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XMJ(1)			    General Commands Manual			XMJ(1)

       xmj, mj-server, mj-player - programs for	playing	Mah-Jong

       xmj [--id idnumber]
		[--server address]
		[--name	playername]
		[--show-wall | --no-show-wall]
		[--size	N]
		[--animate | --no-animate]
		[--tileset directory]
		[--tileset-path	directory-path]
		[--dialogs-popup | --dialogs-below | --dialogs-central]
		[--use-system-gtkrc | --no-use-system-gtkrc]
		[--gtk2-rcfile file]

       mj-server [--server address]  [--timeout	seconds]
		[--pause deciseconds]
		[--random-seats	| --id-order-seats]
		[--disconnect-penalties	N1,N2,N3]
		[--option-file file]
		[--load-game file]
		[--auth-basic id:password]*4
		[--logfile file]
		[--seed	N]
		[--wallfile file]

       mj-player [--id idnumber] [--name playername]
		[--server address] [--password password]
		[strategy options]

       A  set of three programs	to play	Mah-Jong on Unix systems, against peo-
       ple or programs,	over the Internet.

	      is the program that handles communications and  control  of  the
	      game;  the  rules	and scoring are	enforced there.	Players, human
	      or computer, connect to a	server via the network.

	      is a computer player. At present,	it is fairly simplistic,  hav-
	      ing only offensive tactics with no knowledge of defensive	play.

       xmj    is the X client for human	players.

       If  you	don't want to read this	long document: to start	a game against
       three computer players, start xmj, select "New local game..." from  the
       "Game" menu, and	click "Start Game". (Wait about	ten seconds for	every-
       thing to	start up.)

   All Programs
       --server	address
	      specifies	the network address to listen on (for mj-server) or to
	      connect  to  (for	 mj-player  and	 xmj).	 If address contains a
	      colon, it	specifies an Internet socket, and should have the form
	      host:port	 .  If	address	does not contain a colon, it is	inter-
	      preted as	a Unix file name and a Unix socket is used.   The  de-
	      fault  value  for	address	is  localhost:5000 .  address can also
	      be set in	a dialog box in	xmj.

   xmj and mj-player
       --id idnumber
	      The server assigns a unique integer ID (which is currently  just
	      1	to 4 in	order of connection) to	each player. This ID should be
	      quoted when reconnecting to a game in progress (after, for exam-
	      ple,  losing  a network connection or accidentally killing xmj).
	      The default ID is	0, which denotes no pre-assigned ID.

       --name name
	      Players can give themselves names	which will be used  by	client
	      programs.	 This  option specifies	the name. For xmj, the default
	      is the value of the environment  variable	 LOGNAME,  or  failing
	      that  the	username of the	logged in user.	For mj-player, the de-
	      fault is "Robot(PID)" where PID is the process id.

	      By default, xmj does not automatically connect to	a server,  but
	      waits  for  the  user  to	 connect via a menu. If	this option is
	      specified, xmj immediately connects.

	      Tells xmj	(not) to display the wall. By  default,	 the  wall  is
	      shown  only  if  running	on a big enough	screen.	This option is
	      also controllable	via the	Display	Options	preference panel.

       --size number
	      This option adjusts the size of the main window.	It  should  be
	      thought  of as the length	of a tile rack,	measured in tiles. The
	      default, and the largest value accepted, is 19, or 18 if	on  an
	      800x600 display. The smallest usable value is 14.	This option is
	      also controllable	via the	Display	Options	preference panel.
	      If the --show-wall option	is given, a  --size  smaller  than  19
	      will have	no effect.

	      This option switches on (off) some animation. Not	all tile move-
	      ments are	animated: only those that involve moving tiles	to  or
	      from  a  hand from outside. This option is also controllable via
	      the Display Options preference panel.

       --tileset directory
	      xmj needs	pixmaps	to display the tiles and the tong  box.	  This
	      option tells it which directory to find them in.	The default is
	      set at compilation time; the default default is to use the  com-
	      piled-in tiles.

       --tileset-path directory-path
	      This  gives  a colon-separated (or semicolon-separated under Mi-
	      crosoft Windows) list of directories in which to	look  for  the
	      directory	named by the --tileset option.

	      By default, most of the dialog boxes for player actions are part
	      of the main window. If this option is used,  they	 will  instead
	      appear as	separate transient windows.

	      By  default, dialog boxes	appear in the centre of	the table.  If
	      this option is given, dialogs (apart from	some popups) are posi-
	      tioned  below the	table area. Please let me know which style you

	      The default: dialog boxes	appear in the  middle  of  the	table.
	      These  options  are  also	 controllable  via the Display Options
	      preference panel.

       --gtk2-rcfile file
	      If xmj is	compiled with GTK+2, this option specifies  a  GTK  rc
	      file to be used instead of the program's compiled-in style file.
	      This may be used to change the appearance	of  the	 program.  See
	      description under	the Display Options... panel for more details.
	      The file should be an absolute filename; if it is	 relative,  it
	      will  be	sought	in the current directory (Unix)	or the program
	      directory	(Windows). This	option is also	controllable  via  the
	      Display Options preference panel.

	      When  xmj	is compiled with GTK+2,	by default it ignores the sys-
	      tem provided settings, to	ensure a consistent  behaviour	across
	      systems.	 If  you wish it to use	your system settings, set this
	      option.  This option is also controllable	via  the  Display  Op-
	      tions preference panel.

	      If  this option is given,	xmj will echo to  stdout  all the pro-
	      tocol messages received from the server. This option is for  use
	      in debugging.

	      If  this	option is given, xmj will send any text	given on stdin
	      to the server. This option is for	use in debugging.

	      If this option is	given, xmj will	send requests  to  the	server
	      only  in direct response to user actions;	it will	take no	action
	      itself (and hence	all auto-declaring and playing	is  also  dis-
	      abled). This option is for use in	debugging.

       --timeout seconds
	      When  a  discard	is  made, there	is a limit on the time players
	      have to claim it.	This option sets the timeout; a	value of  zero
	      disables it. The default is 15 seconds.
	      This  value  can	also  be  set  via a GameOption	request	from a

       --pause deciseconds
	      This will	make the server	enforce	a delay	of deciseconds/10 sec-
	      onds  between  each  action  in the game;	the purpose is to slow
	      programmed players down to human speed (or, in a teaching	situa-
	      tion,  to	slow the game even more). The current server considers
	      that 50 (i.e. 5 seconds) is the  maximum	reasonable  value  for
	      this option.
	      The  option can also be requested	by players, via	a PlayerOption
	      protocol request.

	      By default, players are seated in	order  of  connection  to  the
	      server.  This option seats them randomly.	It will	become the de-
	      fault later.

	      This option causes the players to	be seated in  numerical	 order
	      of  their	ids. It	is used	by the xmj program to make the New lo-
	      cal game..  work as expected.

       --disconnect-penalties N1,N2,N3
	      This specifies the penalties applied by the following option for
	      players  who disconnect before the end of	a game.	N1 is the pen-
	      alty for disconnecting in	the middle of a	hand; N2 at the	end of
	      a	 hand  but  in the middle of a round; N3 at the	end of a round
	      (other than end of game).	They all default to 0  if  not	speci-

	      If  this	option	is  given,  a disconnection by one player will
	      gracefully terminate the game. Mid-hand, the hand	is declared  a
	      wash-out;	 after	Mah-Jong  has  been declared, then if a	losing
	      player disconnects, their	tiles are shown, the hand  is  scored,
	      and  then	 the  game  ends; if a winning player disconnects, the
	      hand is a	wash-out. The disconnecting player may be  assigned  a
	      penalty,	according  to the --disconnect-penalties option, which
	      will be included in the scores printed out by the	 server.  (The
	      penalties	will not be visible to the other players.)

	      If this option is	given, the server will quit if any player dis-
	      connects,	rather than waiting indefinitely for reconnection.

