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zpool(1M)		System Administration Commands		     zpool(1M)

NAME
       zpool - configures ZFS storage pools

SYNOPSIS
       zpool [-?]

       zpool create [-fn] [-o property=value] ... [-m mountpoint] [-R root]
	   pool	vdev ...

       zpool destroy [-f] pool

       zpool add [-fn] pool vdev ...

       zpool remove pool device	...

       zpool list [-H] [-o property[,...]] [pool] ...

       zpool iostat [-v] [pool]	... [interval[count]]

       zpool status [-xv] [pool] ...

       zpool online pool device	...

       zpool offline [-t] pool device ...

       zpool clear pool	[device]

       zpool attach [-f] pool device new_device

       zpool detach pool device

       zpool replace [-f] pool device [new_device]

       zpool scrub [-s]	pool ...

       zpool import [-d	dir] [-D]

       zpool import [-o	mntopts] [-p property=value] ... [-d dir | -c cachefile]
	   [-D]	[-f] [-R root] -a

       zpool import [-o	mntopts] [-o property=value] ... [-d dir | -c cachefile]
	   [-D]	[-f] [-R root] pool |id	[newpool]

       zpool export [-f] pool ...

       zpool upgrade

       zpool upgrade -v

       zpool upgrade [-V version] -a | pool ...

       zpool history [-il] [pool] ...

       zpool get "all" | property[,...]	pool ...

       zpool set property=value	pool

DESCRIPTION
       The  zpool  command  configures	ZFS storage pools. A storage pool is a
       collection of devices that provides physical storage and	data  replica-
       tion for	ZFS datasets.

       All  datasets  within  a	storage	pool share the same space. See zfs(1M)
       for information on managing datasets.

   Virtual Devices (vdevs)
       A "virtual device" describes a single device or a collection of devices
       organized  according  to	certain	performance and	fault characteristics.
       The following virtual devices are supported:

       disk	 A block device, typically located under "/dev/dsk".  ZFS  can
		 use  individual  slices or partitions,	though the recommended
		 mode of operation is to use whole disks. A disk can be	speci-
		 fied by a full	path, or it can	be a shorthand name (the rela-
		 tive portion of the path under	"/dev/dsk"). A whole disk  can
		 be  specified by omitting the slice or	partition designation.
		 For example, "c0t0d0" is equivalent  to  "/dev/dsk/c0t0d0s2".
		 When  given  a	whole disk, ZFS	automatically labels the disk,
		 if necessary.

       file	 A regular file. The use  of  files  as	 a  backing  store  is
		 strongly discouraged. It is designed primarily	for experimen-
		 tal purposes, as the fault tolerance of a  file  is  only  as
		 good as the file system of which it is	a part.	A file must be
		 specified by a	full path.

       mirror	 A mirror of two or more devices. Data	is  replicated	in  an
		 identical fashion across all components of a mirror. A	mirror
		 with N	disks of size X	can hold X  bytes  and	can  withstand
		 (N-1) devices failing before data integrity is	compromised.

       raidz	 A  variation on RAID-5	that allows for	better distribution of
       raidz1	 parity	and eliminates the "RAID-5 write hole" (in which  data
       raidz2	 and  parity become inconsistent after a power loss). Data and
		 parity	is striped across all disks within a raidz group.

		 A raidz group can have	either single- or double-parity, mean-
		 ing  that  the	 raidz	group  can sustain one or two failures
		 respectively without losing any data. The  raidz1  vdev  type
		 specifies  a  single-parity  raidz  group and the raidz2 vdev
		 type specifies	a double-parity	raidz group.  The  raidz  vdev
		 type is an alias for raidz1.

		 A  raidz group	with N disks of	size X with P parity disks can
		 hold  approximately  (N-P)*X  bytes  and  can	 withstand   P
		 device(s)  failing  before data integrity is compromised. The
		 minimum number	of devices in a	raidz group is one  more  than
		 the number of parity disks. The recommended number is between
		 3 and 9 to help increase performance.

       spare	 A special pseudo-vdev which  keeps  track  of	available  hot
		 spares	for a pool. For	more information, see the "Hot Spares"
		 section.

       log	 A separate intent log device. If more than one	log device  is
		 specified, then writes	are load-balanced between devices. Log
		 devices can be	mirrored. However, raidz and  raidz2  are  not
		 supported  for	 the intent log. For more information, see the
		 "Intent Log" section.

       cache	 A device used to cache	storage	pool data. A cache device can-
		 not  be  mirrored or part of a	raidz or raidz2	configuration.
		 For more information, see the "Cache Devices" section.

