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zones(5)	      Standards, Environments, and Macros	      zones(5)

NAME
       zones - Solaris application containers

DESCRIPTION
       The zones facility in Solaris provides an isolated environment for run-
       ning applications. Processes running in a zone are prevented from moni-
       toring  or  interfering	with  other  activity in the system. Access to
       other processes,	network	interfaces, file systems, devices, and	inter-
       process	communication facilities are restricted	to prevent interaction
       between processes in different zones.

       The privileges available	within a zone are restricted to	prevent	opera-
       tions with system-wide impact. See privileges(5).

       You  can	 configure  and	 administer  zones  with  the  zoneadm(1M) and
       zonecfg(1M) utilities. You can  specify	the  configuration  details  a
       zone, install file system contents including software packages into the
       zone, and manage	the runtime state of the zone. You can	use  the  zlo-
       gin(1)  to  run commands	within an active zone. You can do this without
       logging in through a network-based login	server such as	in.rlogind(1M)
       or sshd(1M).

       An alphanumeric name and	numeric	ID identify each active	zone. Alphanu-
       meric names are configured using	the zonecfg(1M)	utility.  Numeric  IDs
       are  automatically  assigned  when  the zone is booted. The zonename(1)
       utility reports the current zone	name, and the zoneadm(1M) utility  can
       be used to report the names and IDs of configured zones.

       A zone can be in	one of several states:

       CONFIGURED	       Indicates  that	the configuration for the zone
			       has been	completely specified and committed  to
			       stable storage.

       INCOMPLETE	       Indicates  that the zone	is in the midst	of be-
			       ing installed or	 uninstalled,  or  was	inter-
			       rupted in the midst of such a transition.

       INSTALLED	       Indicates  that	the  zone's  configuration has
			       been instantiated on the	system:	packages  have
			       been installed under the	zone's root path.

       READY		       Indicates  that	the "virtual platform" for the
			       zone has	been established.  Network  interfaces
			       have  been  plumbed,  file  systems  have  been
			       mounted,	devices	have been configured,  but  no
			       processes  associated  with  the	zone have been
			       started.

       RUNNING		       Indicates that user processes  associated  with
			       the zone	application environment	are running.

       SHUTTING_DOWN	       Indicates  that	the  zone is being halted. The
       DOWN		       zone can	become stuck in	one of these states if
			       it is unable to tear down the application envi-
			       ronment state (such as mounted file systems) or
			       if  some	portion	of the virtual platform	cannot
			       be destroyed. Such cases	require	 operator  in-
			       tervention.

   Process Access Restrictions
       Processes  running  inside a zone (aside	from the global	zone) have re-
       stricted	access to other	processes. Only	processes in the same zone are
       visible	through	 /proc	(see proc(4) or	through	system call interfaces
       that take process IDs such as kill(2) and priocntl(2). Attempts to  ac-
       cess  processes	that  exist in other zones (including the global zone)
       fail with the same error	code that would	be  issued  if	the  specified
       process did not exist.

   Privilege Restrictions
       Processes  running  within a non-global zone are	restricted to a	subset
       of privileges, in order to prevent one zone from	being able to  perform
       operations  that	might affect other zones. The set of privileges	limits
       the capabilities	of privileged users (such as the  super-user  or  root
       user)  within  the zone.	The list of privileges available within	a zone
       can be displayed	using the ppriv(1) utility. For	more information about
       privileges, see privileges(5).

   Device Restrictions
	The set	of devices available within a zone is restricted, to prevent a
       process in one zone from	interfering with processes in other zones. For
       example,	a process in a zone should not be able to modify kernel	memory
       using /dev/kmem,	or modify the contents of the root disk. Thus, by  de-
       fault,  only a few pseudo devices considered safe for use within	a zone
       are available. Additional devices can be	made available within specific
       zones using the zonecfg(1M) utility.

       The  device  and	privilege restrictions have a number of	effects	on the
       utilities that can run in a non-global  zone.  For  example,  the  eep-
       rom(1M),	 prtdiag(1M),  and prtconf(1M) utilities do not	work in	a zone
       since they rely on devices that are not normally	available.

   File	Systems
       Each zone has its own section of	the file system	hierarchy, rooted at a
       directory  known	as the zone root. Processes inside the zone can	access
       only files within that part of the hierarchy, that is, files  that  are
       located beneath the zone	root. This prevents processes in one zone from
       corrupting or examining file system data	associated with	another	 zone.
       The chroot(1M) utility can be used within a zone, but can only restrict
       the process to a	root path accessible within the	zone.

	In order to preserve file system space,	sections of  the  file	system
       can be mounted into one or more zones using the read-only option	of the
       lofs(7FS) file system. This allows the same  file  system  data	to  be
       shared in multiple zones, while preserving the security guarantees sup-
       plied by	zones.

       NFS and autofs mounts established within	a zone are local to that zone;
       they  cannot  be	 accessed from other zones, including the global zone.
       The mounts are removed when the zone is halted or rebooted.

   Networking
       Zones can be assigned logical network interfaces, which can be used  to
       communicate over	the network. These interfaces are configured using the
       zonecfg(1M) utility. The	interface is removed when the zone  is	halted
       or rebooted. Only logical interfaces can	be assigned to a zone.

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       zlogin(1),    zonename(1),   in.rlogind(1M),   sshd(1M),	  zoneadm(1M),
       zonecfg(1M), getzoneid(3C), kill(2), priocntl(2),  ucred_get(3C),  get-
       zoneid(3C), proc(4), attributes(5), privileges(5), crgetzoneid(9F)

SunOS 5.10			  13 Apr 2004			      zones(5)

NAME | DESCRIPTION | ATTRIBUTES | SEE ALSO

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