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XMJ(1)			    General Commands Manual			XMJ(1)

       xmj, mj-server, mj-player - programs for	playing	Mah-Jong

       xmj [--id idnumber]
		[--server address]
		[--name	playername]
		[--show-wall | --no-show-wall]
		[--size	N]
		[--animate | --no-animate]
		[--tileset directory]
		[--tileset-path	directory-path]
		[--dialogs-popup | --dialogs-below | --dialogs-central]
		[--use-system-gtkrc | --no-use-system-gtkrc]
		[--gtk2-rcfile file]

       mj-server [--server address]  [--timeout	seconds]
		[--pause deciseconds]
		[--random-seats	| --id-order-seats]
		[--disconnect-penalties	N1,N2,N3]
		[--option-file file]
		[--load-game file]
		[--auth-basic id:password]*4
		[--logfile file]
		[--seed	N]
		[--wallfile file]

       mj-player [--id idnumber] [--name playername]
		[--server address] [--password password]
		[strategy options]

       A  set of three programs	to play	Mah-Jong on Unix systems, against peo-
       ple or programs,	over the Internet.

	      is the program that handles communications and  control  of  the
	      game;  the  rules	and scoring are	enforced there.	Players, human
	      or computer, connect to a	server via the network.

	      is a computer player. At present,	it is fairly simplistic,  hav-
	      ing only offensive tactics with no knowledge of defensive	play.

       xmj    is the X client for human	players.

       If  you	don't want to read this	long document: to start	a game against
       three computer players, start xmj, select "New local game..." from  the
       "Game" menu, and	click "Start Game". (Wait about	ten seconds for	every-
       thing to	start up.)

   All Programs
       --server	address
	      specifies	the network address to listen on (for mj-server) or to
	      connect  to  (for	 mj-player  and	 xmj).	 If address contains a
	      colon, it	specifies an Internet socket, and should have the form
	      host:port	 .  If	address	does not contain a colon, it is	inter-
	      preted as	a Unix file name and a Unix socket is used.   The  de-
	      fault  value  for	address	is  localhost:5000 .  address can also
	      be set in	a dialog box in	xmj.

   xmj and mj-player
       --id idnumber
	      The server assigns a unique integer ID (which is currently  just
	      1	to 4 in	order of connection) to	each player. This ID should be
	      quoted when reconnecting to a game in progress (after, for exam-
	      ple,  losing  a network connection or accidentally killing xmj).
	      The default ID is	0, which denotes no pre-assigned ID.

       --name name
	      Players can give themselves names	which will be used  by	client
	      programs.	 This  option specifies	the name. For xmj, the default
	      is the value of the environment  variable	 LOGNAME,  or  failing
	      that  the	username of the	logged in user.	For mj-player, the de-
	      fault is "Robot(PID)" where PID is the process id.

	      By default, xmj does not automatically connect to	a server,  but
	      waits  for  the  user  to	 connect via a menu. If	this option is
	      specified, xmj immediately connects.

	      Tells xmj	(not) to display the wall. By  default,	 the  wall  is
	      shown  only  if  running	on a big enough	screen.	This option is
	      also controllable	via the	Display	Options	preference panel.

       --size number
	      This option adjusts the size of the main window.	It  should  be
	      thought  of as the length	of a tile rack,	measured in tiles. The
	      default, and the largest value accepted, is 19, or 18 if	on  an
	      800x600 display. The smallest usable value is 14.	This option is
	      also controllable	via the	Display	Options	preference panel.
	      If the --show-wall option	is given, a  --size  smaller  than  19
	      will have	no effect.

	      This option switches on (off) some animation. Not	all tile move-
	      ments are	animated: only those that involve moving tiles	to  or
	      from  a  hand from outside. This option is also controllable via
	      the Display Options preference panel.

       --tileset directory
	      xmj needs	pixmaps	to display the tiles and the tong  box.	  This
	      option tells it which directory to find them in.	The default is
	      set at compilation time; the default default is to use the  com-
	      piled-in tiles.

       --tileset-path directory-path
	      This  gives  a colon-separated (or semicolon-separated under Mi-
	      crosoft Windows) list of directories in which to	look  for  the
	      directory	named by the --tileset option.

	      By default, most of the dialog boxes for player actions are part
	      of the main window. If this option is used,  they	 will  instead
	      appear as	separate transient windows.

	      By  default, dialog boxes	appear in the centre of	the table.  If
	      this option is given, dialogs (apart from	some popups) are posi-
	      tioned  below the	table area. Please let me know which style you

	      The default: dialog boxes	appear in the  middle  of  the	table.
	      These  options  are  also	 controllable  via the Display Options
	      preference panel.

       --gtk2-rcfile file
	      If xmj is	compiled with GTK+2, this option specifies  a  GTK  rc
	      file to be used instead of the program's compiled-in style file.
	      This may be used to change the appearance	of  the	 program.  See
	      description under	the Display Options... panel for more details.
	      The file should be an absolute filename; if it is	 relative,  it
	      will  be	sought	in the current directory (Unix)	or the program
	      directory	(Windows). This	option is also	controllable  via  the
	      Display Options preference panel.

	      When  xmj	is compiled with GTK+2,	by default it ignores the sys-
	      tem provided settings, to	ensure a consistent  behaviour	across
	      systems.	 If  you wish it to use	your system settings, set this
	      option.  This option is also controllable	via  the  Display  Op-
	      tions preference panel.

	      If  this option is given,	xmj will echo to  stdout  all the pro-
	      tocol messages received from the server. This option is for  use
	      in debugging.

	      If  this	option is given, xmj will send any text	given on stdin
	      to the server. This option is for	use in debugging.

	      If this option is	given, xmj will	send requests  to  the	server
	      only  in direct response to user actions;	it will	take no	action
	      itself (and hence	all auto-declaring and playing	is  also  dis-
	      abled). This option is for use in	debugging.

