	when corruption	is detected.

       In order	to take	advantage of these features, a pool must make  use  of
       some  form  of redundancy, using	either mirrored	or raidz groups. While
       ZFS supports running in a non-redundant configuration, where each  root
       vdev  is	 simply	a disk or file,	this is	strongly discouraged. A	single
       case of bit corruption can render some or all of	your data unavailable.

       A pool's	health status is described by one of three states: online, de-
       graded,	or faulted. An online pool has all devices operating normally.
       A degraded pool is one in which one or more devices  have  failed,  but
       the data	is still available due to a redundant configuration. A faulted
       pool has	corrupted metadata, or one or more faulted devices, and	insuf-
       ficient replicas	to continue functioning.

       The  health  of	the top-level vdev, such as mirror or raidz device, is
       potentially impacted by the state of its	associated vdevs, or component
       devices.	 A top-level vdev or component device is in one	of the follow-
       ing states:

       DEGRADED	   One or more top-level vdevs is in the  degraded  state  be-
		   cause one or	more component devices are offline. Sufficient
		   replicas exist to continue functioning.

		   One or more component devices is in the degraded or faulted
		   state,  but sufficient replicas exist to continue function-
		   ing.	The underlying conditions are as follows:

		       o      The number of checksum errors exceeds acceptable
			      levels  and the device is	degraded as an indica-
			      tion that	something may be wrong.	ZFS  continues
			      to use the device	as necessary.

		       o      The number of I/O	errors exceeds acceptable lev-
			      els. The device could not	be marked  as  faulted
			      because  there are insufficient replicas to con-
			      tinue functioning.

       FAULTED	   One or more top-level vdevs is in the faulted state because
		   one	or  more  component  devices are offline. Insufficient
		   replicas exist to continue functioning.

		   One or more component devices is in the faulted state,  and
		   insufficient	 replicas  exist  to continue functioning. The
		   underlying conditions are as	follows:

		       o      The device could be opened, but the contents did
			      not match	expected values.

		       o      The number of I/O	errors exceeds acceptable lev-
			      els and the device is faulted to prevent further
			      use of the device.

       OFFLINE	   The	device was explicitly taken offline by the "zpool off-
		   line" command.

       ONLINE	   The device is online	and functioning.

       REMOVED	   The device was physically removed while the system was run-
		   ning.  Device  removal  detection is	hardware-dependent and
		   may not be supported	on all platforms.

       UNAVAIL	   The device could not	be opened. If a	pool is	imported  when
		   a  device  was unavailable, then the	device will be identi-
		   fied	by a unique identifier instead of its path  since  the
		   path	was never correct in the first place.

       If  a  device  is  removed and later re-attached	to the system, ZFS at-
       tempts to put the device	online automatically. Device attach  detection
       is hardware-dependent and might not be supported	on all platforms.

   Hot Spares
       ZFS  allows  devices to be associated with pools	as "hot	spares". These
       devices are not actively	used in	the pool, but when  an	active	device
       fails,  it  is  automatically replaced by a hot spare. To create	a pool
       with hot	spares,	specify	a "spare" vdev with any	number of devices. For
       example,

	 # zpool create	pool mirror c0d0 c1d0 spare c2d0 c3d0

       Spares  can  be shared across multiple pools, and can be	added with the
       "zpool add" command and removed with the	"zpool remove" command.	Once a
       spare  replacement  is  initiated, a new	"spare"	vdev is	created	within
       the configuration that will remain there	until the original  device  is
       replaced.  At  this point, the hot spare	becomes	available again	if an-
       other device fails.

       If a pool has a shared spare that is currently being used, the pool can
       not  be exported	since other pools may use this shared spare, which may
       lead to potential data corruption.

       An in-progress spare replacement	can be cancelled by detaching the  hot
       spare.  If  the original	faulted	device is detached, then the hot spare
       assumes its place in the	configuration, and is removed from  the	 spare
       list of all active pools.

       Spares cannot replace log devices.

