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ZIP(1L)                                                                ZIP(1L)

       zip, zipcloak, zipnote, zipsplit - package and compress (archive) files

       zip [-aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$] [-b path] [-n suffixes]
       [-t mmddyyyy] [-tt mmddyyyy] [ zipfile [ file1 file2 ...]] [-xi list]

       zipcloak [-dhL] [-b path] zipfile

       zipnote [-hwL] [-b path] zipfile

       zipsplit [-hiLpst] [-n size] [-b path] zipfile

       zip is a compression and file packaging utility for Unix, VMS, MSDOS,
       OS/2, Windows NT, Minix, Atari and Macintosh, Amiga and Acorn RISC OS.

       It is analogous to a combination of the UNIX commands tar(1) and
       compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil Katz's ZIP for MSDOS

       A companion program (unzip(1L)), unpacks zip archives.  The zip and
       unzip(1L) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP, and PKZIP
       and PKUNZIP can work with archives produced by zip.  zip version 2.3 is
       compatible with PKZIP 2.04.  Note that PKUNZIP 1.10 cannot extract
       files produced by PKZIP 2.04 or zip 2.3. You must use PKUNZIP 2.04g or
       unzip 5.0p1 (or later versions) to extract them.

       For a brief help on zip and unzip, run each without specifying any
       parameters on the command line.

       The program is useful for packaging a set of files for distribution;
       for archiving files; and for saving disk space by temporarily
       compressing unused files or directories.

       The zip program puts one or more compressed files into a single zip
       archive, along with information about the files (name, path, date, time
       of last modification, protection, and check information to verify file
       integrity).  An entire directory structure can be packed into a zip
       archive with a single command.  Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are
       common for text files.  zip has one compression method (deflation) and
       can also store files without compression.  zip automatically chooses
       the better of the two for each file to be compressed.

       When given the name of an existing zip archive, zip will replace
       identically named entries in the zip archive or add entries for new
       names.  For example, if exists and contains foo/file1 and
       foo/file2, and the directory foo contains the files foo/file1 and
       foo/file3, then:

              zip -r foo foo

       will replace foo/file1 in and add foo/file3 to  After
       this, contains foo/file1, foo/file2, and foo/file3, with
       foo/file2 unchanged from before.

       If the file list is specified as -@, [Not on MacOS] zip takes the list
       of input files from standard input.  Under UNIX, this option can be
       used to powerful effect in conjunction with the find(1) command.  For
       example, to archive all the C source files in the current directory and
       its subdirectories:

              find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@

       (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding
       it).  zip will also accept a single dash ("-") as the zip file name, in
       which case it will write the zip file to standard output, allowing the
       output to be piped to another program. For example:

              zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       would write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block
       size for the purpose of backing up the current directory.

       zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to be
       compressed, in which case it will read the file from standard input,
       allowing zip to take input from another program. For example:

              tar cf - . | zip backup -

       would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing
       up the current directory. This generally produces better compression
       than the previous example using the -r option, because zip can take
       advantage of redundancy between files. The backup can be restored using
       the command

              unzip -p backup | tar xf -

       When no zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal, zip acts
       as a filter, compressing standard input to standard output.  For

              tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       is equivalent to

              tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with the program
       funzip which is provided in the unzip package, or by gunzip which is
       provided in the gzip package. For example:

       dd if=/dev/nrst0  ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -

       When changing an existing zip archive, zip will write a temporary file
       with the new contents, and only replace the old one when the process of
       creating the new version has been completed without error.

       If the name of the zip archive does not contain an extension, the
       extension .zip is added. If the name already contains an extension
       other than .zip the existing extension is kept unchanged.

       -a     [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format.

       -A     Adjust self-extracting executable archive.  A self-extracting
              executable archive is created by prepending the SFX stub to an
              existing archive. The -A option tells zip to adjust the entry
              offsets stored in the archive to take into account this
              "preamble" data.

       Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a special case.  At
       present, only the Amiga port of Zip is capable of adjusting or updating
       these without corrupting them. -J can be used to remove the SFX stub if
       other updates need to be made.

       -B     [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text).

       -Bn    [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit 1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe)
              bit  3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe)
              bit 8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files

       -b path
              Use the specified path for the temporary zip archive. For

                     zip -b /tmp stuff *

              will put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp,
              copying over to the current directory when done. This
              option is only useful when updating an existing archive, and the
              file system containing this old archive does not have enough
              space to hold both old and new archives at the same time.