       --timeout seconds
	      When  a  discard	is  made, there	is a limit on the time players
	      have to claim it.	This option sets the timeout; a	value of  zero
	      disables it. The default is 15 seconds.
	      This  value  can	also  be  set  via a GameOption	request	from a

       --pause deciseconds
	      This will	make the server	enforce	a delay	of deciseconds/10 sec-
	      onds  between  each  action  in the game;	the purpose is to slow
	      programmed players down to human speed (or, in a teaching	situa-
	      tion,  to	slow the game even more). The current server considers
	      that 50 (i.e. 5 seconds) is the  maximum	reasonable  value  for
	      this option.
	      The  option can also be requested	by players, via	a PlayerOption
	      protocol request.

	      By default, players are seated in	order  of  connection  to  the
	      server.  This option seats them randomly.	It will	become the de-
	      fault later.

	      This option causes the players to	be seated in  numerical	 order
	      of  their	ids. It	is used	by the xmj program to make the New lo-
	      cal game..  work as expected.

       --disconnect-penalties N1,N2,N3
	      This specifies the penalties applied by the following option for
	      players  who disconnect before the end of	a game.	N1 is the pen-
	      alty for disconnecting in	the middle of a	hand; N2 at the	end of
	      a	 hand  but  in the middle of a round; N3 at the	end of a round
	      (other than end of game).	They all default to 0  if  not	speci-

	      If  this	option	is  given,  a disconnection by one player will
	      gracefully terminate the game. Mid-hand, the hand	is declared  a
	      wash-out;	 after	Mah-Jong  has  been declared, then if a	losing
	      player disconnects, their	tiles are shown, the hand  is  scored,
	      and  then	 the  game  ends; if a winning player disconnects, the
	      hand is a	wash-out. The disconnecting player may be  assigned  a
	      penalty,	according  to the --disconnect-penalties option, which
	      will be included in the scores printed out by the	 server.  (The
	      penalties	will not be visible to the other players.)

	      If this option is	given, the server will quit if any player dis-
	      connects,	rather than waiting indefinitely for reconnection.

	      If this option is	given, the server will save the	state  of  the
	      game if it quits as a result of a	player disconnecting. (It will
	      not save the state if it quits as	the result of an internal  er-

       --option-file file
	      This  names a file of protocol commands which will be applied to
	      every game when it starts. Its main purpose is  to  set  non-de-
	      fault  game  options,  via the GameOption	protocol message (note
	      that this	is a CMsg, not a PMsg).	However, users	will  normally
	      set  options  and	 preferences via the xmj control panel,	not by
	      this means.

       --load-game file
	      This names a file	containing a saved game	 (as  a	 suitable  se-
	      quence  of  protocol  commands).	The server will	load the game;
	      clients connecting will be treated as if they  had  disconnected
	      and rejoined the game.

	      In the most common case of resuming a saved game,	namely one hu-
	      man playing against three	robots,	the robots will	not  have  the
	      same  names  or ids as the robots	in the original	game. This op-
	      tion tells the server that if it	cannot	match  a  reconnecting
	      player  by  id  or name, it should anyway	match it to one	of the
	      previously disconnected players. (In this	case, the  human  nor-
	      mally  connects  first  with  the	 same  name,  so  is correctly

	      Usually, the first player	to connect becomes the	game  manager,
	      and  can	change all the game settings. If this option is	given,
	      no player	will be	allowed	to change the game settings.

       --auth-basic id:password
	      This provides basic (insecure, since the password	is transmitted
	      in plaintext) authorization: the player with id id must give the
	      specified	password to connect. Note that	if  this  argument  is
	      given,  it  must	be  given four times, once for each authorized
	      player - any player id not mentioned will	not be allowed to con-
	      nect.  A	player may be allowed to connect without a password by
	      making password empty.

	      This enables various debugging features. In particular,  it  en-
	      ables  protocol commands that allow one to change	the tiles in a

       --logfile file
	      The server will write a complete record of  the  game  to	 file;
	      this  will be quite large, and is	only useful for	automatic com-
	      parison of different computer players.

	      This option suppresses the scoring of  points  and  doubles  for
	      flowers  and seasons. It is primarily intended for running tests
	      of different players; for	human use, a game option will be  pro-
	      vided to eliminate the specials altogether.

       --seed n
	      This  option specifies the seed for the random number functions.
	      Used for repeatable tests.

       --wallfile file
	      This names a file	containing space separated tile	 codes	giving
	      the  wall; used for repeatable tests. (This is a testing option;
	      it is not	robust.)

	      This is an option	to facilitate certain automatic	 analyses;  if
	      set, a history of	each hand is dumped to the file	hand-NN.mjs .

	      Another  option  only  used  in automatic	comparison: this saves
	      some CPU time by disabling the book-keeping  required  to	 allow
	      players to disconnect and	reconnect.

       --password password
	      sets the password	if basic authorization is in use.

       strategy	options
	      The  player  has	some  options  which can be used to change its
	      "personality". The meanings are rather approximate,  since  they
	      actually	change	parameters  which are used in a	rather complex
	      way, but the idea	is right. These	options, each of which takes a
	      floating point value in the given	range, are:

       --chowness -1.0 .. 1.0
	      This affects how much the	player likes chows: at 1.0, it will go
	      all out for the chicken hand, at -1.0 it will  never  chow.  The
	      default is 0.0.

       --hiddenness 0.0	.. 1.0
	      Increasing this makes the	player reluctant to make exposed sets.
	      At 1.0, it will never claim (except possibly  to	go  mah-jong).
	      The default is 0.0.

       --majorness 0.0 .. 1.0
	      Increasing  this	biases	the  player  towards  collecting major
	      tiles. At	1.0, it	will discard all minor tiles, if possible. The
	      default is 0.0.