   Intent Log
       The  ZFS	 Intent	Log (ZIL) satisfies POSIX requirements for synchronous
       transactions. For instance, databases often require their  transactions
       to  be on stable	storage	devices	when returning from a system call. NFS
       and other applications can also use fsync() to ensure  data  stability.
       By  default,  the  intent  log is allocated from	blocks within the main
       pool. However, it might be possible to  get  better  performance	 using
       separate	 intent	log devices such as NVRAM or a dedicated disk. For ex-
       ample:

	 # zpool create	pool c0d0 c1d0 log c2d0

       Multiple	log devices can	also be	specified, and they can	 be  mirrored.
       See  the	 EXAMPLES section for an example of mirroring multiple log de-
       vices.

       Log devices can be added, replaced, attached,  detached,	 and  imported
       and  exported  as  part of the larger pool. Mirrored log	devices	can be
       removed by specifying the top-level mirror for the log.

   Cache Devices
       Devices can be added to a storage pool as "cache	 devices."  These  de-
       vices  provide  an  additional layer of caching between main memory and
       disk. For read-heavy workloads, where the  working  set	size  is  much
       larger  than what can be	cached in main memory, using cache devices al-
       low much	more of	this working set to be served from low latency	media.
       Using  cache  devices provides the greatest performance improvement for
       random read-workloads of	mostly static content.

       To create a pool	with cache devices, specify a "cache"  vdev  with  any
       number of devices. For example:

	 # zpool create	pool c0d0 c1d0 cache c2d0 c3d0

       Cache devices cannot be mirrored	or part	of a raidz configuration. If a
       read error is encountered on a cache device, that read I/O is  reissued
       to  the original	storage	pool device, which might be part of a mirrored
       or raidz	configuration.

       The content of the cache	devices	is considered volatile,	as is the case
       with other system caches.

   Properties
       Each  pool  has	several	properties associated with it. Some properties
       are read-only statistics	while others are configurable and  change  the
       behavior	of the pool. The following are read-only properties:

       available	   Amount  of  storage available within	the pool. This
			   property can	also be	referred to by	its  shortened
			   column name,	"avail".

       capacity		   Percentage  of  pool	 space used. This property can
			   also	be referred to by its shortened	 column	 name,
			   "cap".

       health		   The	current	health of the pool. Health can be "ON-
			   LINE",  "DEGRADED",	"FAULTED",  "  OFFLINE",  "RE-
			   MOVED", or "UNAVAIL".

       guid		   A unique identifier for the pool.

       size		   Total size of the storage pool.

       used		   Amount of storage space used	within the pool.

       These  space usage properties report actual physical space available to
       the storage pool. The physical space can	be different  from  the	 total
       amount  of  space  that	any  contained	datasets can actually use. The
       amount of space used in a raidz configuration depends on	the character-
       istics  of the data being written. In addition, ZFS reserves some space
       for internal accounting that the	zfs(1M)	command	 takes	into  account,
       but  the	 zpool	command	 does  not. For	non-full pools of a reasonable
       size, these effects should be invisible.	For small pools, or pools that
       are close to being completely full, these discrepancies may become more
       noticeable.

       The following property can be set at creation time and import time:

       altroot

	   Alternate root directory. If	set, this directory  is	 prepended  to
	   any	mount  points within the pool. This can	be used	when examining
	   an unknown pool where the mount points cannot be trusted, or	in  an
	   alternate  boot environment,	where the typical paths	are not	valid.
	   altroot is not a persistent property. It is valid  only  while  the
	   system  is  up.  Setting  altroot defaults to using cachefile=none,
	   though this may be overridden     using an explicit setting.

       The following properties	can be set at creation time and	 import	 time,
       and later changed with the zpool	set command:

       autoexpand=on | off

	   Controls automatic pool expansion when the underlying LUN is	grown.
	   If set to on, the pool will be resized according to the size	of the
	   expanded  device.  If  the device is	part of	a mirror or raidz then
	   all devices within that mirror/raidz	group must be expanded	before
	   the	new  space is made available to	the pool. The default behavior
	   is off. This	property can also be referred to by its	shortened col-
	   umn name, expand.

       autoreplace=on |	off

	   Controls  automatic device replacement. If set to "off", device re-
	   placement must be initiated	by  the	 administrator	by  using  the
	   "zpool  replace"  command. If set to	"on", any new device, found in
	   the same physical location as a device that previously belonged  to
	   the	pool, is automatically formatted and replaced. The default be-
	   havior is "off". This property can  also  be	 referred  to  by  its
	   shortened column name, "replace".