       -c     Add one-line comments for each file.  File operations (adding,
              updating) are done first, and the user is then prompted for a
              one-line comment for each file.  Enter the comment followed by
              return, or just return for no comment.

       -d     Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o

              will remove the entry foo/tom/junk, all of the files that start
              with foo/harry/, and all of the files that end with .o (in any
              path).  Note that shell pathname expansion has been inhibited
              with backslashes, so that zip can see the asterisks, enabling
              zip to match on the contents of the zip archive instead of the
              contents of the current directory.

              Under MSDOS, -d is case sensitive when it matches names in the
              zip archive.  This requires that file names be entered in upper
              case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system.

       -df    [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive.
              Good for exporting files to foreign operating-systems.
              Resource-forks will be ignored at all.

       -D     Do not create entries in the zip archive for directories.
              Directory entries are created by default so that their
              attributes can be saved in the zip archive.  The environment
              variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. For
              example under Unix with sh:

                     ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

              (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option except -i and -x
              and can include several options.) The option -D is a shorthand
              for -x "*/" but the latter cannot be set as default in the
              ZIPOPT environment variable.

       -e     Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a password which
              is entered on the terminal in response to a prompt (this will
              not be echoed; if standard error is not a tty, zip will exit
              with an error).  The password prompt is repeated to save the
              user from typing errors.

       -E     [OS/2] Use the .LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as

       -f     Replace (freshen) an existing entry in the zip archive only if
              it has been modified more recently than the version already in
              the zip archive; unlike the update option (-u) this will not add
              files that are not already in the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -f foo

              This command should be run from the same directory from which
              the original zip command was run, since paths stored in zip
              archives are always relative.

              Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set
              according to the local timezone in order for the -f , -u and -o
              options to work correctly.

              The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do with
              the differences between the Unix-format file times (always in
              GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time)
              and the necessity to compare the two.  A typical TZ value is
              ``MET-1MEST'' (Middle European time with automatic adjustment
              for ``summertime'' or Daylight Savings Time).

       -F     Fix the zip archive. This option can be used if some portions of
              the archive are missing. It is not guaranteed to work, so you
              MUST make a backup of the original archive first.

              When doubled as in -FF the compressed sizes given inside the
              damaged archive are not trusted and zip scans for special
              signatures to identify the limits between the archive members.
              The single -F is more reliable if the archive is not too much
              damaged, for example if it has only been truncated, so try this
              option first.

              Neither option will recover archives that have been incorrectly
              transferred in ascii mode instead of binary. After the repair,
              the -t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC.
              Such files cannot be recovered; you can remove them from the
              archive using the -d option of zip.

       -g     Grow (append to) the specified zip archive, instead of creating
              a new one. If this operation fails, zip attempts to restore the
              archive to its original state. If the restoration fails, the
              archive might become corrupted. This option is ignored when
              there's no existing archive or when at least one archive member
              must be updated or deleted.

       -h     Display the zip help information (this also appears if zip is
              run with no arguments).

       -i files
              Include only the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo . -i \*.c

              which will include only the files that end in .c in the current
              directory and its subdirectories. (Note for PKZIP users: the
              equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              PKZIP does not allow recursion in directories other than the
              current one.)  The backslash avoids the shell filename
              substitution, so that the name matching is performed by zip at
              all directory levels.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo  . -i@include.lst

              which will only include the files in the current directory and
              its subdirectories that match the patterns in the file

       -I     [Acorn RISC OS] Don't scan through Image files.  When used, zip
              will not consider Image files (eg. DOS partitions or Spark
              archives when SparkFS is loaded) as directories but will store
              them as single files.

              For example, if you have SparkFS loaded, zipping a Spark archive
              will result in a zipfile containing a directory (and its
              content) while using the 'I' option will result in a zipfile
              containing a Spark archive. Obviously this second case will also
              be obtained (without the 'I' option) if SparkFS isn't loaded.

       -j     Store just the name of a saved file (junk the path), and do not
              store directory names. By default, zip will store the full path
              (relative to the current path).

       -jj    [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). The complete path including
              volume will be stored. By default the relative path will be

       -J     Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the archive.

       -k     Attempt to convert the names and paths to conform to MSDOS,
              store only the MSDOS attribute (just the user write attribute
              from UNIX), and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though
              it was not); for compatibility with PKUNZIP under MSDOS which
              cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots.

       -l     Translate the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS
              convention CR LF. This option should not be used on binary
              files.  This option can be used on Unix if the zip file is
              intended for PKUNZIP under MSDOS. If the input files already
              contain CR LF, this option adds an extra CR. This ensure that
              unzip -a on Unix will get back an exact copy of the original
              file, to undo the effect of zip -l.