       --suitness 0.0 .. 1.0
	      Increasing  this	makes the player try to	go for one-suit	hands.
	      The default is 0.0

       In practice, the	--majorness option seems not to	be  very  useful,  but
       the  other options change the personality without completely destroying
       the playing ability.

       In fact,	all these options take a comma-separated list of values, which
       allows the specifications of a set of strategies, which the player will
       switch between. In this case, the --hysteresis hhh option specifies how
       much  better a strategy should be to switch to it. However, use of this
       option, and multiple strategies,	is probably only useful	if  you	 first
       read the	code to	see how	it works.

       The main	window contains	a menu-bar and a table area; the table is in a
       tasteful	shade of dark green. The table displays	a stylized version  of
       the  game:  stylized in that there is no	jazzy graphics or perspective,
       and the tiles are not intended to be pictures of	real objects,  and  so
       on.  Otherwise,	the layout is as one would expect of a real game. How-
       ever, the wall may or may not be	displayed, depending  on  option  set-
       tings and screen	size. (See above.)

       Specifically,  the  four	 players are arranged around the four edges of
       the table, with "us" at the bottom.  For	 each  player,	the  concealed
       tiles  are  displayed  nearest the edge of the table; our own tiles are
       visible,	the other players' tiles are  face-down.  The  rightmost  con-
       cealed  tile  of	 other	players	is highlighted in red when it is their
       turn to discard.

       In front	of the concealed tiles are (to the player's left) any declared
       sets, and (to the player's right) flowers and seasons, and the tong box
       if the player is	East. The tong box displays the	wind of	the round in a
       white  circle. If necessary, the	flowers	and seasons will overflow into
       the concealed row.

       The discards are	displayed face-up in the middle	of the board: they are
       laid  down  in  order by	each player, in	the natural orientation. TODO:
       add options to display discards randomly, or face-down.	 If  animation
       (see  --animate option) is not being used, then the most	recent discard
       will be highlighted in red.

       The name	of a face-up tile can be displayed by  right-clicking  in  the
       tile.  Alternatively,  the Tiletips display option can be set, in which
       case the	name of	a tile is displayed whenever the mouse enters it.

       Our tiles are displayed in sorted order,	which happens  to  be  Bamboos
       (1-9),  Characters  (1-9),  Circles (1-9), Winds	(ESWN),	Dragons	(RWG),
       Flowers,	Seasons. We can	also arrange the tiles	ourselves  -  see  the
       "Sort tiles in hand" display preference described below.

       Actions	are generally carried out by clicking a	button in a dialog box
       that appears in the middle of the board.	For many actions, a tile  must
       be  selected.  A	 tile is selected or unselected	by single-clicking it;
       when selected, it appears as a depressed	button.	 The program will gen-
       erally pre-select a sensible tile: specifically:
       during  the initial declaration of special tiles, the rightmost special
       is selected;
       after we	draw a tile from the wall, the drawn tile is selected;
       when declaring concealed	sets after going Mah  Jong,  the  first	 unde-
       clared tile is selected.

       To  describe  the  possible actions, let	us run through the course of a

       First select "New local game..."	from the "Game"	menu. A	panel will ap-
       pear.  The  default options are to play a game against the computer, so
       click "Start Game".  After a second or two, a game will	start.	(NOTE:
       this  assumes  correct  installation. If	this fails, start a server and
       players manually, and use the "Join server..." menu item.)

       The first thing that happens is a  dialog  box  "Ready  to  start  next
       hand".  The server will not start playing a hand	until all players have
       indicated their willingness to continue play.

       Next, the tiles are dealt. Then each player in turn is expected to  de-
       clare  flowers  and  seasons. When it is	our turn, a dialog will	appear
       with the	following buttons:

	      declare the selected flower or season. (Note: the	program	 auto-
	      selects  the  rightmost  special tile.)  If no tile is selected,
	      this finishes declarations.  This	button will not	appear if  the
	      game is being played without flowers and seasons.

       Kong   If  we  have  a  concealed kong, we can declare it now with this

       Finish Finish declaring specials	and kongs.

       When all	players	have finished declaring	specials and kongs,  a	dialog
       box appears, asking (on East's behalf) permission to continue.

       During  play,  when  we	draw a tile from the wall, it will be auto-se-
       lected. We may also of course select a different	tile.  A  dialog  will
       appear giving us	the following possibilities:

	      discard  the selected tile. This button also serves to declare a
	      flower or	season,	and the	label changes to "Declare" when	one is

	      discard the selected tile	and declare a calling hand.  This but-
	      ton is only shown	when calling  is  allowed  (by	default,  only
	      Original Call is allowed).

       Kong   declare  a  concealed  kong of the selected tile,	or add the se-
	      lected tile to an	exposed	pung, as appropriate.  Note:  In  most
	      rules, a concealed kong can only be declared (or a tile added to
	      an existing pung)	immediately after drawing from the  wall,  but
	      not  after claiming somebody else's discard. Up to and including
	      version 1.10, the	server enforced	this rule  strictly.  As  from
	      version  1.11,  it  allows a tile	to be added to a pung that you
	      have just	claimed: in real life, this corresponds	to  correcting
	      your  Pung!  claim  to  a	 Kong!	claim, which is	allowed	by all
	      rules. (Obscure note: if you are playing the  KongHas3Types  op-
	      tion,  the resulting kong	will be	counted	as annexed, instead of
	      the exposed kong that would have resulted	from a genuine	change
	      of claim.	This is	a bug, but not worth the trouble of fixing.)

       Mah Jong!
	      declare Mah Jong!	(no selection needed)

       If  the	wall  is  not  being shown, the	dialog will note the number of
       tiles left in the live wall.

       A tile can also be discarded simply by double-clicking it.