       bootfs=pool/dataset

	   Identifies  the  default  bootable  dataset for the root pool. This
	   property is expected	to be set mainly by the	installation  and  up-
	   grade programs.

       cachefile=path |	none

	   Controls  the  location  of where the pool configuration is cached.
	   Discovering all pools on system startup requires a cached  copy  of
	   the	configuration data that	is stored on the root file system. All
	   pools in this cache are  automatically  imported  when  the	system
	   boots.  Some	 environments, such as install and clustering, need to
	   cache this information in a different location so  that  pools  are
	   not	automatically  imported. Setting this property caches the pool
	   configuration in a different	location that can  later  be  imported
	   with	"zpool import -c". Setting it to the special value "none" cre-
	   ates	a temporary pool that is never cached, and the	special	 value
	   '' (empty string) uses the default location.

	   Multiple  pools  can	 share the same	cache file. Because the	kernel
	   destroys and	recreates this file when pools are added and  removed,
	   care	 should	be taken when attempting to access this	file. When the
	   last	pool using a cachefile is exported or destroyed, the  file  is
	   removed.

       delegation=on | off

	   Controls  whether  a	non-privileged user is granted access based on
	   the dataset permissions defined on the  dataset.  See  zfs(1M)  for
	   more	information on ZFS delegated administration.

       failmode=wait | continue	| panic

	   Controls  the  system  behavior  in	the event of catastrophic pool
	   failure. This condition is typically	a result of a loss of  connec-
	   tivity  to the underlying storage device(s) or a failure of all de-
	   vices within	the pool. The behavior of such an event	is  determined
	   as follows:

	   wait	       Blocks  all I/O access until the	device connectivity is
		       recovered and the errors	are cleared. This is  the  de-
		       fault behavior.

	   continue    Returns	EIO  to	 any new write I/O requests but	allows
		       reads to	any of	the  remaining	healthy	 devices.  Any
		       write  requests	that  have yet to be committed to disk
		       would be	blocked.

	   panic       Prints out a message to the  console  and  generates  a
		       system crash dump.

       listsnaps=on | off

	   Controls  whether  information about	snapshots associated with this
	   pool	is output when "zfs list" is run without the  -t  option.  The
	   default value is "off".

       version=version

	   The current on-disk version of the pool. This can be	increased, but
	   never decreased. The	preferred method of updating pools is with the
	   "zpool  upgrade"  command,  though this property can	be used	when a
	   specific version is needed for backwards compatibility. This	 prop-
	   erty	 can  be any number between 1 and the current version reported
	   by "zpool upgrade -v".

   Subcommands
       All subcommands that modify state are logged persistently to  the  pool
       in their	original form.

       The  zpool  command  provides subcommands to create and destroy storage
       pools, add capacity to storage pools, and provide information about the
       storage pools. The following subcommands	are supported:

       zpool -?

	   Displays a help message.

       zpool add [-fn] pool vdev ...

	   Adds	 the  specified	 virtual  devices  to the given	pool. The vdev
	   specification is described in the "Virtual  Devices"	 section.  The
	   behavior  of	the -f option, and the device checks performed are de-
	   scribed in the "zpool create" subcommand.

	   -f	 Forces	use of vdevs, even if they appear in use or specify  a
		 conflicting  replication  level. Not all devices can be over-
		 ridden	in this	manner.

	   -n	 Displays the configuration that would be used	without	 actu-
		 ally  adding  the  vdevs.  The	actual pool creation can still
		 fail due to insufficient privileges or	device sharing.

	   Do not add a	disk that is currently configured as a	quorum	device
	   to a	zpool. After a disk is in the pool, that disk can then be con-
	   figured as a	quorum device.

       zpool attach [-f] pool device new_device

	   Attaches new_device to an existing zpool device. The	 existing  de-
	   vice	cannot be part of a raidz configuration. If device is not cur-
	   rently part	of  a  mirrored	 configuration,	 device	 automatically
	   transforms  into  a two-way mirror of device	and new_device.	If de-
	   vice	is part	of a two-way mirror, attaching	new_device  creates  a
	   three-way  mirror,  and so on. In either case, new_device begins to
	   resilver immediately.

