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XMODMAP(1)              FreeBSD General Commands Manual             XMODMAP(1)

NAME
       xmodmap - utility for modifying keymaps and pointer button mappings in
       X

SYNOPSIS
       xmodmap [-options ...] [filename]

DESCRIPTION
       The xmodmap program is used to edit and display the keyboard modifier
       map and keymap table that are used by client applications to convert
       event keycodes into keysyms.  It is usually run from the user's session
       startup script to configure the keyboard according to personal tastes.

OPTIONS
       The following options may be used with xmodmap:

       -display display
               This option specifies the host and display to use.

       -help   This option indicates that a brief description of the command
               line arguments should be printed on the standard error channel.
               This will be done whenever an unhandled argument is given to
               xmodmap.

       -grammar
               This option indicates that a help message describing the
               expression grammar used in files and with -e expressions should
               be printed on the standard error.

       -verbose
               This option indicates that xmodmap should print logging
               information as it parses its input.

       -quiet  This option turns off the verbose logging.  This is the
               default.

       -n      This option indicates that xmodmap should not change the
               mappings, but should display what it would do, like make(1)
               does when given this option.

       -e expression
               This option specifies an expression to be executed.  Any number
               of expressions may be specified from the command line.

       -pm     This option indicates that the current modifier map should be
               printed on the standard output.

       -pk     This option indicates that the current keymap table should be
               printed on the standard output.

       -pke    This option indicates that the current keymap table should be
               printed on the standard output in the form of expressions that
               can be fed back to xmodmap.

       -pp     This option indicates that the current pointer map should be
               printed on the standard output.

       -       A lone dash means that the standard input should be used as the
               input file.

       The filename specifies a file containing xmodmap expressions to be
       executed.  This file is usually kept in the user's home directory with
       a name like .xmodmaprc.

EXPRESSION GRAMMAR
       The xmodmap program reads a list of expressions and parses them all
       before attempting to execute any of them.  This makes it possible to
       refer to keysyms that are being redefined in a natural way without
       having to worry as much about name conflicts.

       keycode NUMBER = KEYSYMNAME ...
               The list of keysyms is assigned to the indicated keycode (which
               may be specified in decimal, hex or octal and can be determined
               by running the xev program).  Up to eight keysyms may be
               attached to a key, however the last four are not used in any
               major X server implementation.  The first keysym is used when
               no modifier key is pressed in conjunction with this key, the
               second with Shift, the third when the Mode_switch key is used
               with this key and the fourth when both the Mode_switch and
               Shift keys are used.

       keycode any = KEYSYMNAME ...
               If no existing key has the specified list of keysyms assigned
               to it, a spare key on the keyboard is selected and the keysyms
               are assigned to it.  The list of keysyms may be specified in
               decimal, hex or octal.

       keysym KEYSYMNAME = KEYSYMNAME ...
               The KEYSYMNAME on the left hand side is translated into
               matching keycodes used to perform the corresponding set of
               keycode expressions.  The list of keysym names may be found in
               the header file _X11/keysymdef.h_ (without the XK_ prefix) or
               the keysym database /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XKeysymDB.  Note that if
               the same keysym is bound to multiple keys, the expression is
               executed for each matching keycode.

       clear MODIFIERNAME
               This removes all entries in the modifier map for the given
               modifier, where valid name are: Shift, Lock, Control, Mod1,
               Mod2, Mod3, Mod4, and Mod5 (case does not matter in modifier
               names, although it does matter for all other names).  For
               example, ``clear Lock'' will remove all any keys that were
               bound to the shift lock modifier.

       add MODIFIERNAME = KEYSYMNAME ...
               This adds all keys containing the given keysyms to the
               indicated modifier map.  The keysym names are evaluated after
               all input expressions are read to make it easy to write
               expressions to swap keys (see the EXAMPLES section).

       remove MODIFIERNAME = KEYSYMNAME ...
               This removes all keys containing the given keysyms from the
               indicated modifier map.  Unlike add, the keysym names are
               evaluated as the line is read in.  This allows you to remove
               keys from a modifier without having to worry about whether or
               not they have been reassigned.

       pointer = default
               This sets the pointer map back to its default settings (button
               1 generates a code of 1, button 2 generates a 2, etc.).

       pointer = NUMBER ...
               This sets the pointer map to contain the indicated button
               codes.  The list always starts with the first physical button.