       When another player discards, a dialog appears to allow us to claim it.
       If  the dialogs are in the middle of the	table, the dialog displays the
       tile in a position and orientation to  indicate	the  player  who  dis-
       carded;	if  the	 dialogs  are at the bottom, this is not done, to save
       space.  In any case the dialog displays the name	of the tile, and  but-
       tons for	the possible claims.  If the wall is not being shown, the dia-
       log will	note the number	of tiles left in the live wall.	 There is also
       a  `progress bar' which shows how time is running out.  The buttons use
       one variant of traditional English terminology, viz:

       No claim
	      we don't claim this tile.	If there is no timeout	in  operation,
	      it  is  necessary	to click this to indicate a "pass", and	in any
	      case it is desirable to speed up play.

       Chow   claim for	a sequence.  If	our claim is successful	and  there  is
	      more than	one possible sequence to be made, a dialog will	appear
	      asking us	to specify which one.

       Pung   claim for	a triplet.

       Kong   claim for	quadruplet.

       Mah Jong!
	      claim for	Mah Jong.  If the claim	succeeds, a  dialog  box  will
	      appear  asking  whether  we  want	 the  tile for "Eyes", "Chow",
	      "Pung", or a "Special Hand" (such	as Thirteen  Unique  Wonders).
	      (The  term  "Eyes" is used instead of "Pair" so that in the key-
	      board accelerators, E can	be used, leaving P for "Pung".)

       When a player (including	us) claims, the	word "Chow!" etc. will	appear
       (in  big	 letters  on  a	yellow background, by default) for a couple of
       seconds above the player's tiles.

       When all	players	have claimed, or timed out, the	 successful  claim  is
       implemented; no additional announcement is made of this.

       If a player adds	a tile to an exposed pung, and that tile would give us
       Mah Jong, then a	dialog box pops	up to ask whether we wish to  rob  the

       After  somebody	goes  Mah  Jong, we are	asked to declare our concealed
       sets. A dialog appears with buttons for "Eyes", "Chow", "Pung". To  de-
       clare a set, select a tile, which must be the first tile	in the set for
       a chow, and click the appropriate button. (If we	are  going  Mah	 Jong,
       the first undeclared tile is auto-selected.) When finished, click "Fin-
       ished" to reveal	the remaining tiles to the other players.  If  we  are
       the  winner, there will be a button for "Special	Hand": this is used to
       declare hands of	non-standard shape, such as Thirteen  Unique  Wonders.
       (Note:  the Seven Pairs hand, if	in use,	should be declared by means of
       the "Eyes" button, not the "Special Hand" button.)

       At this point, a	new top-level window appears to	 display  the  scoring
       information.  The  scoring  is  done entirely by	the server, not	by the
       players;	the server sends a text	description of the score  calculation,
       and  this  is displayed for each	player in the Scoring window.  The in-
       formation in the	Scoring	window remains there until the	next  hand  is
       scored; the window can be brought up at any time	via the	"Show" menu.

       Finally,	 the  "continue	 with next hand" dialog	appears. The hand just
       completed will remain visible on	the table until	the next hand starts.

       Keyboard	Accelerators
       There are keyboard accelerators for all the actions in  the  course  of
       play. For selecting tiles, the Left and Right arrow keys	can be used to
       move the	selection left or right	along the row of  tiles.  In  all  di-
       alogs, Space or Return will activate the	shadowed button, which is usu-
       ally the	commonest choice. Each button can also be activated by	typing
       the  underlined	letter.	 (In the Windows GTK1 build, use l (ell) and r
       instead of Left and Right. The button accelerators  do  not  work,  for
       reasons unknown to me.)
       The  menus  are also accessible via accelerators. To open a menu, press
       Meta-X (Alt-X on	Windows), where	X is the underlined letter in the menu
       name.  (Meta-X  is  often  (confusingly)	Alt-X on Linux systems.)  Then
       each entry has an underlined letter which if pressed will activate it.

       An additional top-level window showing the state	of the game can	be ob-
       tained by selecting "Game info" from the	"Show" menu.

       A  record  of  the  scores so far in the	game can be found by selecting
       "Scoring	history" from the "Show" menu. The players are listed in board
       order,  with  the original east marked by @. In each hand, the player's
       hand score appears in parentheses, and then their gain or loss for  the
       hand, beneath which is the running total

       There  is  also a facility for sending text messages to the other play-
       ers. Select "Messages" from the "Show" menu, and	a window will  appear:
       in  the	top  is	 a display of all messages sent, and below is a	single
       line in which you can enter your	message. It will be sent when you  hit
       Return.	The message window pops	up automatically whenever a message is
       received, unless	prevented by a display	preference.  If	 the  "Display
       status  and  messages  in main window" display option is	set, then this
       window will instead appear in the main window, above the	table. In that
       case,  there is a checkbox "Keep	cursor here" next to the message entry
       line. Checking this box will ensure that	the keyboard  focus  stays  in
       the  message  entry  field, even	when you click on buttons in the game.
       (Consequently, you will be unable to use	 keyboard  accelerators	 while
       this option is checked.)

   Starting games and re-connecting
       The "Game" menu has the "New local game..." item	to start a new game on
       your local computer, and	the "Join server..." item to connect to	an ex-
       isting game. The	dialogs	for both these have the	following entries:

       Checkboxes for Internet/Unix server
	      These  specify  whether  the  server is listening	on an Internet
	      socket or	a Unix socket. If an Internet (TCP) socket,  the  host
	      name  ("Join Game..." only) and port number should be entered in
	      the appropriate boxes; if	a Unix socket, the file	 name  of  the
	      socket  may be entered, or if it is left blank, a	temporary file
	      will be used.  These fields are remembered from game to game.

       "Player ID" and "Name" fields
	      The "Player ID" should be	left at	0, unless reconnecting	to  an
	      existing game, in	which case it should be	the ID assigned	by the
	      server on	first connecting to that game. The "Name" field	can be
	      anything.	 When  reconnecting  to	an existing game, if the ID is
	      given as 0, the server will try to use the  "Name"  to  identify
	      the  player.  (This may not be true in future.) The "Name" field
	      is remembered from game to game.