	   -f	 Forces	use of new_device, even	if its appears to be  in  use.
		 Not all devices can be	overridden in this manner.

       zpool clear pool	[device] ...

	   Clears  device errors in a pool. If no arguments are	specified, all
	   device errors within	the pool are cleared. If one or	 more  devices
	   is  specified,  only	those errors associated	with the specified de-
	   vice	or devices are cleared.

       zpool create [-fn] [-o property=value] ... [-O file-system-prop-
       erty=value] ... [-m mountpoint] [-R root] pool vdev ...

	   Creates a new storage pool containing the virtual devices specified
	   on the command line.	The pool name must begin with  a  letter,  and
	   can	only  contain  alphanumeric  characters	 as well as underscore
	   ("_"), dash ("-"), and  period  (".").  The	pool  names  "mirror",
	   "raidz",  "spare"  and  "log"  are reserved,	as are names beginning
	   with	the pattern "c[0-9]". The vdev specification is	 described  in
	   the "Virtual	Devices" section.

	   The	command	 verifies that each device specified is	accessible and
	   not currently in use	by another subsystem.  There  are  some	 uses,
	   such	as being currently mounted, or specified as the	dedicated dump
	   device, that	prevents a device from ever being used by  ZFS.	 Other
	   uses, such as having	a preexisting UFS file system, can be overrid-
	   den with the	-f option.

	   The command also checks that	the replication	strategy for the  pool
	   is  consistent.  An	attempt	to combine redundant and non-redundant
	   storage in a	single pool, or	to mix disks and files,	results	in  an
	   error  unless -f is specified. The use of differently sized devices
	   within a single raidz or mirror group is also flagged as  an	 error
	   unless -f is	specified.

	   Unless  the	-R  option  is	specified,  the	default	mount point is
	   "/pool". The	mount point must not exist or must be empty,  or  else
	   the root dataset cannot be mounted. This can	be overridden with the
	   -m option.

	   -f

	       Forces use of vdevs, even if they appear	in use	or  specify  a
	       conflicting  replication	level. Not all devices can be overrid-
	       den in this manner.

	   -n

	       Displays	the configuration that would be	used without  actually
	       creating	 the pool. The actual pool creation can	still fail due
	       to insufficient privileges or device sharing.

	   -o property=value [-o property=value] ...

	       Sets the	given pool properties. See  the	 "Properties"  section
	       for a list of valid properties that can be set.

	   -O file-system-property=value
	   [-O file-system-property=value] ...

	       Sets  the  given	file system properties in the root file	system
	       of the pool. See	the "Properties" section of zfs(1M) for	a list
	       of valid	properties that	can be set.

	   -R root

	       Equivalent to "-o cachefile=none,altroot=root"

	   -m mountpoint

	       Sets  the  mount	 point for the root dataset. The default mount
	       point is	"/pool"	or "altroot/pool" if altroot is	specified. The
	       mount  point must be an absolute	path, "legacy",	or "none". For
	       more information	on dataset mount points, see zfs(1M).

       zpool destroy [-f] pool

	   Destroys the	given pool, freeing up any devices for other use. This
	   command  tries to unmount any active	datasets before	destroying the
	   pool.

	   -f	 Forces	any active datasets contained within the  pool	to  be
		 unmounted.

       zpool detach pool device

	   Detaches  device  from  a mirror. The operation is refused if there
	   are no other	valid replicas of the data.

       zpool export [-f] pool ...

	   Exports the given pools from	the system. All	devices	are marked  as
	   exported,  but are still considered in use by other subsystems. The
	   devices can be moved	between	systems	(even those of different endi-
	   anness)  and	imported as long as a sufficient number	of devices are
	   present.

	   Before exporting the	pool, all datasets within  the	pool  are  un-
	   mounted.  A	pool can not be	exported if it has a shared spare that
	   is currently	being used.

	   For pools to	be portable, you must give  the	 zpool	command	 whole
	   disks, not just slices, so that ZFS can label the disks with	porta-
	   ble EFI labels. Otherwise, disk drivers on platforms	 of  different
	   endianness will not recognize the disks.

	   -f	 Forcefully  unmount all datasets, using the "unmount -f" com-
		 mand.