       -ll    Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.  This option
              should not be used on binary files.  This option can be used on
              MSDOS if the zip file is intended for unzip under Unix.

       -L     Display the zip license.

       -m     Move the specified files into the zip archive; actually, this
              deletes the target directories/files after making the specified
              zip archive. If a directory becomes empty after removal of the
              files, the directory is also removed. No deletions are done
              until zip has created the archive without error.  This is useful
              for conserving disk space, but is potentially dangerous so it is
              recommended to use it in combination with -T to test the archive
              before removing all input files.

       -n suffixes
              Do not attempt to compress files named with the given suffixes.
              Such files are simply stored (0% compression) in the output zip
              file, so that zip doesn't waste its time trying to compress
              them.  The suffixes are separated by either colons or
              semicolons.  For example:

                     zip -rn  foo foo

              will copy everything from foo into, but will store any
              files that end in .Z, .zip, .tiff, .gif, or .snd without trying
              to compress them (image and sound files often have their own
              specialized compression methods).  By default, zip does not
              compress files with extensions in the list
      Such files are stored directly in
              the output archive.  The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used
              to change the default options. For example under Unix with csh:

                     setenv ZIPOPT "-n"

              To attempt compression on all files, use:

                     zip -n : foo

              The maximum compression option -9 also attempts compression on
              all files regardless of extension.

              On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes (3
              hex digit format). By default, zip does not compress files with
              filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i.e. Archives, CFS files and
              PackDir files).

       -N     [Amiga, MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS filenotes as zipfile
              comments. They can be restored by using the -N option of unzip.
              If -c is used also, you are prompted for comments only for those
              files that do not have filenotes.

       -o     Set the "last modified" time of the zip archive to the latest
              (oldest) "last modified" time found among the entries in the zip
              archive.  This can be used without any other operations, if
              desired.  For example:

              zip -o foo

              will change the last modified time of to the latest time
              of the entries in

       -P password
              use password to encrypt zipfile entries (if any).  THIS IS
              INSECURE!  Many multi-user operating systems provide ways for
              any user to see the current command line of any other user; even
              on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of over-the-
              shoulder peeking.  Storing the plaintext password as part of a
              command line in an automated script is even worse.  Whenever
              possible, use the non-echoing, interactive prompt to enter
              passwords.  (And where security is truly important, use strong
              encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively
              weak encryption provided by standard zipfile utilities.)

       -q     Quiet mode; eliminate informational messages and comment
              prompts.  (Useful, for example, in shell scripts and background

       -Qn    [QDOS] store information about the file in the file header with
              n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add headers for any file
              bit  1: Add headers for all files
              bit  2: Don't wait for interactive key press on exit

       -r     Travel the directory structure recursively; for example:

                     zip -r foo foo

              In this case, all the files and directories in foo are saved in
              a zip archive named, including files with names starting
              with ".", since the recursion does not use the shell's file-name
              substitution mechanism.  If you wish to include only a specific
              subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories, use
              the -i option to specify the pattern of files to be included.
              You should not use -r with the name ".*", since that matches
              ".." which will attempt to zip up the parent directory (probably
              not what was intended).

       -R     Travel the directory structure recursively starting at the
              current directory; for example:

                     zip -R foo '*.c'

              In this case, all the files matching *.c in the tree starting at
              the current directory are stored into a zip archive named
      Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

       -S     [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden files.
              [MacOS] Includes finder invisible files, which are ignored

       -t mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified prior to the specified date,
              where mm is the month (0-12), dd is the day of the month (1-31),
              and yyyy is the year.  The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is
              also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo

                     zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

              will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were
              last modified on or after 7 December 1991, to the zip archive

       -tt mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date,
              where mm is the month (0-12), dd is the day of the month (1-31),
              and yyyy is the year.  The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is
              also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo

                     zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo

              will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were
              last modified before the 30 November 1995, to the zip archive

       -T     Test the integrity of the new zip file. If the check fails, the
              old zip file is unchanged and (with the -m option) no input
              files are removed.

       -u     Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it
              has been modified more recently than the version already in the
              zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -u stuff *

              will add any new files in the current directory, and update any
              files which have been modified since the zip archive
              was last created/modified (note that zip will not try to pack
     into itself when you do this).

              Note that the -u option with no arguments acts like the -f
              (freshen) option.

       -v     Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.