	      If this option is	given, the server will save the	state  of  the
	      game if it quits as a result of a	player disconnecting. (It will
	      not save the state if it quits as	the result of an internal  er-

       --option-file file
	      This  names a file of protocol commands which will be applied to
	      every game when it starts. Its main purpose is  to  set  non-de-
	      fault  game  options,  via the GameOption	protocol message (note
	      that this	is a CMsg, not a PMsg).	However, users	will  normally
	      set  options  and	 preferences via the xmj control panel,	not by
	      this means.

       --load-game file
	      This names a file	containing a saved game	 (as  a	 suitable  se-
	      quence  of  protocol  commands).	The server will	load the game;
	      clients connecting will be treated as if they  had  disconnected
	      and rejoined the game.

	      In the most common case of resuming a saved game,	namely one hu-
	      man playing against three	robots,	the robots will	not  have  the
	      same  names  or ids as the robots	in the original	game. This op-
	      tion tells the server that if it	cannot	match  a  reconnecting
	      player  by  id  or name, it should anyway	match it to one	of the
	      previously disconnected players. (In this	case, the  human  nor-
	      mally  connects  first  with  the	 same  name,  so  is correctly

	      Usually, the first player	to connect becomes the	game  manager,
	      and  can	change all the game settings. If this option is	given,
	      no player	will be	allowed	to change the game settings.

       --auth-basic id:password
	      This provides basic (insecure, since the password	is transmitted
	      in plaintext) authorization: the player with id id must give the
	      specified	password to connect. Note that	if  this  argument  is
	      given,  it  must	be  given four times, once for each authorized
	      player - any player id not mentioned will	not be allowed to con-
	      nect.  A	player may be allowed to connect without a password by
	      making password empty.

	      This enables various debugging features. In particular,  it  en-
	      ables  protocol commands that allow one to change	the tiles in a

       --logfile file
	      The server will write a complete record of  the  game  to	 file;
	      this  will be quite large, and is	only useful for	automatic com-
	      parison of different computer players.

	      This option suppresses the scoring of  points  and  doubles  for
	      flowers  and seasons. It is primarily intended for running tests
	      of different players; for	human use, a game option will be  pro-
	      vided to eliminate the specials altogether.

       --seed n
	      This  option specifies the seed for the random number functions.
	      Used for repeatable tests.

       --wallfile file
	      This names a file	containing space separated tile	 codes	giving
	      the  wall; used for repeatable tests. (This is a testing option;
	      it is not	robust.)

	      This is an option	to facilitate certain automatic	 analyses;  if
	      set, a history of	each hand is dumped to the file	hand-NN.mjs .

	      Another  option  only  used  in automatic	comparison: this saves
	      some CPU time by disabling the book-keeping  required  to	 allow
	      players to disconnect and	reconnect.

       --password password
	      sets the password	if basic authorization is in use.

       strategy	options
	      The  player  has	some  options  which can be used to change its
	      "personality". The meanings are rather approximate,  since  they
	      actually	change	parameters  which are used in a	rather complex
	      way, but the idea	is right. These	options, each of which takes a
	      floating point value in the given	range, are:

       --chowness -1.0 .. 1.0
	      This affects how much the	player likes chows: at 1.0, it will go
	      all out for the chicken hand, at -1.0 it will  never  chow.  The
	      default is 0.0.

       --hiddenness 0.0	.. 1.0
	      Increasing this makes the	player reluctant to make exposed sets.
	      At 1.0, it will never claim (except possibly  to	go  mah-jong).
	      The default is 0.0.

       --majorness 0.0 .. 1.0
	      Increasing  this	biases	the  player  towards  collecting major
	      tiles. At	1.0, it	will discard all minor tiles, if possible. The
	      default is 0.0.

       --suitness 0.0 .. 1.0
	      Increasing  this	makes the player try to	go for one-suit	hands.
	      The default is 0.0

       In practice, the	--majorness option seems not to	be  very  useful,  but
       the  other options change the personality without completely destroying
       the playing ability.

       In fact,	all these options take a comma-separated list of values, which
       allows the specifications of a set of strategies, which the player will
       switch between. In this case, the --hysteresis hhh option specifies how
       much  better a strategy should be to switch to it. However, use of this
       option, and multiple strategies,	is probably only useful	if  you	 first
       read the	code to	see how	it works.

       The main	window contains	a menu-bar and a table area; the table is in a
       tasteful	shade of dark green. The table displays	a stylized version  of
       the  game:  stylized in that there is no	jazzy graphics or perspective,
       and the tiles are not intended to be pictures of	real objects,  and  so
       on.  Otherwise,	the layout is as one would expect of a real game. How-
       ever, the wall may or may not be	displayed, depending  on  option  set-
       tings and screen	size. (See above.)

       Specifically,  the  four	 players are arranged around the four edges of
       the table, with "us" at the bottom.  For	 each  player,	the  concealed
       tiles  are  displayed  nearest the edge of the table; our own tiles are
       visible,	the other players' tiles are  face-down.  The  rightmost  con-
       cealed  tile  of	 other	players	is highlighted in red when it is their
       turn to discard.

       In front	of the concealed tiles are (to the player's left) any declared
       sets, and (to the player's right) flowers and seasons, and the tong box
       if the player is	East. The tong box displays the	wind of	the round in a
       white  circle. If necessary, the	flowers	and seasons will overflow into
       the concealed row.

       The discards are	displayed face-up in the middle	of the board: they are
       laid  down  in  order by	each player, in	the natural orientation. TODO:
       add options to display discards randomly, or face-down.	 If  animation
       (see  --animate option) is not being used, then the most	recent discard
       will be highlighted in red.

       The name	of a face-up tile can be displayed by  right-clicking  in  the
       tile.  Alternatively,  the Tiletips display option can be set, in which
       case the	name of	a tile is displayed whenever the mouse enters it.

       Our tiles are displayed in sorted order,	which happens  to  be  Bamboos
       (1-9),  Characters  (1-9),  Circles (1-9), Winds	(ESWN),	Dragons	(RWG),
       Flowers,	Seasons. We can	also arrange the tiles	ourselves  -  see  the
       "Sort tiles in hand" display preference described below.

       Actions	are generally carried out by clicking a	button in a dialog box
       that appears in the middle of the board.	For many actions, a tile  must
       be  selected.  A	 tile is selected or unselected	by single-clicking it;
       when selected, it appears as a depressed	button.	 The program will gen-
       erally pre-select a sensible tile: specifically:
       during  the initial declaration of special tiles, the rightmost special
       is selected;
       after we	draw a tile from the wall, the drawn tile is selected;
       when declaring concealed	sets after going Mah  Jong,  the  first	 unde-
       clared tile is selected.

       To  describe  the  possible actions, let	us run through the course of a

       First select "New local game..."	from the "Game"	menu. A	panel will ap-
       pear.  The  default options are to play a game against the computer, so
       click "Start Game".  After a second or two, a game will	start.	(NOTE:
       this  assumes  correct  installation. If	this fails, start a server and
       players manually, and use the "Join server..." menu item.)

       The first thing that happens is a  dialog  box  "Ready  to  start  next
       hand".  The server will not start playing a hand	until all players have
       indicated their willingness to continue play.

       Next, the tiles are dealt. Then each player in turn is expected to  de-
       clare  flowers  and  seasons. When it is	our turn, a dialog will	appear
       with the	following buttons:

	      declare the selected flower or season. (Note: the	program	 auto-
	      selects  the  rightmost  special tile.)  If no tile is selected,
	      this finishes declarations.  This	button will not	appear if  the
	      game is being played without flowers and seasons.

       Kong   If  we  have  a  concealed kong, we can declare it now with this

       Finish Finish declaring specials	and kongs.

       When all	players	have finished declaring	specials and kongs,  a	dialog
       box appears, asking (on East's behalf) permission to continue.

       During  play,  when  we	draw a tile from the wall, it will be auto-se-
       lected. We may also of course select a different	tile.  A  dialog  will
       appear giving us	the following possibilities:

	      discard  the selected tile. This button also serves to declare a
	      flower or	season,	and the	label changes to "Declare" when	one is

	      discard the selected tile	and declare a calling hand.  This but-
	      ton is only shown	when calling  is  allowed  (by	default,  only
	      Original Call is allowed).