		 This command will forcefully export the pool even if it has a
		 shared	 spare	that is	currently being	used. This may lead to
		 potential data	corruption.

       zpool get "all" | property[,...]	pool ...

	   Retrieves the given list of properties (or all properties if	 "all"
	   is  used)  for  the specified storage pool(s). These	properties are
	   displayed with the following	fields:

		    name	  Name of storage pool
		     property	   Property name
		     value	   Property value
		     source	   Property source, either 'default' or	'local'.

	   See the "Properties"	section	for more information on	the  available
	   pool	properties.

       zpool history [-il] [pool] ...

	   Displays the	command	history	of the specified pools or all pools if
	   no pool is specified.

	   -i	 Displays internally logged ZFS	events	in  addition  to  user
		 initiated events.

	   -l	 Displays  log	records	 in  long format, which	in addition to
		 standard format includes, the user name,  the	hostname,  and
		 the zone in which the operation was performed.

       zpool import [-d	dir | -c cachefile] [-D]

	   Lists pools available to import. If the -d option is	not specified,
	   this	command	searches for devices in	"/dev/dsk". The	-d option  can
	   be  specified  multiple times, and all directories are searched. If
	   the device appears to be part of an	exported  pool,	 this  command
	   displays a summary of the pool with the name	of the pool, a numeric
	   identifier, as well as the vdev layout and current  health  of  the
	   device  for	each  device or	file. Destroyed	pools, pools that were
	   previously destroyed	with the  "zpool  destroy"  command,  are  not
	   listed unless the -D	option is specified.

	   The	numeric	 identifier  is	unique,	and can	be used	instead	of the
	   pool	name when multiple exported pools of the same name are	avail-
	   able.

	   -c cachefile	   Reads  configuration	 from the given	cachefile that
			   was created with  the  "cachefile"  pool  property.
			   This	cachefile is used instead of searching for de-
			   vices.

	   -d dir	   Searches for	devices	or files in dir. The -d	option
			   can be specified multiple times.

	   -D		   Lists destroyed pools only.

       zpool import [-o	mntopts] [ -o property=value] ... [-d dir | -c
       cachefile] [-D] [-f] [-R	root] -a

	   Imports all pools found in the search directories. Identical	to the
	   previous command, except that all pools with	a sufficient number of
	   devices available are imported. Destroyed pools,  pools  that  were
	   previously  destroyed with the "zpool destroy" command, will	not be
	   imported unless the -D option is specified.

	   -o mntopts		Comma-separated	list of	mount options  to  use
				when  mounting	datasets  within the pool. See
				zfs(1M)	for a description of  dataset  proper-
				ties and mount options.

	   -o property=value	Sets  the  specified  property on the imported
				pool. See the "Properties"  section  for  more
				information on the available pool properties.

	   -c cachefile		Reads  configuration  from the given cachefile
				that was created  with	the  "cachefile"  pool
				property.  This	 cachefile  is used instead of
				searching for devices.

	   -d dir		Searches for devices or	files in dir.  The  -d
				option	can  be	specified multiple times. This
				option is incompatible with the	-c option.

	   -D			Imports	destroyed pools	only. The -f option is
				also required.

	   -f			Forces	import,	even if	the pool appears to be
				potentially active.

	   -a			Searches for and imports all pools found.

	   -R root		Sets the "cachefile" property  to  "none"  and
				the "altroot" property to "root".

       zpool import [-o	mntopts] [ -o property=value] ... [-d dir | -c
       cachefile] [-D] [-f] [-R	root] pool | id	[newpool]

	   Imports a specific pool. A pool can be identified by	 its  name  or
	   the	numeric	 identifier.  If newpool is specified, the pool	is im-
	   ported using	the name newpool. Otherwise, it	is imported  with  the
	   same	name as	its exported name.

	   If a	device is removed from a system	without	running	"zpool export"
	   first, the device appears as	potentially active. It cannot  be  de-
	   termined  if	this was a failed export, or whether the device	is re-
	   ally	in use from another host. To import a pool in this state,  the
	   -f option is	required.

	   -o mntopts

	       Comma-separated	list  of  mount	 options  to use when mounting
	       datasets	within the pool. See  zfs(1M)  for  a  description  of
	       dataset properties and mount options.