       Lines that begin with an exclamation point (!) are taken as comments.

       If you want to change the binding of a modifier key, you must also
       remove it from the appropriate modifier map.

EXAMPLES
       Many pointers are designed such that the first button is pressed using
       the index finger of the right hand.  People who are left-handed
       frequently find that it is more comfortable to reverse the button codes
       that get generated so that the primary button is pressed using the
       index finger of the left hand.  This could be done on a 3 button
       pointer as follows:
       %  xmodmap -e "pointer = 3 2 1"

       Many applications support the notion of Meta keys (similar to Control
       keys except that Meta is held down instead of Control).  However, some
       servers do not have a Meta keysym in the default keymap table, so one
       needs to be added by hand.  The following command will attach Meta to
       the Multi-language key (sometimes labeled Compose Character).  It also
       takes advantage of the fact that applications that need a Meta key
       simply need to get the keycode and don't require the keysym to be in
       the first column of the keymap table.  This means that applications
       that are looking for a Multi_key (including the default modifier map)
       won't notice any change.
       %  xmodmap -e "keysym Multi_key = Multi_key Meta_L"

       Similarly, some keyboards have an Alt key but no Meta key.  In that
       case the following may be useful:
       %  xmodmap -e "keysym Alt_L = Meta_L Alt_L"

       One of the more simple, yet convenient, uses of xmodmap is to set the
       keyboard's "rubout" key to generate an alternate keysym.  This
       frequently involves exchanging Backspace with Delete to be more
       comfortable to the user.  If the ttyModes resource in xterm is set as
       well, all terminal emulator windows will use the same key for erasing
       characters:
       %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
       %  echo "XTerm*ttyModes:  erase ^?" | xrdb -merge

       Some keyboards do not automatically generate less than and greater than
       characters when the comma and period keys are shifted.  This can be
       remedied with xmodmap by resetting the bindings for the comma and
       period with the following scripts:
       !
       ! make shift-, be < and shift-. be >
       !
       keysym comma = comma less
       keysym period = period greater

       One of the more irritating differences between keyboards is the
       location of the Control and Shift Lock keys.  A common use of xmodmap
       is to swap these two keys as follows:
       !
       ! Swap Caps_Lock and Control_L
       !
       remove Lock = Caps_Lock
       remove Control = Control_L
       keysym Control_L = Caps_Lock
       keysym Caps_Lock = Control_L
       add Lock = Caps_Lock
       add Control = Control_L

       The keycode command is useful for assigning the same keysym to multiple
       keycodes.  Although unportable, it also makes it possible to write
       scripts that can reset the keyboard to a known state.  The following
       script sets the backspace key to generate Delete (as shown above),
       flushes all existing caps lock bindings, makes the CapsLock key be a
       control key, make F5 generate Escape, and makes Break/Reset be a shift
       lock.
       !
       ! On the HP, the following keycodes have key caps as listed:
       !
       !     101  Backspace
       !      55  Caps
       !      14  Ctrl
       !      15  Break/Reset
       !      86  Stop
       !      89  F5
       !
       keycode 101 = Delete
       keycode 55 = Control_R
       clear Lock
       add Control = Control_R
       keycode 89 = Escape
       keycode 15 = Caps_Lock
       add Lock = Caps_Lock

ENVIRONMENT
       DISPLAY to get default host and display number.

SEE ALSO
       X(7), xev(1), Xlib documentation on key and pointer events

BUGS
       Every time a keycode expression is evaluated, the server generates a
       MappingNotify event on every client.  This can cause some thrashing.
       All of the changes should be batched together and done at once.
       Clients that receive keyboard input and ignore MappingNotify events
       will not notice any changes made to keyboard mappings.

       Xmodmap should generate "add" and "remove" expressions automatically
       whenever a keycode that is already bound to a modifier is changed.

       There should be a way to have the remove expression accept keycodes as
       well as keysyms for those times when you really mess up your mappings.

AUTHOR
       Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium, rewritten from an earlier version by
       David Rosenthal of Sun Microsystems.

XFree86                          Version 4.7.0                      XMODMAP(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | EXPRESSION GRAMMAR | EXAMPLES | ENVIRONMENT | SEE ALSO | BUGS | AUTHOR

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