       Virtual devices cannot be nested, so a mirror or	raidz  virtual	device
       can  only contain files or disks. Mirrors of mirrors (or	other combina-
       tions) are not allowed.

       A pool can have any number of virtual devices at	the top	of the config-
       uration (known as "root vdevs").	Data is	dynamically distributed	across
       all top-level devices to	balance	data among  devices.  As  new  virtual
       devices are added, ZFS automatically places data	on the newly available
       devices.

       Virtual devices are specified one at a time on the command line,	 sepa-
       rated by	whitespace. The	keywords "mirror" and "raidz" are used to dis-
       tinguish	where a	group ends and another begins. For example,  the  fol-
       lowing creates two root vdevs, each a mirror of two disks:

	 # zpool create	mypool mirror c0t0d0 c0t1d0 mirror c1t0d0 c1t1d0

   Device Failure and Recovery
       ZFS  supports  a	rich set of mechanisms for handling device failure and
       data corruption.	All metadata and data is checksummed, and ZFS automat-
       ically repairs bad data from a good copy	when corruption	is detected.

       In  order  to take advantage of these features, a pool must make	use of
       some form of redundancy,	using either mirrored or raidz	groups.	 While
       ZFS  supports running in	a non-redundant	configuration, where each root
       vdev is simply a	disk or	file, this is strongly discouraged.  A	single
       case of bit corruption can render some or all of	your data unavailable.

       A  pool's  health  status  is described by one of three states: online,
       degraded, or faulted. An	online pool has	 all  devices  operating  nor-
       mally. A	degraded pool is one in	which one or more devices have failed,
       but the data is still available due to  a  redundant  configuration.  A
       faulted	pool  has  corrupted metadata, or one or more faulted devices,
       and insufficient	replicas to continue functioning.

       The health of the top-level vdev, such as mirror	or  raidz  device,  is
       potentially impacted by the state of its	associated vdevs, or component
       devices.	A top-level vdev or component device is	in one of the  follow-
       ing states:

       DEGRADED	   One	or  more  top-level  vdevs  is	in  the	degraded state
		   because one or more component devices are  offline.	Suffi-
		   cient replicas exist	to continue functioning.

		   One or more component devices is in the degraded or faulted
		   state, but sufficient replicas exist	to continue  function-
		   ing.	The underlying conditions are as follows:

		       o      The number of checksum errors exceeds acceptable
			      levels and the device is degraded	as an  indica-
			      tion  that something may be wrong. ZFS continues
			      to use the device	as necessary.

		       o      The number of I/O	errors exceeds acceptable lev-
			      els.  The	 device	could not be marked as faulted
			      because there are	insufficient replicas to  con-
			      tinue functioning.

       FAULTED	   One or more top-level vdevs is in the faulted state because
		   one or more component  devices  are	offline.  Insufficient
		   replicas exist to continue functioning.

		   One	or more	component devices is in	the faulted state, and
		   insufficient	replicas exist to  continue  functioning.  The
		   underlying conditions are as	follows:

		       o      The device could be opened, but the contents did
			      not match	expected values.

		       o      The number of I/O	errors exceeds acceptable lev-
			      els and the device is faulted to prevent further
			      use of the device.

       OFFLINE	   The device was explicitly taken offline by the "zpool  off-
		   line" command.

       ONLINE	   The device is online	and functioning.

       REMOVED	   The device was physically removed while the system was run-
		   ning. Device	removal	detection  is  hardware-dependent  and
		   may not be supported	on all platforms.

       UNAVAIL	   The	device could not be opened. If a pool is imported when
		   a device was	unavailable, then the device will  be  identi-
		   fied	 by  a unique identifier instead of its	path since the
		   path	was never correct in the first place.

       If a device is  removed	and  later  re-attached	 to  the  system,  ZFS
       attempts	 to  put the device online automatically. Device attach	detec-
       tion is hardware-dependent and might not	be supported on	all platforms.

   Hot Spares
       ZFS allows devices to be	associated with	pools as "hot  spares".	 These
       devices	are  not  actively used	in the pool, but when an active	device
       fails, it is automatically replaced by a	hot spare. To  create  a  pool
       with hot	spares,	specify	a "spare" vdev with any	number of devices. For
       example,

	 # zpool create	pool mirror c0d0 c1d0 spare c2d0 c3d0

       Spares can be shared across multiple pools, and can be added  with  the
       "zpool add" command and removed with the	"zpool remove" command.	Once a
       spare replacement is initiated, a new "spare" vdev  is  created	within
       the  configuration  that	will remain there until	the original device is
       replaced. At this point,	the  hot  spare	 becomes  available  again  if
       another device fails.