	   -o property=value

	       Sets  the  specified  property  on  the	imported pool. See the
	       "Properties" section for	more information on the	available pool
	       properties.

	   -c cachefile

	       Reads  configuration  from the given cachefile that was created
	       with the	"cachefile" pool property. This	cachefile is used  in-
	       stead of	searching for devices.

	   -d dir

	       Searches	 for  devices  or  files  in dir. The -d option	can be
	       specified multiple times. This option is	incompatible with  the
	       -c option.

	   -D

	       Imports destroyed pool. The -f option is	also required.

	   -f

	       Forces  import,	even if	the pool appears to be potentially ac-
	       tive.

	   -R root

	       Sets the	"cachefile" property to	"none" and the "altroot" prop-
	       erty to "root".

       zpool iostat [-T	u | d] [-v] [pool] ... [interval[count]]

	   Displays  I/O  statistics for the given pools. When given an	inter-
	   val,	the statistics are printed every interval seconds until	Ctrl-C
	   is pressed. If no pools are specified, statistics for every pool in
	   the system is shown.	If count is specified, the command exits after
	   count reports are printed.

	   -T u	| d    Display a time stamp.

		       Specify	u for a	printed	representation of the internal
		       representation of time.	See  time(2).  Specify	d  for
		       standard	date format. See date(1).

	   -v	       Verbose	statistics. Reports usage statistics for indi-
		       vidual vdevs within the pool, in	addition to the	 pool-
		       wide statistics.

       zpool labelclear	[-f] device

	   Removes ZFS label information from the specified device. The	device
	   must	not be part of an active pool configuration.

	   -f	       Treat exported or foreign devices as inactive.

       zpool list [-H] [-o props[,...]]	[pool] ...

	   Lists the given pools along with a health status and	 space	usage.
	   When	given no arguments, all	pools in the system are	listed.

	   -H	       Scripted	 mode.	Do  not	 display headers, and separate
		       fields by a single tab instead of arbitrary space.

	   -o props    Comma-separated list of properties to display. See  the
		       "Properties"  section  for  a list of valid properties.
		       The default list	is "name, size,	used,  available,  ca-
		       pacity, health, altroot"

       zpool offline [-t] pool device ...

	   Takes  the  specified  physical device offline. While the device is
	   offline, no attempt is made to read or write	to the device.

	   This	command	is not applicable to spares or cache devices.

	   -t	 Temporary. Upon reboot, the specified physical	device reverts
		 to its	previous state.

       zpool online [-e] pool device...

	   Brings the specified	physical device	online.

	   This	command	is not applicable to spares or cache devices.

	   -e	 Expand	 the  device to	use all	available space. If the	device
		 is part of a mirror or	raidz then all	devices	 must  be  ex-
		 panded	 before	 the  new  space  will become available	to the
		 pool.

       zpool remove pool device	...

	   Removes the specified device	from the pool. This command  currently
	   only	 supports  removing hot	spares,	cache, and log devices.	A mir-
	   rored log device can	be removed by specifying the top-level	mirror
	   for the log.	Non-log	devices	that are part of a mirrored configura-
	   tion	can be removed using the zpool detach  command.	 Non-redundant
	   and raidz devices cannot be removed from a pool.

       zpool replace [-f] pool old_device [new_device]

	   Replaces  old_device	with new_device. This is equivalent to attach-
	   ing new_device, waiting for it  to  resilver,  and  then  detaching
	   old_device.

	   The size of new_device must be greater than or equal	to the minimum
	   size	of all the devices in a	mirror or raidz	configuration.

	   new_device is required if the pool is not redundant.	If  new_device
	   is  not specified, it defaults to old_device. This form of replace-
	   ment	is useful after	an existing disk has failed and	has been phys-
	   ically  replaced.  In  this	case,  the  new	disk may have the same
	   /dev/dsk path as the	old device, even though	it is actually a  dif-
	   ferent disk.	ZFS recognizes this.

	   -f	 Forces	 use  of new_device, even if its appears to be in use.
		 Not all devices can be	overridden in this manner.

       zpool scrub [-s]	pool ...