       Kong   declare  a  concealed  kong of the selected tile,	or add the se-
	      lected tile to an	exposed	pung, as appropriate.  Note:  In  most
	      rules, a concealed kong can only be declared (or a tile added to
	      an existing pung)	immediately after drawing from the  wall,  but
	      not  after claiming somebody else's discard. Up to and including
	      version 1.10, the	server enforced	this rule  strictly.  As  from
	      version  1.11,  it  allows a tile	to be added to a pung that you
	      have just	claimed: in real life, this corresponds	to  correcting
	      your  Pung!  claim  to  a	 Kong!	claim, which is	allowed	by all
	      rules. (Obscure note: if you are playing the  KongHas3Types  op-
	      tion,  the resulting kong	will be	counted	as annexed, instead of
	      the exposed kong that would have resulted	from a genuine	change
	      of claim.	This is	a bug, but not worth the trouble of fixing.)

       Mah Jong!
	      declare Mah Jong!	(no selection needed)

       If  the	wall  is  not  being shown, the	dialog will note the number of
       tiles left in the live wall.

       A tile can also be discarded simply by double-clicking it.

       When another player discards, a dialog appears to allow us to claim it.
       If  the dialogs are in the middle of the	table, the dialog displays the
       tile in a position and orientation to  indicate	the  player  who  dis-
       carded;	if  the	 dialogs  are at the bottom, this is not done, to save
       space.  In any case the dialog displays the name	of the tile, and  but-
       tons for	the possible claims.  If the wall is not being shown, the dia-
       log will	note the number	of tiles left in the live wall.	 There is also
       a  `progress bar' which shows how time is running out.  The buttons use
       one variant of traditional English terminology, viz:

       No claim
	      we don't claim this tile.	If there is no timeout	in  operation,
	      it  is  necessary	to click this to indicate a "pass", and	in any
	      case it is desirable to speed up play.

       Chow   claim for	a sequence.  If	our claim is successful	and  there  is
	      more than	one possible sequence to be made, a dialog will	appear
	      asking us	to specify which one.

       Pung   claim for	a triplet.

       Kong   claim for	quadruplet.

       Mah Jong!
	      claim for	Mah Jong.  If the claim	succeeds, a  dialog  box  will
	      appear  asking  whether  we  want	 the  tile for "Eyes", "Chow",
	      "Pung", or a "Special Hand" (such	as Thirteen  Unique  Wonders).
	      (The  term  "Eyes" is used instead of "Pair" so that in the key-
	      board accelerators, E can	be used, leaving P for "Pung".)

       When a player (including	us) claims, the	word "Chow!" etc. will	appear
       (in  big	 letters  on  a	yellow background, by default) for a couple of
       seconds above the player's tiles.

       When all	players	have claimed, or timed out, the	 successful  claim  is
       implemented; no additional announcement is made of this.

       If a player adds	a tile to an exposed pung, and that tile would give us
       Mah Jong, then a	dialog box pops	up to ask whether we wish to  rob  the

       After  somebody	goes  Mah  Jong, we are	asked to declare our concealed
       sets. A dialog appears with buttons for "Eyes", "Chow", "Pung". To  de-
       clare a set, select a tile, which must be the first tile	in the set for
       a chow, and click the appropriate button. (If we	are  going  Mah	 Jong,
       the first undeclared tile is auto-selected.) When finished, click "Fin-
       ished" to reveal	the remaining tiles to the other players.  If  we  are
       the  winner, there will be a button for "Special	Hand": this is used to
       declare hands of	non-standard shape, such as Thirteen  Unique  Wonders.
       (Note:  the Seven Pairs hand, if	in use,	should be declared by means of
       the "Eyes" button, not the "Special Hand" button.)

       At this point, a	new top-level window appears to	 display  the  scoring
       information.  The  scoring  is  done entirely by	the server, not	by the
       players;	the server sends a text	description of the score  calculation,
       and  this  is displayed for each	player in the Scoring window.  The in-
       formation in the	Scoring	window remains there until the	next  hand  is
       scored; the window can be brought up at any time	via the	"Show" menu.

       Finally,	 the  "continue	 with next hand" dialog	appears. The hand just
       completed will remain visible on	the table until	the next hand starts.

       Keyboard	Accelerators
       There are keyboard accelerators for all the actions in  the  course  of
       play. For selecting tiles, the Left and Right arrow keys	can be used to
       move the	selection left or right	along the row of  tiles.  In  all  di-
       alogs, Space or Return will activate the	shadowed button, which is usu-
       ally the	commonest choice. Each button can also be activated by	typing
       the  underlined	letter.	 (In the Windows GTK1 build, use l (ell) and r
       instead of Left and Right. The button accelerators  do  not  work,  for
       reasons unknown to me.)
       The  menus  are also accessible via accelerators. To open a menu, press
       Meta-X (Alt-X on	Windows), where	X is the underlined letter in the menu
       name.  (Meta-X  is  often  (confusingly)	Alt-X on Linux systems.)  Then
       each entry has an underlined letter which if pressed will activate it.

       An additional top-level window showing the state	of the game can	be ob-
       tained by selecting "Game info" from the	"Show" menu.

       A  record  of  the  scores so far in the	game can be found by selecting
       "Scoring	history" from the "Show" menu. The players are listed in board
       order,  with  the original east marked by @. In each hand, the player's
       hand score appears in parentheses, and then their gain or loss for  the
       hand, beneath which is the running total

       There  is  also a facility for sending text messages to the other play-
       ers. Select "Messages" from the "Show" menu, and	a window will  appear:
       in  the	top  is	 a display of all messages sent, and below is a	single
       line in which you can enter your	message. It will be sent when you  hit
       Return.	The message window pops	up automatically whenever a message is
       received, unless	prevented by a display	preference.  If	 the  "Display
       status  and  messages  in main window" display option is	set, then this
       window will instead appear in the main window, above the	table. In that
       case,  there is a checkbox "Keep	cursor here" next to the message entry
       line. Checking this box will ensure that	the keyboard  focus  stays  in
       the  message  entry  field, even	when you click on buttons in the game.
       (Consequently, you will be unable to use	 keyboard  accelerators	 while
       this option is checked.)

   Starting games and re-connecting
       The "Game" menu has the "New local game..." item	to start a new game on
       your local computer, and	the "Join server..." item to connect to	an ex-
       isting game. The	dialogs	for both these have the	following entries:

       Checkboxes for Internet/Unix server
	      These  specify  whether  the  server is listening	on an Internet
	      socket or	a Unix socket. If an Internet (TCP) socket,  the  host
	      name  ("Join Game..." only) and port number should be entered in
	      the appropriate boxes; if	a Unix socket, the file	 name  of  the
	      socket  may be entered, or if it is left blank, a	temporary file
	      will be used.  These fields are remembered from game to game.

       "Player ID" and "Name" fields
	      The "Player ID" should be	left at	0, unless reconnecting	to  an
	      existing game, in	which case it should be	the ID assigned	by the
	      server on	first connecting to that game. The "Name" field	can be
	      anything.	 When  reconnecting  to	an existing game, if the ID is
	      given as 0, the server will try to use the  "Name"  to  identify
	      the  player.  (This may not be true in future.) The "Name" field
	      is remembered from game to game.

       The "Join server..." dialog then	simply has a "Connect" button  to  es-
       tablish	the  connection.  The  "New  local  game..." has the following

       For each	of three further players,
	      A	checkbox to say	whether	to start a computer player. (Some  of)
	      these  should  be	unchecked if you wish other humans to join the
	      games.  If checked, there	is a text entry	to  set	 the  players'
	      names,  and  a text entry	field in which options can be given to
	      the players; the latter should only be used  if  you  understand
	      the options! The options are remembered from game	to game.