              Normally, when applied to real operations, this option enables
              the display of a progress indicator during compression and
              requests verbose diagnostic info about zipfile structure

              When -v is the only command line argument, and stdout is not
              redirected to a file, a diagnostic screen is printed. In
              addition to the help screen header with program name, version,
              and release date, some pointers to the Info-ZIP home and
              distribution sites are given. Then, it shows information about
              the target environment (compiler type and version, OS version,
              compilation date and the enabled optional features used to
              create the zip executable.

       -V     [VMS] Save VMS file attributes.  zip archives created with this
              option will generally not be usable on other systems.

       -w     [VMS] Append the version number of the files to the name,
              including multiple versions of files.  (default: use only the
              most recent version of a specified file).

       -x files
              Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o

              which will include the contents of foo in while
              excluding all the files that end in .o.  The backslash avoids
              the shell filename substitution, so that the name matching is
              performed by zip at all directory levels.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo foo -x@exclude.lst

              which will include the contents of foo in while
              excluding all the files that match the patterns in the file

       -X     Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2,
              uid/gid and file times on Unix).

       -y     Store symbolic links as such in the zip archive, instead of
              compressing and storing the file referred to by the link (UNIX

       -z     Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.  The
              comment is ended by a line containing just a period, or an end
              of file condition (^D on UNIX, ^Z on MSDOS, OS/2, and VAX/VMS).
              The comment can be taken from a file:

                     zip -z foo < foowhat

       -#     Regulate the speed of compression using the specified digit #,
              where -0 indicates no compression (store all files), -1
              indicates the fastest compression method (less compression) and
              -9 indicates the slowest compression method (optimal
              compression, ignores the suffix list). The default compression
              level is -6.

       -!     [WIN32] Use priviliges (if granted) to obtain all aspects of
              WinNT security.

       -@     Take the list of input files from standard input. Only one
              filename per line.

       -$     [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32] Include the volume label for the the drive
              holding the first file to be compressed.  If you want to include
              only the volume label or to force a specific drive, use the
              drive name as first file name, as in:

                     zip -$ foo a: c:bar

       The simplest example:

              zip stuff *

       creates the archive (assuming it does not exist) and puts all
       the files in the current directory in it, in compressed form (the .zip
       suffix is added automatically, unless that archive name given contains
       a dot already; this allows the explicit specification of other

       Because of the way the shell does filename substitution, files starting
       with "." are not included; to include these as well:

              zip stuff .* *

       Even this will not include any subdirectories from the current

       To zip up an entire directory, the command:

              zip -r foo foo

       creates the archive, containing all the files and directories
       in the directory foo that is contained within the current directory.

       You may want to make a zip archive that contains the files in foo,
       without recording the directory name, foo.  You can use the -j option
       to leave off the paths, as in:

              zip -j foo foo/*

       If you are short on disk space, you might not have enough room to hold
       both the original directory and the corresponding compressed zip
       archive.  In this case, you can create the archive in steps using the
       -m option.  If foo contains the subdirectories tom, dick, and harry,
       you can:

              zip -rm foo foo/tom
              zip -rm foo foo/dick
              zip -rm foo foo/harry

       where the first command creates, and the next two add to it.
       At the completion of each zip command, the last created archive is
       deleted, making room for the next zip command to function.

       This section applies only to UNIX.  Watch this space for details on
       MSDOS and VMS operation.

       The UNIX shells (sh(1) and csh(1)) do filename substitution on command
       arguments.  The special characters are:

       ?      match any single character

       *      match any number of characters (including none)

       []     match any character in the range indicated within the brackets
              (example: [a-f], [0-9]).

       When these characters are encountered (without being escaped with a
       backslash or quotes), the shell will look for files relative to the
       current path that match the pattern, and replace the argument with a
       list of the names that matched.

       The zip program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip
       archive being modified or, in the case of the -x (exclude) or -i
       (include) options, on the list of files to be operated on, by using
       backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to do the name expansion.
       In general, when zip encounters a name in the list of files to do, it
       first looks for the name in the file system.  If it finds it, it then
       adds it to the list of files to do.  If it does not find it, it looks
       for the name in the zip archive being modified (if it exists), using
       the pattern matching characters described above, if present.  For each
       match, it will add that name to the list of files to be processed,
       unless this name matches one given with the -x option, or does not
       match any name given with the -i option.

       The pattern matching includes the path, and so patterns like \*.o match
       names that end in ".o", no matter what the path prefix is.  Note that
       the backslash must precede every special character (i.e. ?*[]), or the
       entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes ("").

       In general, use backslash to make zip do the pattern matching with the
       -f (freshen) and -d (delete) options, and sometimes after the -x
       (exclude) option when used with an appropriate operation (add, -u, -f,
       or -d).