       An  in-progress spare replacement can be	cancelled by detaching the hot
       spare. If the original faulted device is	detached, then the  hot	 spare
       assumes	its  place in the configuration, and is	removed	from the spare
       list of all active pools.

       Spares cannot replace log devices.

   Intent Log
       The ZFS Intent Log (ZIL)	satisfies POSIX	requirements  for  synchronous
       transactions.  For instance, databases often require their transactions
       to be on	stable storage devices when returning from a system call.  NFS
       and  other  applications	can also use fsync() to	ensure data stability.
       By default, the intent log is allocated from  blocks  within  the  main
       pool.  However,	it  might  be possible to get better performance using
       separate	intent log devices such	as NVRAM  or  a	 dedicated  disk.  For
       example:

	 # zpool create	pool c0d0 c1d0 log c2d0

       Multiple	 log  devices can also be specified, and they can be mirrored.
       See the EXAMPLES	section	for  an	 example  of  mirroring	 multiple  log
       devices.

       Log  devices  can  be added, replaced, attached,	detached, and imported
       and exported as part of the larger pool.

   Cache Devices
       Devices can be added to	a  storage  pool  as  "cache  devices."	 These
       devices	provide	an additional layer of caching between main memory and
       disk. For read-heavy workloads, where the  working  set	size  is  much
       larger  than  what  can	be  cached in main memory, using cache devices
       allow much more of this working set  to	be  served  from  low  latency
       media.  Using  cache devices provides the greatest performance improve-
       ment for	random read-workloads of mostly	static content.

       To create a pool	with cache devices, specify a "cache"  vdev  with  any
       number of devices. For example:

	 # zpool create	pool c0d0 c1d0 cache c2d0 c3d0

       Cache devices cannot be mirrored	or part	of a raidz configuration. If a
       read error is encountered on a cache device, that read I/O is  reissued
       to  the original	storage	pool device, which might be part of a mirrored
       or raidz	configuration.

       The content of the cache	devices	is considered volatile,	as is the case
       with other system caches.

   Properties
       Each  pool  has	several	properties associated with it. Some properties
       are read-only statistics	while others are configurable and  change  the
       behavior	of the pool. The following are read-only properties:

       available	   Amount  of  storage available within	the pool. This
			   property can	also be	referred to by	its  shortened
			   column name,	"avail".

       capacity		   Percentage  of  pool	 space used. This property can
			   also	be referred to by its shortened	 column	 name,
			   "cap".

       health		   The	current	 health	 of  the  pool.	 Health	can be
			   "ONLINE",  "DEGRADED",   "FAULTED",	 "   OFFLINE",
			   "REMOVED", or "UNAVAIL".

       guid		   A unique identifier for the pool.

       size		   Total size of the storage pool.

       used		   Amount of storage space used	within the pool.

       These  space usage properties report actual physical space available to
       the storage pool. The physical space can	be different  from  the	 total
       amount  of  space  that	any  contained	datasets can actually use. The
       amount of space used in a raidz configuration depends on	the character-
       istics  of the data being written. In addition, ZFS reserves some space
       for internal accounting that the	zfs(1M)	command	 takes	into  account,
       but  the	 zpool	command	 does  not. For	non-full pools of a reasonable
       size, these effects should be invisible.	For small pools, or pools that
       are close to being completely full, these discrepancies may become more
       noticeable.

       The following property can be set at creation time and import time:

       altroot

	   Alternate root directory. If	set, this directory  is	 prepended  to
	   any	mount  points within the pool. This can	be used	when examining
	   an unknown pool where the mount points cannot be trusted, or	in  an
	   alternate  boot environment,	where the typical paths	are not	valid.
	   altroot is not a persistent property. It is valid  only  while  the
	   system  is  up.  Setting  altroot defaults to using cachefile=none,
	   though this may be overridden    using an explicit setting.

       The following properties	can be set at creation time and	 import	 time,
       and later changed with the "zpool set" command:

       autoreplace=on |	off

	   Controls  automatic	device	replacement.  If  set to "off",	device
	   replacement must be initiated by the	 administrator	by  using  the
	   "zpool  replace"  command. If set to	"on", any new device, found in
	   the same physical location as a device that previously belonged  to
	   the	pool,  is  automatically  formatted  and replaced. The default
	   behavior is "off". This property can	also be	 referred  to  by  its
	   shortened column name, "replace".

       bootfs=pool/dataset

	   Identifies  the  default  bootable  dataset for the root pool. This
	   property is expected	to be  set  mainly  by	the  installation  and
	   upgrade programs.

       cachefile=path |	"none"

	   Controls  the  location  of where the pool configuration is cached.
	   Discovering all pools on system startup requires a cached  copy  of
	   the	configuration data that	is stored on the root file system. All
	   pools in this cache are  automatically  imported  when  the	system
	   boots.  Some	 environments, such as install and clustering, need to
	   cache this information in a different location so  that  pools  are
	   not	automatically  imported. Setting this property caches the pool
	   configuration in a different	location that can  later  be  imported
	   with	"zpool import -c". Setting it to the special value "none" cre-
	   ates	a temporary pool that is never cached, and the	special	 value
	   '' (empty string) uses the default location.