       An "allow disconnection"	checkbox
	      If  this is checked, the server that is started will continue to
	      run even if players disconnect. If it is not checked, the	server
	      will  quit  if  any  player  disconnects.	If you are playing one
	      against the computer, this should	generally be  left  unchecked,
	      in order to avoid	server processes accidentally being left lying
	      around. If playing against people, it should be checked, to  al-
	      low players to go	away, or to guard against network outages.

       As "save	game state on exit" checkbox
	      If this is checked, the server will save the game	state (see be-
	      low on on	saving and resuming games) when	a  player  disconnects
	      and causes it to quit.

       A "seat players randomly" checkbox
	      If  this	is left	unchecked, players will	be initially seated as
	      East, South, West, North in order	of connection. (We always con-
	      nect first.)  If it is checked, the seating will be random.

       A numeric entry field
	      to  specify  the time limit for claiming discards.  If set to 0,
	      there will be no time limit.

       A button	to start the game
	      Note that	it takes a few seconds to start	a game,	 during	 which
	      time  the	 dialog	 stays	up with	the button pressed. (TODO: fix

   Saving and resuming games
       At any time during the play of a	game, you can choose the "Save"	 entry
       from  the "Game"	menu. This causes the server to	save the current state
       of the game in a	file. The file will be named game-date.mjs by default;
       if  a  name  has	 previously been specified, or if the game was resumed
       from a file, that name will be used. To specify a name, use  the	 "Save
       as..."  entry  in  the "Game" menu. Note	that for security, directories
       cannot be specified (except by resuming a game),	so the	file  will  be
       created in the working directory	of the server.

       To  resume a saved game,	use the	"Resume	game..." entry from the	"Game"
       menu. This is just like the "New	local game..." panel, but it has a box
       to  specify the file containing the saved game. You can either type the
       file name into the box, or click	the "Browse..."	button to get  a  file
       chooser dialog. (File chooser not available on Windows GTK1 build.)

   Setting display and game options
       The  "Options"  menu of xmj brings up panels to set various options re-
       lated to	the display and	to the game rules.  Most of these options  can
       be  stored in the preferences file, which is .xmjrc in your home	direc-
       tory on Unix, and xmj.ini in your home (whatever	that means)  directory
       on Microsoft Windows.

   Display Options
       This  panel controls options related to the local display.  At the bot-
       tom are three buttons: "Save & Apply" applies changes and saves them in
       the preferences file for	future sessions; "Apply	(no save)" applies any
       changes,	but does not save them;	"Cancel" ignores changes.   Note  that
       many  display options can also be controlled by command-line arguments;
       if an option is specified both in the preferences file and on the  com-
       mand line, the command line takes priority.

       Position	of action dialogs.
	      This  determines	where the dialogs for user actions in the game
	      are popped up; see the description of the	--dialogs-central etc.
	      options above. This option is stored in the preferences file as
	      Display DialogPosition posn
	      where posn is one	of "central", "below" or "popup".

	      determines  whether  tile	movements are animated (see the	--ani-
	      mate option above). This option is  stored  in  the  preferences
	      file as
	      Display Animate bool
	      where bool is "0"	or "1".

       Display status and messages in main window
	      puts the game status and message (chat) windows in the main win-
	      dow, above the table, instead of having separate popup  windows.
	      This option is stored in the preferences file as
	      Display InfoInMain bool
	      where bool is "0"	or "1".

       Don't popup scoring/message windows
	      will  prevent  the  automatic popup of the scoring window	at the
	      end of a hand, the message window	on the arrival of  a  message,
	      and  the	game status window at the end of the game. This	option
	      is stored	in the preferences file	as
	      Display NoPopups bool
	      where bool is "0"	or "1".

       Tiletips	always shown
	      means that the name of a tile is displayed  whenever  the	 mouse
	      enters  it,  and	the name of the	selected tile is always	shown.
	      (Otherwise, right-click to display the  name.)  This  option  is
	      stored in	the preferences	file as
	      Display Tiletips bool
	      where bool is "0"	or "1".

       Display size
	      This  drop-down list specifies the size of the display. The size
	      should be	thought	of as the length of a tile rack. This is  only
	      relevant	if  the	wall is	not being displayed. Values range from
	      14 to 19;	if "(auto)" (the default)  is  specified,  the	client
	      tries  to	 choose	a size as big as will fit in the display. This
	      option can also be specified by the command  line	 --size	 argu-
	      ment. This option	is stored in the preferences file as
	      Display Size n

       Show the	wall
	      "always"	is  equivalent	to  the	--show-wall option; "never" is
	      equivalent to the	--no-show-wall option; and "when room" is  the
	      default. This option is stored in	the preferences	file as
	      Display ShowWall when
	      where when is one	of "always", "when-room" or "never".

       Sort tiles in hand
	      By  default,  the	program	maintains your own tiles in sorted or-
	      der.  If you prefer to leave them	unsorted (which	is often  rec-
	      ommended in real life, to	avoid giving information to your oppo-
	      nents), or to arrange them yourself, you can set this option  to
	      "never",	or  to	"on deal" if you want them to be sorted	at the
	      beginning, but then left alone.  To  rearrange  tiles,  use  the
	      Shift-Left  and  Shift-Right (i.e. the left and right arrow keys
	      while holding Shift) - these move	 the  selected	tile  left  or
	      right  in	your hand. (In the Windows GTK1	build, use L (Shift-l)
	      and R (Shift-r) instead.)	On GTK2	builds,	you can	 also  drag  a
	      tile  to its new position	with the mouse.	 This option is	stored
	      in the preferences file as
	      Display SortTiles	when
	      where when is one	of "always", "deal" or "never".

       Iconify all windows with	main
	      If this option is	set (the default), then	when the main xmj win-
	      dow  is  iconified,  (almost) all	other open windows such	as di-
	      alogs will also be iconified; when the main window  is  uniconi-
	      fied,  the  other	windows	will also be uniconified. If it	is not
	      set, all windows are independent of one another. This option  is
	      stored in	the preferences	file as
	      Display IconifyDialogs bool
	      This option is not currently supported under Microsoft Windows.

	      this  is	the tile pixmap	directory, also	given by the --tileset
	      option. This option is stored in the preferences file as
	      Display Tileset dirname

       Tileset Path
	      this is the search path for tileset directories, also  given  by
	      the  --tileset-path option. This option is stored	in the prefer-
	      ences file as
	      Display TilesetPath search-path

       Main font selection...
	      This button brings up a font selection dialog to choose the font
	      used  in	buttons,  menus,  etc.	in  the	client.	This option is
	      stored in	the preferences	file as
	      Display MainFont font-name
	      where font-name is a font	name, which may	be an  X  LFD  in  the
	      Unix GTK+1 version, or a Pango font name in the Windows and Unix
	      GTK+2 versions.

       Text font selection...
	      This button brings up a font selection dialog to choose the font
	      used  in	text  display  (such  as scoring info and chat)	in the
	      client. This option is stored in the preferences file as
	      Display TextFont font-name

       Table colour selection...
	      Unaccountably, not everybody likes my choice of dark  green  for
	      the  table  background. This button brings up a colour selection
	      box to allow the table  colour  to  be  changed.This  option  is
	      stored in	the preferences	file as
	      Display TableColour col
	      where  col  is a GTK colour specification. The format depends on
	      whether xmj is built with	GTK+1 -	in which case it is an X color
	      of  the form rgb:RRRR/GGGG/BBBB -	or GTK+2 - in which case it is
	      a	GTK2 color of the form #RRRRGGGGBBBB. GTK+2 programs will con-
	      vert an old GTK1 specification.