       ZIPOPT contains default options that will be used when running zip

       ZIP    [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC OS] contains extensions separated by a : that will cause
              native filenames with one of the specified extensions to be
              added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped.  zip

              [VMS] see ZIPOPT

       compress(1), shar(1L), tar(1), unzip(1L), gzip(1L)

       The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by
       PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              2      unexpected end of zip file.

              3      a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.
                     Processing may have completed successfully anyway; some
                     broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple

              4      zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers
                     during program initialization.

              5      a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.
                     Processing probably failed immediately.

              6      entry too large to be split with zipsplit

              7      invalid comment format

              8      zip -T failed or out of memory

              9      the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or

              10     zip encountered an error while using a temp file

              11     read or seek error

              12     zip has nothing to do

              13     missing or empty zip file

              14     error writing to a file

              15     zip was unable to create a file to write to

              16     bad command line parameters

              18     zip could not open a specified file to read

       VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-
       looking things, so zip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes.
       The current mapping is as follows:   1 (success) for normal exit,
        and (0x7fff000? + 16*normal_zip_exit_status) for all errors, where the
       `?' is 0 (warning) for zip value 12, 2 (error) for the zip values 3, 6,
       7, 9, 13, 16, 18, and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones.

       zip 2.3 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip 1.1 to produce zip
       files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1.10.

       zip files produced by zip 2.3 must not be updated by zip 1.1 or PKZIP
       1.10, if they contain encrypted members or if they have been produced
       in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. The old versions of zip or PKZIP
       would create an archive with an incorrect format.  The old versions can
       list the contents of the zip file but cannot extract it anyway (because
       of the new compression algorithm).  If you do not use encryption and
       use regular disk files, you do not have to care about this problem.

       Under VMS, not all of the odd file formats are treated properly.  Only
       stream-LF format zip files are expected to work with zip.  Others can
       be converted using Rahul Dhesi's BILF program.  This version of zip
       handles some of the conversion internally.  When using Kermit to
       transfer zip files from Vax to MSDOS, type "set file type block" on the
       Vax.  When transfering from MSDOS to Vax, type "set file type fixed" on
       the Vax.  In both cases, type "set file type binary" on MSDOS.

       Under VMS, zip hangs for file specification that uses DECnet syntax

       On OS/2, zip cannot match some names, such as those including an
       exclamation mark or a hash sign.  This is a bug in OS/2 itself: the
       32-bit DosFindFirst/Next don't find such names.  Other programs such as
       GNU tar are also affected by this bug.

       Under OS/2, the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is (for
       compatibility) the amount returned by the 16-bit version of
       DosQueryPathInfo(). Otherwise OS/2 1.3 and 2.0 would report different
       EA sizes when DIRing a file.  However, the structure layout returned by
       the 32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different, it uses extra padding
       bytes and link pointers (it's a linked list) to have all fields on
       4-byte boundaries for portability to future RISC OS/2 versions.
       Therefore the value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode size)
       differs from that reported by DIR.  zip stores the 32-bit format for
       portability, even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1.3,
       so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size.

       Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler, Richard B. Wales, Jean-loup Gailly,
       Onno van der Linden, Kai Uwe Rommel, Igor Mandrichenko, John Bush and
       Paul Kienitz.  Permission is granted to any individual or institution
       to use, copy, or redistribute this software so long as all of the
       original files are included, that it is not sold for profit, and that
       this copyright notice is retained.


       Please send bug reports and comments by email to:  For bug reports, please include the version of
       zip (see zip-h ), the make options used to compile it see zip-v ), the
       machine and operating system in use, and as much additional information
       as possible.

       Thanks to R. P. Byrne for his Shrink.Pas program, which inspired this
       project, and from which the shrink algorithm was stolen; to Phil Katz
       for placing in the public domain the zip file format, compression
       format, and .ZIP filename extension, and for accepting minor changes to
       the file format; to Steve Burg for clarifications on the deflate
       format; to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some
       useful ideas for the compression algorithm; to Keith Petersen, Rich
       Wales, Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and
       ftp site for the Info-ZIP group to use; and most importantly, to the
       Info-ZIP group itself (listed in the file infozip.who) without whose
       tireless testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have
       been possible.  Finally we should thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP
       moderator, David Kirschbaum, for getting us into this mess in the first
       place.  The manual page was rewritten for UNIX by R. P. C. Rodgers.

Info-ZIP                     14 August 1999 (v2.3)                     ZIP(1L)


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