	   Begins a scrub. The scrub examines all data in the specified	 pools
	   to  verify  that  it	checksums correctly. For replicated (mirror or
	   raidz) devices, ZFS automatically  repairs  any  damage  discovered
	   during  the	scrub. The "zpool status" command reports the progress
	   of the scrub	and summarizes the results of the scrub	 upon  comple-
	   tion.

	   Scrubbing  and resilvering are very similar operations. The differ-
	   ence	is that	resilvering only examines data that ZFS	 knows	to  be
	   out	of  date (for example, when attaching a	new device to a	mirror
	   or replacing	an existing device), whereas  scrubbing	 examines  all
	   data	to discover silent errors due to hardware faults or disk fail-
	   ure.

	   Because scrubbing and resilvering are I/O-intensive operations, ZFS
	   only	 allows	 one at	a time.	If a scrub is already in progress, the
	   "zpool scrub" command terminates it and starts a new	 scrub.	 If  a
	   resilver  is	 in progress, ZFS does not allow a scrub to be started
	   until the resilver completes.

	   -s	 Stop scrubbing.

       zpool set property=value	pool

	   Sets	the given property on the specified pool. See the "Properties"
	   section  for	more information on what properties can	be set and ac-
	   ceptable values.

       zpool status [-xv] [pool] ...

	   Displays the	detailed health	status for the given pools. If no pool
	   is  specified,  then	 the status of each pool in the	system is dis-
	   played. For more information	on pool	and  device  health,  see  the
	   "Device Failure and Recovery" section.

	   If  a  scrub	 or  resilver is in progress, this command reports the
	   percentage done and the estimated time to completion. Both of these
	   are	only  approximate,  because the	amount of data in the pool and
	   the other workloads on the system can change.

	   -x	 Only display status for pools that are	exhibiting  errors  or
		 are otherwise unavailable.

	   -v	 Displays  verbose data	error information, printing out	a com-
		 plete list of all data	errors since the  last	complete  pool
		 scrub.

       zpool upgrade

	   Displays all	pools formatted	using a	different ZFS on-disk version.
	   Older versions can continue to be used, but some features  may  not
	   be available. These pools can be upgraded using "zpool upgrade -a".
	   Pools that are formatted with a more	recent version are  also  dis-
	   played, although these pools	will be	inaccessible on	the system.

       zpool upgrade -v

	   Displays  ZFS  versions supported by	the current software. The cur-
	   rent	ZFS versions and all  previous	supported  versions  are  dis-
	   played,  along  with	 an  explanation of the	features provided with
	   each	version.

       zpool upgrade [-V version] -a | pool ...

	   Upgrades the	given pool to the latest on-disk version. Once this is
	   done,  the  pool  will  no  longer be accessible on systems running
	   older versions of the software.

	   -a		 Upgrades all pools.

	   -V version	 Upgrade to the	specified version. If the -V  flag  is
			 not  specified,  the pool is upgraded to the most re-
			 cent version. This option can only  be	 used  to  in-
			 crease	 the  version  number, and only	up to the most
			 recent	version	supported by this software.

EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Creating a RAID-Z Storage Pool

       The following command creates a pool with a single raidz	root vdev that
       consists	of six disks.

	 # zpool create	tank raidz c0t0d0 c0t1d0 c0t2d0	c0t3d0 c0t4d0 c0t5d0

       Example 2 Creating a Mirrored Storage Pool

       The  following command creates a	pool with two mirrors, where each mir-
       ror contains two	disks.

	 # zpool create	tank mirror c0t0d0 c0t1d0 mirror c0t2d0	c0t3d0

       Example 3 Creating a ZFS	Storage	Pool by	Using Slices

       The following command creates an	unmirrored pool	using two disk slices.

	 # zpool create	tank /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s1 c0t1d0s4

       Example 4 Creating a ZFS	Storage	Pool by	Using Files

       The following command creates an	unmirrored pool	using files. While not
       recommended,  a pool based on files can be useful for experimental pur-
       poses.

	 # zpool create	tank /path/to/file/a /path/to/file/b

       Example 5 Adding	a Mirror to a ZFS Storage Pool

       The following command adds two mirrored disks to	the pool  "tank",  as-
       suming  the  pool is already made up of two-way mirrors.	The additional
       space is	immediately available to any datasets within the pool.