       The "Join server..." dialog then	simply has a "Connect" button  to  es-
       tablish	the  connection.  The  "New  local  game..." has the following

       For each	of three further players,
	      A	checkbox to say	whether	to start a computer player. (Some  of)
	      these  should  be	unchecked if you wish other humans to join the
	      games.  If checked, there	is a text entry	to  set	 the  players'
	      names,  and  a text entry	field in which options can be given to
	      the players; the latter should only be used  if  you  understand
	      the options! The options are remembered from game	to game.

       An "allow disconnection"	checkbox
	      If  this is checked, the server that is started will continue to
	      run even if players disconnect. If it is not checked, the	server
	      will  quit  if  any  player  disconnects.	If you are playing one
	      against the computer, this should	generally be  left  unchecked,
	      in order to avoid	server processes accidentally being left lying
	      around. If playing against people, it should be checked, to  al-
	      low players to go	away, or to guard against network outages.

       As "save	game state on exit" checkbox
	      If this is checked, the server will save the game	state (see be-
	      low on on	saving and resuming games) when	a  player  disconnects
	      and causes it to quit.

       A "seat players randomly" checkbox
	      If  this	is left	unchecked, players will	be initially seated as
	      East, South, West, North in order	of connection. (We always con-
	      nect first.)  If it is checked, the seating will be random.

       A numeric entry field
	      to  specify  the time limit for claiming discards.  If set to 0,
	      there will be no time limit.

       A button	to start the game
	      Note that	it takes a few seconds to start	a game,	 during	 which
	      time  the	 dialog	 stays	up with	the button pressed. (TODO: fix

   Saving and resuming games
       At any time during the play of a	game, you can choose the "Save"	 entry
       from  the "Game"	menu. This causes the server to	save the current state
       of the game in a	file. The file will be named game-date.mjs by default;
       if  a  name  has	 previously been specified, or if the game was resumed
       from a file, that name will be used. To specify a name, use  the	 "Save
       as..."  entry  in  the "Game" menu. Note	that for security, directories
       cannot be specified (except by resuming a game),	so the	file  will  be
       created in the working directory	of the server.

       To  resume a saved game,	use the	"Resume	game..." entry from the	"Game"
       menu. This is just like the "New	local game..." panel, but it has a box
       to  specify the file containing the saved game. You can either type the
       file name into the box, or click	the "Browse..."	button to get  a  file
       chooser dialog. (File chooser not available on Windows GTK1 build.)

   Setting display and game options
       The  "Options"  menu of xmj brings up panels to set various options re-
       lated to	the display and	to the game rules.  Most of these options  can
       be  stored in the preferences file, which is .xmjrc in your home	direc-
       tory on Unix, and xmj.ini in your home (whatever	that means)  directory
       on Microsoft Windows.

   Display Options
       This  panel controls options related to the local display.  At the bot-
       tom are three buttons: "Save & Apply" applies changes and saves them in
       the preferences file for	future sessions; "Apply	(no save)" applies any
       changes,	but does not save them;	"Cancel" ignores changes.   Note  that
       many  display options can also be controlled by command-line arguments;
       if an option is specified both in the preferences file and on the  com-
       mand line, the command line takes priority.

       Position	of action dialogs.
	      This  determines	where the dialogs for user actions in the game
	      are popped up; see the description of the	--dialogs-central etc.
	      options above. This option is stored in the preferences file as
	      Display DialogPosition posn
	      where posn is one	of "central", "below" or "popup".

	      determines  whether  tile	movements are animated (see the	--ani-
	      mate option above). This option is  stored  in  the  preferences
	      file as
	      Display Animate bool
	      where bool is "0"	or "1".

       Display status and messages in main window
	      puts the game status and message (chat) windows in the main win-
	      dow, above the table, instead of having separate popup  windows.
	      This option is stored in the preferences file as
	      Display InfoInMain bool
	      where bool is "0"	or "1".

       Don't popup scoring/message windows
	      will  prevent  the  automatic popup of the scoring window	at the
	      end of a hand, the message window	on the arrival of  a  message,
	      and  the	game status window at the end of the game. This	option
	      is stored	in the preferences file	as
	      Display NoPopups bool
	      where bool is "0"	or "1".

       Tiletips	always shown
	      means that the name of a tile is displayed  whenever  the	 mouse
	      enters  it,  and	the name of the	selected tile is always	shown.
	      (Otherwise, right-click to display the  name.)  This  option  is
	      stored in	the preferences	file as
	      Display Tiletips bool
	      where bool is "0"	or "1".

       Rotate player info text
	      determines  whether  the	player	information labels on the main
	      board are	rotated	vertically for the left	and right players,  or
	      kept horizontal.	The default is to rotate them.	This option is
	      stored in	the preferences	file as
	      Display RotateLabels bool
	      where bool is "0"	or "1".

       Display size
	      This drop-down list specifies the	size of	the display. The  size
	      should  be thought of as the length of a tile rack. This is only
	      relevant if the wall is not being	displayed. Values  range  from
	      14  to  19;  if  "(auto)"	(the default) is specified, the	client
	      tries to choose a	size as	big as will fit	in the	display.  This
	      option  can  also	 be specified by the command line --size argu-
	      ment. This option	is stored in the preferences file as
	      Display Size n

       Show the	wall
	      "always" is equivalent to	the  --show-wall  option;  "never"  is
	      equivalent  to the --no-show-wall	option;	and "when room"	is the
	      default. This option is stored in	the preferences	file as
	      Display ShowWall when
	      where when is one	of "always", "when-room" or "never".