	   Multiple  pools  can	 share the same	cache file. Because the	kernel
	   destroys and	recreates this file when pools are added and  removed,
	   care	 should	be taken when attempting to access this	file. When the
	   last	pool using a cachefile is exported or destroyed, the  file  is
	   removed.

       delegation=on | off

	   Controls  whether  a	non-privileged user is granted access based on
	   the dataset permissions defined on the  dataset.  See  zfs(1M)  for
	   more	information on ZFS delegated administration.

       failmode=wait | continue	| panic

	   Controls  the  system  behavior  in	the event of catastrophic pool
	   failure. This condition is typically	a result of a loss of  connec-
	   tivity  to  the  underlying	storage	 device(s) or a	failure	of all
	   devices within the pool. The	behavior of such an  event  is	deter-
	   mined as follows:

	   wait	       Blocks  all I/O access until the	device connectivity is
		       recovered and the  errors  are  cleared.	 This  is  the
		       default behavior.

	   continue    Returns	EIO  to	 any new write I/O requests but	allows
		       reads to	any of	the  remaining	healthy	 devices.  Any
		       write  requests	that  have yet to be committed to disk
		       would be	blocked.

	   panic       Prints out a message to the  console  and  generates  a
		       system crash dump.

       version=version

	   The current on-disk version of the pool. This can be	increased, but
	   never decreased. The	preferred method of updating pools is with the
	   "zpool  upgrade"  command,  though this property can	be used	when a
	   specific version is needed for backwards compatibility.  This prop-
	   erty	 can  be any number between 1 and the current version reported
	   by "zpool upgrade -v". The special value "current" is an alias  for
	   the latest supported	version.

   Subcommands
       All  subcommands	 that modify state are logged persistently to the pool
       in their	original form.

       The zpool command provides subcommands to create	 and  destroy  storage
       pools, add capacity to storage pools, and provide information about the
       storage pools. The following subcommands	are supported:

       zpool -?

	   Displays a help message.

       zpool create [-fn] [-o property=value] ... [-m mountpoint] [-R root]
       pool vdev ...

	   Creates a new storage pool containing the virtual devices specified
	   on the command line.	The pool name must begin with  a  letter,  and
	   can	only  contain  alphanumeric  characters	 as well as underscore
	   ("_"), dash ("-"), and  period  (".").  The	pool  names  "mirror",
	   "raidz",  "spare"  and  "log"  are reserved,	as are names beginning
	   with	the pattern "c[0-9]". The vdev specification is	 described  in
	   the "Virtual	Devices" section.

	   The	command	 verifies that each device specified is	accessible and
	   not currently in use	by another subsystem.  There  are  some	 uses,
	   such	as being currently mounted, or specified as the	dedicated dump
	   device, that	prevents a device from ever being used by  ZFS.	 Other
	   uses, such as having	a preexisting UFS file system, can be overrid-
	   den with the	-f option.

	   The command also checks that	the replication	strategy for the  pool
	   is  consistent.  An	attempt	to combine redundant and non-redundant
	   storage in a	single pool, or	to mix disks and files,	results	in  an
	   error  unless -f is specified. The use of differently sized devices
	   within a single raidz or mirror group is also flagged as  an	 error
	   unless -f is	specified.

	   Unless  the	-R  option  is	specified,  the	default	mount point is
	   "/pool". The	mount point must not exist or must be empty,  or  else
	   the root dataset cannot be mounted. This can	be overridden with the
	   -m option.

	   -f

	       Forces use of vdevs, even if they appear	in use	or  specify  a
	       conflicting  replication	level. Not all devices can be overrid-
	       den in this manner.

	   -n

	       Displays	the configuration that would be	used without  actually
	       creating	 the pool. The actual pool creation can	still fail due
	       to insufficient privileges or device sharing.

	   -o property=value [-o property=value] ...

	       Sets the	given pool properties. See  the	 "Properties"  section
	       for a list of valid properties that can be set.