       Gtk2 Rcfile:
	      In the GTK+2 build, xmj by default ignores completely the	system
	      and user settings	for look and feel, and uses its	own  built  in
	      settings.	  These	 settings  use	the Clearlooks theme, if it is
	      available, to provide a simple  but  clean  look	with  slightly
	      rounded  tiles;  and  fall  back to a plain theme, as compact as
	      possible with the	standard engine. If you	wish, you can use this
	      option  to  specify  the name of a GTK rcfile which will be read
	      instead of the built in settings.	 A  minimal  set  of  settings
	      will  be read before your	file is	read.  Such a file can specify
	      many details of the appearance, provided that you	 know  how  to
	      write a GTK rcfile. You will need	to know	that xmj uses the fol-
	      lowing styles and	bindings:
	      gtk-font-name = fontname
	      can be used to change the	overall	font  used  by	widgets.  This
	      will  overridden	by the font specified by the Main Font option,
	      if set.
	      style "table"
	      is used to give the green	(or whatever you set)  colour  to  the
	      table.  All  widgets  that should	have this style	are named "ta-
	      ble", so the appropriate binding (already	 set  in  the  minimal
	      set) is
		   widget "*.table" style "table"
	      style "playerlabel"
	      is  used	to give	the white text colour to the player status la-
	      bels in the corners of the board (if shown).  All	 widgets  that
	      should have this style are named "playerlabel", so the appropri-
	      ate binding (already set in the minimal set) is
		   widget "*.playerlabel" style	"playerlabel"
	      style "tile"
	      is used in the default settings for all  widgets	named  "tile",
	      which are	all tiles except the tiles in your own concealed hand.
	      This style is not	used in	the minimal settings, but  if  set  it
	      should be	bound with
		   widget "*.tile" style "tile"
	      style "mytile"
	      is  used in the default settings for the concealed tiles in your
	      hand, which are  active  buttons.	 These	tiles  are  all	 named
	      "mytile".	This style is not used in the minimal settings,	but if
	      set it should be bound with
		   widget "*.mytile" style "mytile"
	      style "claim"
	      is used to set the yellow	background and large font of the claim
	      announcement  popups. These popups are named "claim", so the ap-
	      propriate	binding	(already set in	the minimal set) is
		   widget "*.claim" style "claim"
	      style "text"
	      is used to change	the font for the text widgets such as  message
	      boxes  and  input	 fields. In the	minimal	settings, it is	empty,
	      but is defined and bound to the relevant	widgets.  The  binding
	      should not be changed, but the style itself can be redefined. If
	      the Text Font option is set, this	style will be redefined	in or-
	      der to implement it.
	      binding "topwindow"
	      is  defined  and	bound to the top-level window to implement the
	      use of the left and right	arrow  keys  to	 change	 the  selected
	      tile. It is probably not helpful to change this.
	      The  distribution	 contains  three  example  gtkrc files,	called
	      gtkrc-minimal, gtkrc-plain, and gtkrc-clearlooks,	which  contain
	      the program's compiled in	settings.
	      This option is stored in the preferences files as
	      Display Gtk2Rcfile file-name
	      Note  that  if the file-name is relative,	it will	be interpreted
	      relative to the current directory	in Unix, or the	program	direc-
	      tory in Windows.

       Use system gtkrc
	      As  noted	 above,	xmj does not normally load the system settings
	      in the GTK+2 build. If this option is checked,  it  will	(after
	      the  minimal  settings, but before the default or	user-specified
	      settings).  This option is stored	in the preferences files as
	      Display UseSystemGtkrc bool
	      where bool is 0 or 1.

       Note for	GTK+1 builds
	      Under a GTK+1 build, xmj does what any other  application	 does.
	      This  should  allow  the use of a	.gtkrc file to change colours,
	      using the	styles and bindings given above. However, this is  not
	      a	supported activity.

   Playing Preferences
       This  panel  controls  what actions the client may take on your behalf.
       The first (and currently	only) section specifies	when the client	should
       declare tiles and sets for you. It has the following checkboxes:

       flowers and seasons
	      if checked, will be automatically	declared as soon as drawn.

       losing hands
	      if this is checked, then when somebody else goes out, the	client
	      will declare your	closed sets. It	declares in the	 order	pungs,
	      pairs, chows.

       winning hands
	      this is the same for when	you go out.

       The  panel  has "Save & Apply", "Apply (no save)" and "Cancel" buttons,
       as in the display options panel.

   Game	Option Preferences
       This panel controls preferred game options which	will be	 sent  to  the
       server  when  a game starts. Preferences	will only be applied if	we are
       the game	manager, or the	game has no manager. (Normally,	the first  hu-
       man player to connect to	the server becomes the game manager.)
       For details of options and their	meanings, see the Game Options section
       in the rules.
       The panel has two action	buttons, "Save Changes"	and "Cancel", with the
       obvious	meanings.  Note	 if a game is in progress, changed preferences
       are NOT applied to it; however, there is	a button in the	 Current  Game
       Options panel to	apply preferences.
       The main	body of	the panel is a scrollable window listing all the known
       options.	If no preference is stored for the FooBar option,  then	 there
       is  an "Add pref" button	next to	a description of the FooBar option. If
       this button is clicked, an entry	for setting the	 option	 appears.  The
       format  of  this	 entry depends on the type of the option (see the Game
       Options section of the rules for	details	of types):

       Boolean (on/off)	options
	      have a checkbox.

       Integer options
	      have a spinbutton	for numerical entry: the value	can  be	 typed
	      in, or the up and	down arrows can	be used	to change it

       Score options
	      have  radio  buttons  for	selecting Limit, Half-Limit, or	other;
	      for other, the number of doubles and/or points is	 entered  with
	      spinbuttons.  (Note:  the	underlying protocol allows percentages
	      (possibly	more than 100%)	of limits to be	specified for  scores;
	      however,	the  current graphical interfaces allow	only limits or
	      half-limits. Even	 half-limits  are  pretty  strange,  but  some
	      bizarre sets of rules, such as those of the British Mah-Jong As-
	      sociation	(which plays a	weird  American/Western/Chinese	 mix),
	      allow other fractions of limits.)

       String options
	      have a simple text entry field.

       All option entries have a "Reset" button	which returns the entry	to its
       previous	state.
       A preference is removed by clicking the "Remove pref" button.

   Current Game	Options
       When there is a connected game, this panel allows its game  options  to
       be  modified (if	we have	permission to do so). The three	action buttons
       are "Apply changes", which applies the panel's settings to the  current
       game; "Apply prefs", which applies our preferences (as described	above)
       to the current game; and	"Cancel".
       The body	of the panel contains entries for all the options of the  cur-
       rent game, in the same format as	the preferences	panel (see above).

       The latest release of the Unix Mah-Jong programs	should be available at

       The  game  currently  implemented is a version of the classical Chinese
       game. The most convenient and comprehensive set of rules	is  that  pro-
       vided  by  A.  D. Millington, "The Complete Book	of Mah-Jongg", Weiden-
       field & Nicolson	(1993),	ISBN 0 297 81340 4.  In	the following,	M  103
       denotes	item  103  of  the rules laid out in Chapter 3 of that book. I
       here describe only the differences from these rules, some of which dif-
       ferences	 are  consequences  of	using computers, and some of which are
       points where my house rules differ from Millington's  version.  In  due
       course,	all variations (of Chinese classical) will be accommodated, if
       there is	sufficient desire.

       Classification of tiles (M 1-8):	the tiles are a	standard Chinese  set.
       The  tiles do not have Arabic numerals, except for the flowers and sea-
       sons, where the identifying Chinese characters are too small to be leg-
       ible.  A	 numbered  set is included in the distribution and can be used
       via the Tileset display preference.
       The flowers and seasons may be removed from the tile set	 by  unsetting
       the Flowers game	option.

       Preliminary (M 9-10): nothing to	say.

       Duration	 of the	game (M	11-14):	standard rules.	In particular, the ti-
       tle of East does	not pass after a wash-out.

       Selection of seats (M 15): the players are seated  in  the  order  they
       connect	to  the	 server, or randomly, according	to the option given to
       the server.