       Sort tiles in hand
	      By default, the program maintains	your own tiles in  sorted  or-
	      der.   If	you prefer to leave them unsorted (which is often rec-
	      ommended in real life, to	avoid giving information to your oppo-
	      nents),  or to arrange them yourself, you	can set	this option to
	      "never", or to "on deal" if you want them	to be  sorted  at  the
	      beginning,  but  then  left  alone.  To rearrange	tiles, use the
	      Shift-Left and Shift-Right (i.e. the left	and right  arrow  keys
	      while  holding  Shift)  -	 these	move the selected tile left or
	      right in your hand. (In the Windows GTK1 build, use L  (Shift-l)
	      and  R  (Shift-r)	 instead.) On GTK2 builds, you can also	drag a
	      tile to its new position with the	mouse.	This option is	stored
	      in the preferences file as
	      Display SortTiles	when
	      where when is one	of "always", "deal" or "never".

       Iconify all windows with	main
	      If this option is	set (the default), then	when the main xmj win-
	      dow is iconified,	(almost) all other open	windows	 such  as  di-
	      alogs  will  also	be iconified; when the main window is uniconi-
	      fied, the	other windows will also	be uniconified.	If it  is  not
	      set,  all	windows	are independent	of one another.	This option is
	      stored in	the preferences	file as
	      Display IconifyDialogs bool
	      This option is not currently supported under Microsoft Windows.

	      this is the tile pixmap directory, also given by	the  --tileset
	      option. This option is stored in the preferences file as
	      Display Tileset dirname

       Tileset Path
	      this  is	the search path	for tileset directories, also given by
	      the --tileset-path option. This option is	stored in the  prefer-
	      ences file as
	      Display TilesetPath search-path

       Main font selection...
	      This button brings up a font selection dialog to choose the font
	      used in buttons, menus, etc.  in	the  client.  This  option  is
	      stored in	the preferences	file as
	      Display MainFont font-name
	      where  font-name	is  a  font name, which	may be an X LFD	in the
	      Unix GTK+1 version, or a Pango font name in the Windows and Unix
	      GTK+2 versions.

       Text font selection...
	      This button brings up a font selection dialog to choose the font
	      used in text display (such as scoring  info  and	chat)  in  the
	      client. This option is stored in the preferences file as
	      Display TextFont font-name

       Table colour selection...
	      Unaccountably,  not  everybody likes my choice of	dark green for
	      the table	background. This button	brings up a  colour  selection
	      box  to  allow  the  table  colour  to be	changed.This option is
	      stored in	the preferences	file as
	      Display TableColour col
	      where col	is a GTK colour	specification. The format  depends  on
	      whether xmj is built with	GTK+1 -	in which case it is an X color
	      of the form rgb:RRRR/GGGG/BBBB - or GTK+2	- in which case	it  is
	      a	GTK2 color of the form #RRRRGGGGBBBB. GTK+2 programs will con-
	      vert an old GTK1 specification.

       Gtk2 Rcfile:
	      In the GTK+2 build, xmj by default ignores completely the	system
	      and  user	 settings for look and feel, and uses its own built in
	      settings.	 These settings	use the	Clearlooks  theme,  if	it  is
	      available,  to  provide  a  simple  but clean look with slightly
	      rounded tiles; and fall back to a	plain  theme,  as  compact  as
	      possible with the	standard engine. If you	wish, you can use this
	      option to	specify	the name of a GTK rcfile which	will  be  read
	      instead  of  the	built  in settings.  A minimal set of settings
	      will be read before your file is read.  Such a file can  specify
	      many  details  of	 the appearance, provided that you know	how to
	      write a GTK rcfile. You will need	to know	that xmj uses the fol-
	      lowing styles and	bindings:
	      gtk-font-name = fontname
	      can  be  used  to	 change	the overall font used by widgets. This
	      will overridden by the font specified by the Main	 Font  option,
	      if set.
	      style "table"
	      is  used	to  give the green (or whatever	you set) colour	to the
	      table. All widgets that should have this style  are  named  "ta-
	      ble",  so	 the  appropriate  binding (already set	in the minimal
	      set) is
		   widget "*.table" style "table"
	      style "playerlabel"
	      is used to give the white	text colour to the player  status  la-
	      bels  in	the  corners of	the board (if shown). All widgets that
	      should have this style are named "playerlabel", so the appropri-
	      ate binding (already set in the minimal set) is
		   widget "*.playerlabel" style	"playerlabel"
	      style "tile"
	      is  used	in  the	default	settings for all widgets named "tile",
	      which are	all tiles except the tiles in your own concealed hand.
	      This  style  is  not used	in the minimal settings, but if	set it
	      should be	bound with
		   widget "*.tile" style "tile"
	      style "mytile"
	      is used in the default settings for the concealed	tiles in  your
	      hand,  which  are	 active	 buttons.  These  tiles	 are all named
	      "mytile".	This style is not used in the minimal settings,	but if
	      set it should be bound with
		   widget "*.mytile" style "mytile"
	      style "claim"
	      is used to set the yellow	background and large font of the claim
	      announcement popups. These popups	are named "claim", so the  ap-
	      propriate	binding	(already set in	the minimal set) is
		   widget "*.claim" style "claim"
	      style "text"
	      is  used to change the font for the text widgets such as message
	      boxes and	input fields. In the minimal settings,	it  is	empty,
	      but  is  defined	and bound to the relevant widgets. The binding
	      should not be changed, but the style itself can be redefined. If
	      the Text Font option is set, this	style will be redefined	in or-
	      der to implement it.
	      binding "topwindow"
	      is defined and bound to the top-level window  to	implement  the
	      use  of  the  left  and  right arrow keys	to change the selected
	      tile. It is probably not helpful to change this.
	      The distribution contains	 three	example	 gtkrc	files,	called
	      gtkrc-minimal,  gtkrc-plain, and gtkrc-clearlooks, which contain
	      the program's compiled in	settings.
	      This option is stored in the preferences files as
	      Display Gtk2Rcfile file-name
	      Note that	if the file-name is relative, it will  be  interpreted
	      relative to the current directory	in Unix, or the	program	direc-
	      tory in Windows.