	   -R root

	       Equivalent to "-o cachefile=none,altroot=root"

	   -m mountpoint

	       Sets  the  mount	 point for the root dataset. The default mount
	       point is	"/pool"	or "altroot/pool" if altroot is	specified. The
	       mount  point must be an absolute	path, "legacy",	or "none". For
	       more information	on dataset mount points, see zfs(1M).

       zpool destroy [-f] pool

	   Destroys the	given pool, freeing up any devices for other use. This
	   command  tries to unmount any active	datasets before	destroying the
	   pool.

	   -f	 Forces	any active datasets contained within the  pool	to  be
		 unmounted.

       zpool add [-fn] pool vdev ...

	   Adds	 the  specified	 virtual  devices  to the given	pool. The vdev
	   specification is described in the "Virtual  Devices"	 section.  The
	   behavior  of	 the  -f  option,  and the device checks performed are
	   described in	the "zpool create" subcommand.

	   -f	 Forces	use of vdevs, even if they appear in use or specify  a
		 conflicting  replication  level. Not all devices can be over-
		 ridden	in this	manner.

	   -n	 Displays the configuration that would be used	without	 actu-
		 ally  adding  the  vdevs.  The	actual pool creation can still
		 fail due to insufficient privileges or	device sharing.

	   Do not add a	disk that is currently configured as a	quorum	device
	   to a	zpool. After a disk is in the pool, that disk can then be con-
	   figured as a	quorum device.

       zpool remove pool device	...

	   Removes the specified device	from the pool. This command  currently
	   only	 supports  removing hot	spares and cache devices. Devices that
	   are part of a mirrored  configuration  can  be  removed  using  the
	   "zpool  detach"  command. Non-redundant and raidz devices cannot be
	   removed from	a pool.

       zpool list [-H] [-o props[,...]]	[pool] ...

	   Lists the given pools along with a health status and	 space	usage.
	   When	given no arguments, all	pools in the system are	listed.

	   -H	       Scripted	 mode.	Do  not	 display headers, and separate
		       fields by a single tab instead of arbitrary space.

	   -o props    Comma-separated list of properties to display. See  the
		       "Properties"  section  for  a list of valid properties.
		       The default  list  is  "name,  size,  used,  available,
		       capacity, health, altroot"

       zpool iostat [-v] [pool]	... [interval[count]]

	   Displays  I/O  statistics for the given pools. When given an	inter-
	   val,	the statistics are printed every interval seconds until	Ctrl-C
	   is pressed. If no pools are specified, statistics for every pool in
	   the system is shown.	If count is specified, the command exits after
	   count reports are printed.

	   -v	 Verbose  statistics.  Reports usage statistics	for individual
		 vdevs within the pool,	in addition to the  pool-wide  statis-
		 tics.

       zpool status [-xv] [pool] ...

	   Displays the	detailed health	status for the given pools. If no pool
	   is specified, then the status of each pool in the  system  is  dis-
	   played.  For	 more  information  on pool and	device health, see the
	   "Device Failure and Recovery" section.

	   If a	scrub or resilver is in	progress,  this	 command  reports  the
	   percentage done and the estimated time to completion. Both of these
	   are only approximate, because the amount of data in	the  pool  and
	   the other workloads on the system can change.

	   -x	 Only  display	status for pools that are exhibiting errors or
		 are otherwise unavailable.

	   -v	 Displays verbose data error information, printing out a  com-
		 plete	list  of  all data errors since	the last complete pool
		 scrub.

       zpool online pool device	...

	   Brings the specified	physical device	online.

	   This	command	is not applicable to spares or cache devices.

       zpool offline [-t] pool device ...

	   Takes the specified physical	device offline.	While  the  device  is
	   offline, no attempt is made to read or write	to the device.

	   This	command	is not applicable to spares or cache devices.

	   -t	 Temporary. Upon reboot, the specified physical	device reverts
		 to its	previous state.

       zpool clear pool	[device] ...

	   Clears device errors	in a pool. If no arguments are specified,  all
	   device  errors  within the pool are cleared.	If one or more devices
	   is specified, only  those  errors  associated  with	the  specified
	   device or devices are cleared.

       zpool attach [-f] pool device new_device

	   Attaches  new_device	 to  an	 existing  zpool  device. The existing
	   device cannot be part of a raidz configuration. If  device  is  not
	   currently  part  of	a mirrored configuration, device automatically
	   transforms into a two-way  mirror  of  device  and  new_device.  If
	   device  is part of a	two-way	mirror,	attaching new_device creates a
	   three-way mirror, and so on.	In either case,	new_device  begins  to
	   resilver immediately.