       The deal	etc. (M	16-27):	There is no  attempt  to  simulate  the	 usual
       dealing	ritual	(M  16-20,  23-26);  the wall is built randomly	by the
       server. The dead	wall is	also maintained	by the server.
       The existence of	a dead wall is controlled by the DeadWall game option;
       normally	there is a dead	wall.
       The  deal  wall is either 14 tiles and kept at 13 or 14 during play (as
       in most authors), or  is	 16  tiles,  not  extended  during  play  (per
       Millington (M 22)), according to	the DeadWall16 game option.
       Replacement  tiles for kongs are	always taken from the loose tiles, but
       replacements for	bonus tiles may	be drawn from the live wall (M 31), or
       from the	loose tiles, according to the FlowersLoose game	option.

       Object of game (M 28-31): all winning hands must	comprise four sets and
       a pair, with the	exception of the Thirteen Unique Wonders.  If the Sev-
       enPairs	game option is set, then a hand	of any seven pairs is also al-
       lowed as	a winning hand.

       Bonus tiles (M 31): M requires that bonus tiles must be declared	in the
       turn  in	which they are drawn; otherwise	the player may not exchange or
       score them (and thus they cannot	go out). We do not make	this  restric-
       tion,  as  it  is  (a)  pointless (b) unenforceable in real life. Bonus
       tiles may be declared at	any time after drawing from the	 wall.	(Obvi-
       ously, there is no reason not to	declare	them immediately.)

       Commencement of the Game	(M 32-33): standard.

       Playing	procedure (M 34-38): standard.	In particular, the other play-
       ers have	to give	permission for east to start playing (M	34).  The dis-
       play  of	 discards  cannot  be  controlled by the server; the current X
       client displays them in an organized fashion, rather  than  the	random
       layout required by M 35.

       Chow (M 39-42): standard.

       Pung (M 43-45): standard.

       Kongs  (M  46-52):  M  distinguishes  three  types  of kong: concealed,
       claimed (by Kong), and annexed (formed by adding	a discard  to  an  ex-
       posed  pung),  and  allows claimed kongs	to be counted as concealed for
       the purposes of doubling	combinations. I	have not  seen	this  anywhere
       else;  normally,	a claimed kong is treated as exposed for all purposes.
       We follow the normal convention;	however, the game option KongHas3Types
       can  be	set to implement M's rules. In this case, the xmj program will
       distinguish claimed kongs by displaying them with the  last  tile  face
       down, whereas annexed kongs are all face	up.
       Players	may declare a concealed	kong, or add to	a pung,	only when they
       have just drawn a tile from the wall (live or dead); not	just  after  a
       claiming	 a  discard. (A	silly restriction in my	view, but one that all
       rule sets seem to have (M 51).) As from program version 1.11  (protocol
       version	1110),	we also	allow a	player to add to a pung	they have just
       claimed (see note above in the description of play).

       Calling and Mah Jong (M 53-54): standard. (I.e. there is	 no  "Calling"

       NOTE:  M	 permits  players to change their mind about making a claim (M
       69); we do not, and all claims are irrevocable. As  a  special  conces-
       sion,  we allow adding to a just	claimed	pung, so simulating the	effect
       of correcting a pung claim to a kong.

       Original	Call (M	55): the Original Call declaration must	be made	simul-
       taneously  with	the  first discard, rather than	afterwards.  NOTE: the
       server does *not* check that the	declarer does indeed  have  a  calling
       hand,  as a mistaken original call does not damage the other players or
       the progress of the game. The server does, however, thereafter  prevent
       the  declarer  from  changing their hand; therefore a mistaken original
       call will make it impossible to go out. (Note: in M, an Original	Caller
       may  change  their hand,	but will thereby lose the ability to go	out (M
       55(b)); is this a better	way to treat it?)  Note	also:  as  per	M,  an
       original	 call can be made even if another player has claimed a discard
       before, unlike the Japanese version.

       Robbing a Kong (M 57-60): Robbing a kong	is  implemented.  However,  as
       with  discards,	we  require that kongs are robbed before anything else
       happens,	and in particular before the konger draws a replacement	 tile.
       Therefore,  after  a kong, all other players must either	claim Mah Jong
       or pass.	(The provided programs will pass automatically if  robbing  is
       not possible.) As for discards, there is	a time limit.

       Precedence  of claims for discard (M 61-65): Many rules allow a discard
       to be claimed up	until the time the next	discard	is made. M does	 this,
       with elaborate rules for	the precise specification.  For	ease of	imple-
       mentation, we do	not allow this:	instead, all players are  required  to
       make a claim or pass, and once all players have claimed,	the successful
       claim is	implemented irrevocably.  The server  imposes  a  time	limit;
       players	that  do not claim within the limit are	deemed to have passed.
       This defaults to	15 seconds, but	can be	changed	 or  disabled  by  the
       Timeout game option.

       Irregularities  in  Play	(M 66-81): the server does not permit unlawful
       moves, and so no	irregularities can arise.

       False Declaration of Mah	Jong (M	82-83):	such declarations are not per-
       mitted by the server.

       False Naming of Discards	(M 84-88): this	also cannot happen.

       Incorrect Hands (M 89): cannot happen.

       Letting	Off  a Cannon (M 90-96): as in M. However, if a	player makes a
       dangerous discard, but has no choice, the server	will  determine	 this;
       it is not necessary to plead "no	choice"	explicitly, and	neither	is the
       player's	hand revealed to the other players.

       Wash-Out	(M 97-99): standard.

       Points of Etiquette (M 100-102):	not applicable.

       Displaying the Hand (M 103-106):	The format of display is a matter  for
       the client program, and cannot be controlled by the server.
       After  Mah  Jong,  the  players are responsible for declaring concealed
       sets in whatever	way they wish. The winner, of course, is  required  to
       declare a complete hand;	but the	losers may declare as they wish.  Once
       a set is	declared, it cannot be revoked.	Note that the losers  may  de-
       clare multiple scoring pairs.

       Procedure  in Settlement	(M 107-111): The settlement is classical: that
       is, the winner gets the value of	 their	hand  from  all	 players;  the
       losers pay one another the differences between their scores; except all
       payments	to or from East	are doubled; and if players let	off a  cannon,
       they  pay  everybody's debt.  Unlike normal play	(M 110), all hands are
       scored by the server, rather than by the	players.  Settlement  is  also
       computed	by the server.	Some variations	in settlement are provided: if
       the LosersSettle	game option is set to false, there are no payments be-
       tween  losers; if the EastDoubles game option is	set to false, payments
       to or from East are not doubled;	if the DiscDoubles game	option is  set
       to  true,  then	the  discarder of the tile that	gave Mah-Jong will pay
       double to the winner, and a self-draw is	paid double by everybody.

       Method of Scoring (M 112-122): The method is standard (M	112), viz cal-
       culate points obtained from sets	and bonuses, and then apply doubles.

       The following points are	given for tiles:

       Bonus tiles:
	      4	each (M	114(a))

       Pungs: 2	 for exposed minor tiles; 4 for	exposed	major or concealed mi-
	      nor; 8 for concealed major. (M 114(b))

       Kongs: 8	for exposed minor; 16 for exposed major	or concealed minor; 32
	      for concealed major. (M 114(c))

       Chows: no score.	(M 114(d))

       Pair:  2	 for  a	pair of	Dragons, Own Wind, or Prevailing Wind.	A pair
	      that is both Own and Prevailing Wind scores 4. (M	 114(e))  Non-
	      winning hands may	score more than	one pair.

       Basic points:
	      the  winner  gets	 20  points  for  going	Mah Jong.  This	can be
	      changed by  the  MahJongScore  game  option  (M  115(a)  has  10

       Seven Pairs hand:
	      If  Seven	 Pairs	hands  are allowed, they receive an additional
	      score of 20 points, changed by the SevenPairsVal game option.

       Winning from wall:
	      if the final tile	is drawn from the wall,	2 points are added  (M

       Filling the only	place:
	      if  the final tile is the	only denomination that could have com-
	      pleted the hand, 2 points	are added (M 115(c)).  NOTE: As	in  M,
	      if  all  four copies of a	tile are exposed on the	table, it does
	      not count	as available for completing the	hand.