       Use system gtkrc
	      As noted above, xmj does not normally load the  system  settings
	      in  the  GTK+2  build. If	this option is checked,	it will	(after
	      the minimal settings, but	before the default  or	user-specified
	      settings).  This option is stored	in the preferences files as
	      Display UseSystemGtkrc bool
	      where bool is 0 or 1.

       Note for	GTK+1 builds
	      Under  a	GTK+1 build, xmj does what any other application does.
	      This should allow	the use	of a .gtkrc file  to  change  colours,
	      using  the styles	and bindings given above. However, this	is not
	      a	supported activity.

   Playing Preferences
       This panel controls what	actions	the client may take  on	 your  behalf.
       The first (and currently	only) section specifies	when the client	should
       declare tiles and sets for you. It has the following checkboxes:

       flowers and seasons
	      if checked, will be automatically	declared as soon as drawn.

       losing hands
	      if this is checked, then when somebody else goes out, the	client
	      will  declare  your closed sets. It declares in the order	pungs,
	      pairs, chows.

       winning hands
	      this is the same for when	you go out.

       The panel has "Save & Apply", "Apply (no	save)" and  "Cancel"  buttons,
       as in the display options panel.

   Game	Option Preferences
       This  panel  controls  preferred	game options which will	be sent	to the
       server when a game starts. Preferences will only	be applied if  we  are
       the  game manager, or the game has no manager. (Normally, the first hu-
       man player to connect to	the server becomes the game manager.)
       For details of options and their	meanings, see the Game Options section
       in the rules.
       The panel has two action	buttons, "Save Changes"	and "Cancel", with the
       obvious meanings. Note if a game	is in  progress,  changed  preferences
       are  NOT	 applied to it;	however, there is a button in the Current Game
       Options panel to	apply preferences.
       The main	body of	the panel is a scrollable window listing all the known
       options.	 If  no	preference is stored for the FooBar option, then there
       is an "Add pref"	button next to a description of	the FooBar option.  If
       this  button  is	 clicked, an entry for setting the option appears. The
       format of this entry depends on the type	of the option  (see  the  Game
       Options section of the rules for	details	of types):

       Boolean (on/off)	options
	      have a checkbox.

       Integer options
	      have  a  spinbutton  for numerical entry:	the value can be typed
	      in, or the up and	down arrows can	be used	to change it

       Score options
	      have radio buttons for selecting Limit,  Half-Limit,  or	other;
	      for  other,  the number of doubles and/or	points is entered with
	      spinbuttons. (Note: the underlying protocol  allows  percentages
	      (possibly	 more than 100%) of limits to be specified for scores;
	      however, the current graphical interfaces	allow only  limits  or
	      half-limits.  Even  half-limits  are  pretty  strange,  but some
	      bizarre sets of rules, such as those of the British Mah-Jong As-
	      sociation	 (which	 plays	a weird	American/Western/Chinese mix),
	      allow other fractions of limits.)

       String options
	      have a simple text entry field.

       All option entries have a "Reset" button	which returns the entry	to its
       previous	state.
       A preference is removed by clicking the "Remove pref" button.

   Current Game	Options
       When  there  is a connected game, this panel allows its game options to
       be modified (if we have permission to do	so). The three action  buttons
       are  "Apply changes", which applies the panel's settings	to the current
       game; "Apply prefs", which applies our preferences (as described	above)
       to the current game; and	"Cancel".
       The  body of the	panel contains entries for all the options of the cur-
       rent game, in the same format as	the preferences	panel (see above).

       The latest release of the Unix Mah-Jong programs	should be available at

       The game	currently implemented is a version of  the  classical  Chinese
       game.  The  most	convenient and comprehensive set of rules is that pro-
       vided by	A. D. Millington, "The Complete	Book  of  Mah-Jongg",  Weiden-
       field  &	 Nicolson (1993), ISBN 0 297 81340 4.  In the following, M 103
       denotes item 103	of the rules laid out in Chapter 3  of	that  book.  I
       here describe only the differences from these rules, some of which dif-
       ferences	are consequences of using computers, and  some	of  which  are
       points  where  my  house	rules differ from Millington's version.	In due
       course, all variations (of Chinese classical) will be accommodated,  if
       there is	sufficient desire.

       Classification  of tiles	(M 1-8): the tiles are a standard Chinese set.
       The tiles do not	have Arabic numerals, except for the flowers and  sea-
       sons, where the identifying Chinese characters are too small to be leg-
       ible. A numbered	set is included	in the distribution and	 can  be  used
       via the Tileset display preference.
       The  flowers  and seasons may be	removed	from the tile set by unsetting
       the Flowers game	option.

       Preliminary (M 9-10): nothing to	say.

       Duration	of the game (M 11-14): standard	rules. In particular, the  ti-
       tle of East does	not pass after a wash-out.

       Selection  of  seats  (M	 15): the players are seated in	the order they
       connect to the server, or randomly, according to	the  option  given  to
       the server.

       The  deal  etc.	(M  16-27):  There is no attempt to simulate the usual
       dealing ritual (M 16-20,	23-26);	the wall  is  built  randomly  by  the
       server. The dead	wall is	also maintained	by the server.
       The existence of	a dead wall is controlled by the DeadWall game option;
       normally	there is a dead	wall.
       The deal	wall is	either 14 tiles	and kept at 13 or 14 during  play  (as
       in  most	 authors),  or	is  16	tiles,	not  extended during play (per
       Millington (M 22)), according to	the DeadWall16 game option.
       Replacement tiles for kongs are always taken from the loose tiles,  but
       replacements for	bonus tiles may	be drawn from the live wall (M 31), or
       from the	loose tiles, according to the FlowersLoose game	option.

       Object of game (M 28-31): all winning hands must	comprise four sets and
       a pair, with the	exception of the Thirteen Unique Wonders.  If the Sev-
       enPairs game option is set, then	a hand of any seven pairs is also  al-
       lowed as	a winning hand.