	   -f	 Forces	 use  of new_device, even if its appears to be in use.
		 Not all devices can be	overridden in this manner.

       zpool detach pool device

	   Detaches device from	a mirror. The operation	is  refused  if	 there
	   are no other	valid replicas of the data.

       zpool replace [-f] pool old_device [new_device]

	   Replaces  old_device	with new_device. This is equivalent to attach-
	   ing new_device, waiting for it  to  resilver,  and  then  detaching
	   old_device.

	   The size of new_device must be greater than or equal	to the minimum
	   size	of all the devices in a	mirror or raidz	configuration.

	   new_device is required if the pool is not redundant.	If  new_device
	   is  not specified, it defaults to old_device. This form of replace-
	   ment	is useful after	an existing disk has failed and	has been phys-
	   ically  replaced.   In  this	 case,	the new	disk may have the same
	   /dev/dsk path as the	old device, even though	it is actually a  dif-
	   ferent disk.	ZFS recognizes this.

	   -f	 Forces	 use  of new_device, even if its appears to be in use.
		 Not all devices can be	overridden in this manner.

       zpool scrub [-s]	pool ...

	   Begins a scrub. The scrub examines all data in the specified	 pools
	   to  verify  that  it	checksums correctly. For replicated (mirror or
	   raidz) devices, ZFS automatically  repairs  any  damage  discovered
	   during  the	scrub. The "zpool status" command reports the progress
	   of the scrub	and summarizes the results of the scrub	 upon  comple-
	   tion.

	   Scrubbing  and resilvering are very similar operations. The differ-
	   ence	is that	resilvering only examines data that ZFS	 knows	to  be
	   out	of  date (for example, when attaching a	new device to a	mirror
	   or replacing	an existing device), whereas  scrubbing	 examines  all
	   data	to discover silent errors due to hardware faults or disk fail-
	   ure.

	   Because scrubbing and resilvering are I/O-intensive operations, ZFS
	   only	 allows	 one at	a time.	If a scrub is already in progress, the
	   "zpool scrub" command terminates it and starts a new	 scrub.	 If  a
	   resilver  is	 in progress, ZFS does not allow a scrub to be started
	   until the resilver completes.

	   -s	 Stop scrubbing.

       zpool import [-d	dir | -c cachefile] [-D]

	   Lists pools available to import. If the -d option is	not specified,
	   this	 command searches for devices in "/dev/dsk". The -d option can
	   be specified	multiple times,	and all	directories are	 searched.  If
	   the	device	appears	 to  be	part of	an exported pool, this command
	   displays a summary of the pool with the name	of the pool, a numeric
	   identifier,	as  well  as the vdev layout and current health	of the
	   device for each device or file. Destroyed pools,  pools  that  were
	   previously  destroyed  with	the  "zpool  destroy" command, are not
	   listed unless the -D	option is specified.

	   The numeric identifier is unique, and can be	used  instead  of  the
	   pool	 name when multiple exported pools of the same name are	avail-
	   able.

	   -c cachefile	   Reads configuration from the	given  cachefile  that
			   was	created	 with  the  "cachefile"	pool property.
			   This	cachefile is used  instead  of	searching  for
			   devices.

	   -d dir	   Searches for	devices	or files in dir. The -d	option
			   can be specified multiple times.

	   -D		   Lists destroyed pools only.

       zpool import [-o	mntopts] [ -o property=value] ... [-d dir | -c
       cachefile] [-D] [-f] [-R	root] -a

	   Imports all pools found in the search directories. Identical	to the
	   previous command, except that all pools with	a sufficient number of
	   devices  available  are  imported. Destroyed	pools, pools that were
	   previously destroyed	with the "zpool	destroy" command, will not  be
	   imported unless the -D option is specified.

	   -o mntopts		Comma-separated	 list  of mount	options	to use
				when mounting datasets within  the  pool.  See
				zfs(1M)	 for  a	description of dataset proper-
				ties and mount options.

	   -o property=value	Sets the specified property  on	 the  imported
				pool.  See  the	 "Properties" section for more
				information on the available pool properties.

	   -c cachefile		Reads configuration from the  given  cachefile
				that  was  created  with  the "cachefile" pool
				property. This cachefile is  used  instead  of
				searching for devices.

	   -d dir		Searches  for  devices or files	in dir.	The -d
				option can be specified	multiple  times.  This
				option is incompatible with the	-c option.

	   -D			Imports	destroyed pools	only. The -f option is
				also required.

	   -f			Forces import, even if the pool	appears	to  be
				potentially active.