       Fishing the eyes:
	      a	player who completes by	obtaining a pair gets 2	points if  the
	      pair  is minor, or 4 if major (M 115(d)).	 Note: to obtain these
	      points for a discard, the	player must actually claim the discard
	      for  a  pair:  e.g.  if waiting on 5677, and 7 is	discarded, the
	      player must claim	for the	pair, not the chow.

       The following doubles apply to all hands.  All possible	clauses	 apply
       unless stated otherwise.

       Having own flower or own	season.
	      No extra score. Changed by the FlowersOwnEach game option.

       Having own flower AND own season,
	      1	double.	(M 116(a)). Changed by the FlowersOwnBoth game option.

       Having all four flowers,
	      1	double.	(M 116(b)). Changed by the FlowersBouquet game option.

       Having all four seasons,
	      1	double.	(M 116(b)). Changed by the FlowersBouquet game option.

       Each set	of dragons,
	      1	double.	(M 116(d))

       A set of	the player's own wind,
	      1	double.	(M 116(e))

       A set of	the prevailing wind,
	      1	double.	(M 116(f))

       "Little Three Dragons": two sets	and a pair of dragons.
	      1	double.	(M 116(g))

       "Big Three Dragons": three sets of dragons.
	      2	doubles. (M 116(h))

       "Little Four Winds": three sets and a pair of winds.
	      1	double.	(M 116(i))

       "Big Four Winds": four sets of winds.
	      2	doubles. (M 116(j))

	      (Note:  the  definitions of these	last four doubles when applied
	      to non-winning hands are subject to  wide	 variations.  Possibly
	      there should be options to allow other possibilities.)

       Three concealed pungs:
	      1	 double. (M 116(k)) (Note: if the KongHas3Types	game option is
	      set, a claimed kong counts as concealed for this hand;  see  the
	      note above under "Kongs".)

       The following doubles apply to the winning hand only:

       No score	hand: four chows and a non-scoring pair.
	      1	 double.  (M  117(a)) (Note: like M, we	allow any of the extra
	      points (Fishing the Eyes,	etc) to	 go  with  this	 double.  Some
	      rules  say  that the extra points	invalidate this	hand. Possibly
	      there should be an option	for this.)

       No chows:
	      1	double.	(M 117(b))

       Concealed hand:
	      1	double (M 117(c)), changeable with the ConcealedFully game op-
	      tion. (Note: this	means a	hand that is fully concealed after go-
	      ing out. Another common value for	this is	3  doubles,  in	 which
	      case  1  double  is usually given	for a semi-concealed hand (see
	      below).)	(Note: if the KongHas3Types  game  option  is  set,  a
	      claimed  kong  counts  as	 concealed for this hand; see the note
	      above under "Kongs".)

       The following doubles normally apply to the winning hand	only; however,
       the  LosersPurity game option can be set	to allow losing	hands to score
       them (this is a highly deprecated American feature, but	has  been  re-
       quested by a user).

       Semi-concealed hand:
	      no  doubles,  changeable	with  the ConcealedAlmost game option.
	      (Not in M) (Note:	this means a winning hand that is concealed up
	      to  the  point  of going out, or,	if enabled, a concealed	losing
	      hand. According to a discussion on, a  winning
	      semi-concealed  hand  is	classically  awarded  one double (with
	      three given for fully concealed).	 One  book  in	my  possession
	      (U.S.A.,	early 1920s) awards this double	only to	a hand that is
	      concealed	except for the pair.)	(Note:	if  the	 KongHas3Types
	      game  option is set, a claimed kong counts as concealed for this
	      hand; see	the note above under "Kongs".)

       One suit	with honours:
	      1	double.	(M 117(d))

       One suit	only:
	      3	doubles. (M 117(e))

       All majors:
	      1	double.	(M 117(f))

       All honours (in an unlimited game):
	      2	doubles. (M 117(g)) (Note: such	a hand	will  also  score  the
	      double for all majors.)

       All terminals (in an unlimited game):
	      2	 doubles.  (Not	 in  M)	(Note: such a hand will	also score the
	      double for all majors.)

       The following doubles apply only	to the winning hand:

       Winning with loose tile:
	      1	double.	(M 117(h)) (Note: with the default settings,  replace-
	      ments for	bonus tiles come from the live wall. Hence this	double
	      applies only to winning after Kong.)

       Winning from the	bottom of the sea (winning with	last tile),
	      1	double.	(M 117(i))

       Catching	a fish from the	bottom of the sea (winning with	last discard),
	      1	double.	(M 117(j))

       Robbing a kong,
	      1	double.	(M 117(k))

       Completing Original Call,
	      1	double.	(M 117(l))

       Limit (M	118-120): the limit is 1000 by default,	and can	be changed  by
       the ScoreLimit game option. The NoLimit game option can be used to play
       a game "with the	roof off".

       The following hands are limit hands:

       Heaven's	Blessing: East wins with dealt hand. (M	122(a))

       Earth's Blessing: player	wins with East's first discard.	(M 122(b))

       Gathering Plum Blossom from the Roof: winning with 5 Circles from the
	      loose wall. (M 122(c))

       Catching	the Moon from the Bottom of the	Sea: winning with 1 Circle as
	      the last tile. (M	122(d))	(Note: M says that the	tile  must  be
	      drawn.  It seems more reasonable also to allow it	to be the last
	      discard, which is	what we	do. Objections?)

       Scratching a Carrying Pole: robbing a kong of 2 Bamboos.	(M 122(e))

       (Note: these last three limits are rather arbitrary, but	of the
	      arbitrary	limits they are	 apparently  the  most	common.	 There
	      should be	options	to disable them.)

       Kong upon Kong: making a	Kong, making another Kong with the loose
	      tile,  and with the second loose tile obtaining Mah Jong.	(Also,
	      of course, with three or four successive kongs.) (M 122(f))

       Four Kongs. (M 122(g))

       Buried Treasure:	all concealed and no chows. (M 122(h))

       The Three Great Scholars: three	sets  of  dragons  and	no  chows.  (M
	      (Note:  in  most rules I have seen, there	is no restriction to a
	      no chow hand. Since in M's rules,	three sets and a  chow	scores
	      at  least	 (10  (M has 10	for Mah	Jong) +	12 (at least 3 pungs))
	      times 8 (2 for each set of dragons) times	4 (for Big Three Drag-
	      ons)  = 704, this	is significant with the	default	limit. For us,
	      with 20 for going	out, Big Three Dragons	is  over  the  default
	      limit anyway.)

       Four Blessings o'er the Door: four sets of winds	and a pair. (M 122(j))

       All Honours. (M 122(k))

       Heads and Tails:	all terminals. (M 122(l))

       Imperial	 Jade:	contains  only	Green  Dragon and 2,3,4,6,8 Bamboo. (M
	      (Note: another rather arbitrary hand, but	widely adopted.)

       Nine Gates:  calling  on	 1-1-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-9-9  of	one  suit.  (M

       Wriggling Snake:	1-1-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-9-9 plus 2, 5 or 8 of
	      one suit (M 122(o)).  (Note: another rather arbitrary hand.)

       Concealed Clear Suit: one suit only and all concealed. (M 122(p))

       Thirteen	Unique Wonders:	one of each major tile,	and a match to any of
	      them. (M 122(q))

       East's 13th consecutive Mah-Jong. (M 122(r))

       General note: there are many other doubles and limits kicking around. I
       welcome opinions	on which should	be possible options; and also on which
       of  the	above I	should eject from the default set.  I dislike Imperial
       Jade, Wriggling Snake, and the ones depending on	a specific tile	(Gath-
       ering  Plum  Blossom,  Catching	the Moon, Scratching a Carrying	Pole):
       which of	these are so commonly adopted that they	should be  in  even  a
       fairly minimalist default set?