	 # zpool add tank mirror c1t0d0	c1t1d0

       Example 6 Listing Available ZFS Storage Pools

       The following command lists all available pools on the system. In  this
       case, the pool zion is faulted due to a missing device.

       The results from	this command are similar to the	following:

	 # zpool list
	      NAME		SIZE	USED   AVAIL	CAP  HEALTH	ALTROOT
	      pool	       67.5G   2.92M   67.5G	 0%  ONLINE	-
	      tank	       67.5G   2.92M   67.5G	 0%  ONLINE	-
	      zion		   -	   -	   -	 0%  FAULTED	-

       Example 7 Destroying a ZFS Storage Pool

       The  following  command	destroys the pool "tank" and any datasets con-
       tained within.

	 # zpool destroy -f tank

       Example 8 Exporting a ZFS Storage Pool

       The following command exports the devices in pool tank so that they can
       be relocated or later imported.

	 # zpool export	tank

       Example 9 Importing a ZFS Storage Pool

       The  following  command	displays available pools, and then imports the
       pool "tank" for use on the system.

       The results from	this command are similar to the	following:

	 # zpool import
	   pool: tank
	     id: 15451357997522795478
	  state: ONLINE
	 action: The pool can be imported using	its name or numeric identifier.
	 config:

		 tank	     ONLINE
		   mirror    ONLINE
		     c1t2d0  ONLINE
		     c1t3d0  ONLINE

	 # zpool import	tank

       Example 10 Upgrading All	ZFS Storage Pools to the Current Version

       The following command upgrades all ZFS Storage  pools  to  the  current
       version of the software.

	 # zpool upgrade -a
	 This system is	currently running ZFS version 2.

       Example 11 Managing Hot Spares

       The following command creates a new pool	with an	available hot spare:

	 # zpool create	tank mirror c0t0d0 c0t1d0 spare	c0t2d0

       If  one of the disks were to fail, the pool would be reduced to the de-
       graded state. The failed	device can be  replaced	 using	the  following
       command:

	 # zpool replace tank c0t0d0 c0t3d0

       Once  the  data has been	resilvered, the	spare is automatically removed
       and is made available should another device fails. The hot spare	can be
       permanently removed from	the pool using the following command:

	 # zpool remove	tank c0t2d0

       Example 12 Creating a ZFS Pool with Mirrored Separate Intent Logs

       The  following  command	creates	 a ZFS storage pool consisting of two,
       two-way mirrors and mirrored log	devices:

	 # zpool create	pool mirror c0d0 c1d0 mirror c2d0 c3d0 log mirror \
	    c4d0 c5d0

       Example 13 Adding Cache Devices to a ZFS	Pool

       The following command adds two disks for	use as cache devices to	a  ZFS
       storage pool:

	 # zpool add pool cache	c2d0 c3d0

       Once  added,  the  cache	 devices gradually fill	with content from main
       memory. Depending on the	size of	your cache devices, it could take over
       an hour for them	to fill. Capacity and reads can	be monitored using the
       iostat option as	follows:

	 # zpool iostat	-v pool	5

       Example 14 Removing a Mirrored Log Device

       The following command removes the mirrored log device mirror-2.

       Given this configuration:

	    pool: tank
	   state: ONLINE
	   scrub: none requested
	 config:

		  NAME	      STATE	READ WRITE CKSUM
		  tank	      ONLINE	   0	 0     0
		    mirror-0  ONLINE	   0	 0     0
		      c6t0d0  ONLINE	   0	 0     0
		      c6t1d0  ONLINE	   0	 0     0
		    mirror-1  ONLINE	   0	 0     0
		      c6t2d0  ONLINE	   0	 0     0
		      c6t3d0  ONLINE	   0	 0     0
		  logs
		    mirror-2  ONLINE	   0	 0     0
		      c4t0d0  ONLINE	   0	 0     0
		      c4t1d0  ONLINE	   0	 0     0

       The command to remove the mirrored log mirror-2 is:

	 # zpool remove	tank mirror-2

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0    Successful completion.

       1    An error occurred.

       2    Invalid command line options were specified.

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWzfsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Evolving			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       zfs(1M),	attributes(5)

SunOS 5.11			  21 Sep 2009			     zpool(1M)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | EXAMPLES | EXIT STATUS | ATTRIBUTES | SEE ALSO

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