	   -a			Searches for and imports all pools found.

	   -R root		Sets  the  "cachefile"	property to "none" and
				the "altroot" property to "root".

       zpool import [-o	mntopts] [ -o property=value] ... [-d dir | -c
       cachefile] [-D] [-f] [-R	root] pool | id	[newpool]

	   Imports  a  specific	 pool. A pool can be identified	by its name or
	   the numeric identifier.  If	newpool	 is  specified,	 the  pool  is
	   imported using the name newpool. Otherwise, it is imported with the
	   same	name as	its exported name.

	   If a	device is removed from a system	without	running	"zpool export"
	   first,  the	device	appears	 as  potentially  active. It cannot be
	   determined if this was a failed export, or whether  the  device  is
	   really  in  use  from another host. To import a pool	in this	state,
	   the -f option is required.

	   -o mntopts

	       Comma-separated list of mount  options  to  use	when  mounting
	       datasets	 within	 the  pool.  See  zfs(1M) for a	description of
	       dataset properties and mount options.

	   -o property=value

	       Sets the	specified property  on	the  imported  pool.  See  the
	       "Properties" section for	more information on the	available pool
	       properties.

	   -c cachefile

	       Reads configuration from	the given cachefile that  was  created
	       with  the  "cachefile"  pool  property.	This cachefile is used
	       instead of searching for	devices.

	   -d dir

	       Searches	for devices or files in	dir.  The  -d  option  can  be
	       specified  multiple times. This option is incompatible with the
	       -c option.

	   -D

	       Imports destroyed pool. The -f option is	also required.

	   -f

	       Forces import, even if  the  pool  appears  to  be  potentially
	       active.

	   -R root

	       Sets the	"cachefile" property to	"none" and the "altroot" prop-
	       erty to "root".

       zpool export [-f] pool ...

	   Exports the given pools from	the system. All	devices	are marked  as
	   exported,  but are still considered in use by other subsystems. The
	   devices can be moved	between	systems	(even those of different endi-
	   anness)  and	imported as long as a sufficient number	of devices are
	   present.

	   Before exporting  the  pool,	 all  datasets	within	the  pool  are
	   unmounted.

	   For	pools  to  be  portable, you must give the zpool command whole
	   disks, not just slices, so that ZFS can label the disks with	porta-
	   ble	EFI  labels. Otherwise,	disk drivers on	platforms of different
	   endianness will not recognize the disks.

	   -f	 Forcefully unmount all	datasets, using	the "unmount -f"  com-
		 mand.

       zpool upgrade

	   Displays all	pools formatted	using a	different ZFS on-disk version.
	   Older versions can continue to be used, but some features  may  not
	   be available. These pools can be upgraded using "zpool upgrade -a".
	   Pools that are formatted with a more	recent version are  also  dis-
	   played, although these pools	will be	inaccessible on	the system.

       zpool upgrade -v

	   Displays  ZFS  versions supported by	the current software. The cur-
	   rent	ZFS versions and all  previous	supported  versions  are  dis-
	   played,  along  with	 an  explanation of the	features provided with
	   each	version.

       zpool upgrade [-V version] -a | pool ...

	   Upgrades the	given pool to the latest on-disk version. Once this is
	   done,  the  pool  will  no  longer be accessible on systems running
	   older versions of the software.

	   -a		 Upgrades all pools.

	   -V version	 Upgrade to the	specified version. If the -V  flag  is
			 not  specified,  the  pool  is	 upgraded  to the most
			 recent	version. This  option  can  only  be  used  to
			 increase  the version number, and only	up to the most
			 recent	version	supported by this software.

       zpool history [-il] [pool] ...

	   Displays the	command	history	of the specified pools or all pools if
	   no pool is specified.

	   -i	 Displays  internally  logged  ZFS  events in addition to user
		 initiated events.

	   -l	 Displays log records in long format,  which  in  addition  to
		 standard  format  includes,  the user name, the hostname, and
		 the zone in which the operation was performed.

       zpool get "all" | property[,...]	pool ...

	   Retrieves the given list of properties (or all properties if	 "all"
	   is  used)  for  the specified storage pool(s). These	properties are
	   displayed with the following	fields:

		    name	  Name of storage pool
		    property	  Property name
		    value	  Property value
		    source	  Property source, either 'default' or 'local'.

	   See the "Properties"	section	for more information on	the  available
	   pool	properties.

       zpool set property=value	pool

	   Sets	the given property on the specified pool. See the "Properties"
	   section for more information	on what	 properties  can  be  set  and
	   acceptable values.

EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Creating a RAID-Z Storage Pool

       The following command creates a pool with a single raidz	root vdev that
       consists	of six disks.

	 # zpool create	tank raidz c0t0d0 c0t1d0 c0t2d0	c0t3d0 c0t4d0 c0t5d0

       Example 2 Creating a Mirrored Storage Pool

       The following command creates a pool with two mirrors, where each  mir-
       ror contains two	disks.

	 # zpool create	tank mirror c0t0d0 c0t1d0 mirror c0t2d0	c0t3d0

       Example 3 Creating a ZFS	Storage	Pool by	Using Slices

       The following command creates an	unmirrored pool	using two disk slices.

	 # zpool create	tank /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s1 c0t1d0s4

       Example 4 Creating a ZFS	Storage	Pool by	Using Files

       The following command creates an	unmirrored pool	using files. While not
       recommended, a pool based on files can be useful	for experimental  pur-
       poses.

	 # zpool create	tank /path/to/file/a /path/to/file/b

       Example 5 Adding	a Mirror to a ZFS Storage Pool

       The  following  command	adds  two  mirrored  disks to the pool "tank",
       assuming	the pool is already made up of two-way mirrors.	The additional
       space is	immediately available to any datasets within the pool.

	 # zpool add tank mirror c1t0d0	c1t1d0

       Example 6 Listing Available ZFS Storage Pools

       The  following command lists all	available pools	on the system. In this
       case, the pool zion is faulted due to a missing device.

       The results from	this command are similar to the	following:

	 # zpool list
	     NAME	       SIZE    USED   AVAIL    CAP  HEALTH     ALTROOT
	     pool	      67.5G   2.92M   67.5G	0%  ONLINE     -
	     tank	      67.5G   2.92M   67.5G	0%  ONLINE     -
	     zion		  -	  -	  -	0%  FAULTED    -

       Example 7 Destroying a ZFS Storage Pool

       The following command destroys the pool "tank" and  any	datasets  con-
       tained within.

	 # zpool destroy -f tank

       Example 8 Exporting a ZFS Storage Pool

       The following command exports the devices in pool tank so that they can
       be relocated or later imported.

	 # zpool export	tank

       Example 9 Importing a ZFS Storage Pool

       The following command displays available	pools, and  then  imports  the
       pool "tank" for use on the system.

       The results from	this command are similar to the	following:

	 # zpool import
	  pool:	tank
	    id:	15451357997522795478
	 state:	ONLINE
	 action: The pool can be imported using	its name or numeric identifier.
	 config:

		tank	    ONLINE
		  mirror    ONLINE
		    c1t2d0  ONLINE
		    c1t3d0  ONLINE

	 # zpool import	tank

       Example 10 Upgrading All	ZFS Storage Pools to the Current Version

       The  following  command	upgrades  all ZFS Storage pools	to the current
       version of the software.

	 # zpool upgrade -a
	 This system is	currently running ZFS version 2.

       Example 11 Managing Hot Spares

       The following command creates a new pool	with an	available hot spare:

	 # zpool create	tank mirror c0t0d0 c0t1d0 spare	c0t2d0

       If one of the disks were	to fail, the pool  would  be  reduced  to  the
       degraded	 state.	 The failed device can be replaced using the following
       command:

	 # zpool replace tank c0t0d0 c0t3d0

       Once the	data has been resilvered, the spare is	automatically  removed
       and is made available should another device fails. The hot spare	can be
       permanently removed from	the pool using the following command:

	 # zpool remove	tank c0t2d0

       Example 12 Creating a ZFS Pool with Mirrored Separate Intent Logs

       The following command creates a ZFS storage  pool  consisting  of  two,
       two-way mirrors and mirrored log	devices:

	 # zpool create	pool mirror c0d0 c1d0 mirror c2d0 c3d0 log mirror \
	   c4d0	c5d0

       Example 13 Adding Cache Devices to a ZFS	Pool

       The  following command adds two disks for use as	cache devices to a ZFS
       storage pool:

	 # zpool add pool cache	c2d0 c3d0

       Once added, the cache devices gradually fill  with  content  from  main
       memory. Depending on the	size of	your cache devices, it could take over
       an hour for them	to fill. Capacity and reads can	be monitored using the
       iostat option as	follows:

	 # zpool iostat	-v pool	5

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0    Successful completion.

       1    An error occurred.

       2    Invalid command line options were specified.

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWzfsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Evolving			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       zfs(1M),	attributes(5)

SunOS 5.11			  13 Nov 2007			     zpool(1M)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | EXAMPLES | EXIT STATUS | ATTRIBUTES | SEE ALSO

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