       This section describes the options that can be set in the game. Whether
       an option can be	used, depends on the version of	the programs. This  is
       described by a "protocol	version	number"; this is not strictly speaking
       a version just of the communication protocol, but a version number  re-
       flecting	the combination	of protocol and	programs. When playing by one-
       self, this does not matter, but in the case of a	networked game,	 play-
       ers  might  have	 different versions of the software, in	which case the
       game is played according	to the lowest version of any player.

       Game options can	be controlled in two ways: the --option-file  argument
       to  the	mj-server  program gives options to be applied to the game, or
       options can be set by the players, using	the interface described	in the
       manual section for xmj.

       In  the	user  interface, the options are referred to by	a one line de-
       scription, but each option also has a short name, given here.

       Options are of several types:

       bool   boolean, or on/off, options.

       int    integer options

       nat    non-negative integer options

       string is a miscellaneous type, whose values are	strings	of at most 127
	      characters which must not	contain	white space

       score  is  the type used	for options that give the score	of some	combi-
	      nation or	feature	in a hand. A score is either  a	 limit	(or  a
	      half-limit; the underlying protocol supports percentages of lim-
	      its, but the current user	programs only support limits and  half
	      limits);	or  a  number of doubles to be awarded;	or a number of
	      points to	be added. It is	possible (though never needed) to have
	      both points and doubles. If points/doubles are specified as well
	      as a limit, they will be used in a no-limit  game.  (The	server
	      implements  a  hard  limit  of  100000000	on all scores to avoid
	      arithmetic overflow, but that's unlikely to worry	anybody.)

   Currently supported options
       The following options are implemented in	the versions  of  the  program
       with which this document	is distributed.	If playing against people with
       older versions of the software, some options may	not be available.  The
       list gives for each option the short name, type,	and short description,
       followed	by a detailed explanation.

       Timeout (nat) time limit	for claims
	      This is the time in seconds allowed to claim a  discard,	or  to
	      rob  a kong. If set to zero, there is no timeout.	The default is
	      15 seconds.

       TimeoutGrace (nat) grace	period when clients handle timeouts
	      This period (in seconds) is added	to the	Timeout	 above	before
	      the  server  actually forces a timeout. This is for when clients
	      handle timeouts locally, and allows for network  lags.  If  this
	      option is	zero, clients are not permitted	to handle timeouts lo-
	      cally. The current server	also only  allows  players  to	handle
	      timeouts locally if all of them wish to do so.

       ScoreLimit (nat)	limit on hand score
	      This  is	the limit for the score	of a hand. In a	no-limit game,
	      it is the	notional value of a "limit" hand. The default is 1000.

       NoLimit (bool) no-limit game
	      If this option is	set, the game has no limit on hand scores. The
	      default is unset.

       MahJongScore (score) base score for going out
	      This  is	the  number of points for obtaining Mah-Jong.  The de-
	      fault is 20.

       SevenPairs (bool) seven pairs hand allowed
	      If this option is	set, then Mah-Jong hands of seven  pairs  (any
	      seven pairs) are allowed.	The default is unset.

       SevenPairsVal (score) score for a seven pair hand
	      This  gives  the	score (in addition to the base Mah-Jong	score)
	      for a seven pairs	hand. The default is 20.

       Flowers (bool) play using flowers and seasons
	      If this option is	set, the deal includes four flowers  and  four
	      seasons  in  the Chinese Classical style.	If unset, only the 136
	      standard tiles are used. The default is set.

       FlowersLoose (bool) flowers replaced by loose tiles
	      If playing with flowers, this option determines whether  flowers
	      and seasons are replaced from the	live wall (unset), or by loose
	      tiles (set). The default is unset.

       FlowersOwnEach (score) score for	each own flower	or season
	      This option gives	the score for having one's own flower or  sea-
	      son.   If	 one has both, this score will be given	twice. The de-
	      fault is no score.

       FlowersOwnBoth (score) score for	own flower and own season
	      This is the score	for having both	one's own flower and one's own
	      season.  Note that this is awarded in addition to	twice the pre-
	      vious score. The default is 1 double.

       FlowersBouquet (score) score for	all four flowers or all	four seasons
	      This is the score	for having all four flowers or all  four  sea-
	      sons.  The default is 1 double.

       DeadWall	(bool) there is	a dead wall
	      This  determines whether there is	a dead wall, so	that play ends
	      when it is reached (set),	or whether all tiles may be drawn (un-
	      set).  The default is set.

       DeadWall16 (bool) dead wall is 16 tiles,	unreplenished
	      If  this	option	is  set,  then	the dead wall initially	has 16
	      tiles, and does not have any more	tiles added to it (this	is the
	      set-up  described	 by  Millington). If the option	is unset, then
	      the dead wall initially  has 14 tiles, and after two loose tiles
	      have  been  taken, two tiles are moved from the live wall	to the
	      dead wall	(this is  the  set-up  described  by  almost  everyone
	      else).  The  default  is	unset in versions 1.1 onwards, and set
	      previously. (To be precise, the protocol level default  is  set,
	      but all servers from 1.1 onwards will change this	to unset.)

       ConcealedFully (score) score for	fully concealed	hand
	      This is the score	for a winning hand with	no open	sets.  The de-
	      fault is 1 double.

       ConcealedAlmost (score) score for almost	concealed hand
	      This is the score	for a hand that	is concealed up	to  the	 point
	      of going out.  The default is no additional score.

       LosersPurity (bool) losing hands	score doubles for pure,	concealed etc.
	      If  this	option is set, losing hands will score various doubles
	      for one suit, almost concealed, etc. See the rules for  details.
	      This option is an	(Anglo-)Americanism alien to Chinese Classical
	      (see Foster for a	spirited but faulty argument  in  its  favour,
	      and Millington for the rejoinder).  The default is unset.

       KongHas3Types (bool) claimed kongs count	as concealed for doubling
	      If this option is	set, claimed kongs count as concealed for var-
	      ious doubling combinations, although they	score as  exposed  for
	      basic  points. See the note above	under "Kongs".	The default is

       LosersSettle (bool) losers pay each other
	      If this option is	set, the losers	pay each other the  difference
	      between  their  scores.  If  it unset, they pay only the winner.
	      The default is set.

       EastDoubles (bool) east pays and	receives double
	      If this option is	set, payments to and from East Wind  are  dou-
	      bled, as in the Chinese Classical	game.  The default is set.

       DiscDoubles (bool) the discarder	pays double
	      If  this option is set, the settlement procedure is changed to a
	      style common in Singapore. That is, if the winning  player  wins
	      off a discard, the discarder pays	double the hand	value, and the
	      other players pay	the hand value.	If the winner  wins  from  the
	      wall, then all other players pay double the hand value.  The de-
	      fault is unset.  Note: EastDoubles and DiscDoubles  can  be  set
	      together,	but nobody plays such a	rule.

       ShowOnWashout (bool) reveal tiles on washout
	      If  this	option	is set,	the players' hands will	be revealed in
	      the event	of a washout.

       NumRounds (nat) number of rounds	to play
	      This option says how many	rounds to play in the game.  For  aes-
	      thetic  reasons,	the possible values are	1, 2, or a multiple of
	      4. In the	2 round	case,  the  East  and  South  rounds  will  be
	      played. It defaults to the usual 4 rounds.

   Option file format
       Both in the option file and in the .xmjrc file, options are recorded in
       the format used by the server protocol. This is a line of the form

       GameOption 0 name type minprot enabled value desc

       The meanings of the elements are:

       GameOption 0
	      identifies this as a game	option line (the 0  is	an  irrelevant
	      field from the protocol).

       name   is the name of the option.

       type   is the type of the option.

	      is  the  minimum	protocol  version with which the option	can be
	      used (which is not necessarily the version at which it  was  in-

	      will always be 1.

       value  is the value: a decimal (signed) integer for nat and int;	0 or 1
	      for bool;	the string for string; and for score, if the score  is
	      c	centi-limits, d	doubles	and p points, the value	is c*1000000 +
	      d*10000 +	p.

       desc   is a short description of	the option, which is not required  but
	      is usually copied	in from	the server.

J.C.Bradfield			   Mah-Jong				XMJ(1)


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