       Bonus tiles (M 31): M requires that bonus tiles must be declared	in the
       turn in which they are drawn; otherwise the player may not exchange  or
       score  them (and	thus they cannot go out). We do	not make this restric-
       tion, as	it is (a) pointless (b)	 unenforceable	in  real  life.	 Bonus
       tiles  may  be declared at any time after drawing from the wall.	(Obvi-
       ously, there is no reason not to	declare	them immediately.)

       Commencement of the Game	(M 32-33): standard.

       Playing procedure (M 34-38): standard.  In particular, the other	 play-
       ers have	to give	permission for east to start playing (M	34).  The dis-
       play of discards	cannot be controlled by	 the  server;  the  current  X
       client  displays	 them  in an organized fashion,	rather than the	random
       layout required by M 35.

       Chow (M 39-42): standard.

       Pung (M 43-45): standard.

       Kongs (M	46-52):	 M  distinguishes  three  types	 of  kong:  concealed,
       claimed	(by  Kong),  and annexed (formed by adding a discard to	an ex-
       posed pung), and	allows claimed kongs to	be counted  as	concealed  for
       the  purposes  of  doubling combinations. I have	not seen this anywhere
       else; normally, a claimed kong is treated as exposed for	all  purposes.
       We follow the normal convention;	however, the game option KongHas3Types
       can be set to implement M's rules. In this case,	the xmj	 program  will
       distinguish  claimed  kongs  by displaying them with the	last tile face
       down, whereas annexed kongs are all face	up.
       Players may declare a concealed kong, or	add to a pung, only when  they
       have  just  drawn a tile	from the wall (live or dead); not just after a
       claiming	a discard. (A silly restriction	in my view, but	one  that  all
       rule  sets seem to have (M 51).)	As from	program	version	1.11 (protocol
       version 1110), we also allow a player to	add to a pung they  have  just
       claimed (see note above in the description of play).

       Calling	and  Mah Jong (M 53-54): standard. (I.e. there is no "Calling"

       NOTE: M permits players to change their mind about making  a  claim  (M
       69);  we	 do  not, and all claims are irrevocable. As a special conces-
       sion, we	allow adding to	a just claimed pung, so	simulating the	effect
       of correcting a pung claim to a kong.

       Original	Call (M	55): the Original Call declaration must	be made	simul-
       taneously with the first	discard, rather	than  afterwards.   NOTE:  the
       server  does  *not*  check that the declarer does indeed	have a calling
       hand, as	a mistaken original call does not damage the other players  or
       the  progress of	the game. The server does, however, thereafter prevent
       the declarer from changing their	hand; therefore	 a  mistaken  original
       call will make it impossible to go out. (Note: in M, an Original	Caller
       may change their	hand, but will thereby lose the	ability	to go  out  (M
       55(b));	is  this  a  better way	to treat it?)  Note also: as per M, an
       original	call can be made even if another player	has claimed a  discard
       before, unlike the Japanese version.

       Robbing	a  Kong	 (M 57-60): Robbing a kong is implemented. However, as
       with discards, we require that kongs are	robbed	before	anything  else
       happens,	 and in	particular before the konger draws a replacement tile.
       Therefore, after	a kong,	all other players must either claim  Mah  Jong
       or  pass.  (The provided	programs will pass automatically if robbing is
       not possible.) As for discards, there is	a time limit.

       Precedence of claims for	discard	(M 61-65): Many	rules allow a  discard
       to  be claimed up until the time	the next discard is made. M does this,
       with elaborate rules for	the precise specification.  For	ease of	imple-
       mentation,  we  do not allow this: instead, all players are required to
       make a claim or pass, and once all players have claimed,	the successful
       claim  is  implemented  irrevocably.   The server imposes a time	limit;
       players that do not claim within	the limit are deemed to	 have  passed.
       This  defaults  to  15  seconds,	 but can be changed or disabled	by the
       Timeout game option.

       Irregularities in Play (M 66-81): the server does not  permit  unlawful
       moves, and so no	irregularities can arise.

       False Declaration of Mah	Jong (M	82-83):	such declarations are not per-
       mitted by the server.

       False Naming of Discards	(M 84-88): this	also cannot happen.

       Incorrect Hands (M 89): cannot happen.

       Letting Off a Cannon (M 90-96): as in M.	However, if a player  makes  a
       dangerous  discard,  but	has no choice, the server will determine this;
       it is not necessary to plead "no	choice"	explicitly, and	neither	is the
       player's	hand revealed to the other players.

       Wash-Out	(M 97-99): standard.

       Points of Etiquette (M 100-102):	not applicable.

       Displaying  the Hand (M 103-106): The format of display is a matter for
       the client program, and cannot be controlled by the server.
       After Mah Jong, the players are	responsible  for  declaring  concealed
       sets  in	 whatever way they wish. The winner, of	course,	is required to
       declare a complete hand;	but the	losers may declare as they wish.  Once
       a  set  is declared, it cannot be revoked. Note that the	losers may de-
       clare multiple scoring pairs.

       Procedure in Settlement (M 107-111): The	settlement is classical:  that
       is,  the	 winner	 gets  the  value  of their hand from all players; the
       losers pay one another the differences between their scores; except all
       payments	 to or from East are doubled; and if players let off a cannon,
       they pay	everybody's debt.  Unlike normal play (M 110), all  hands  are
       scored  by  the	server,	rather than by the players. Settlement is also
       computed	by the server.	Some variations	in settlement are provided: if
       the LosersSettle	game option is set to false, there are no payments be-
       tween losers; if	the EastDoubles	game option is set to false,  payments
       to  or from East	are not	doubled; if the	DiscDoubles game option	is set
       to true,	then the discarder of the tile that  gave  Mah-Jong  will  pay
       double to the winner, and a self-draw is	paid double by everybody.

       Method of Scoring (M 112-122): The method is standard (M	112), viz cal-
       culate points obtained from sets	and bonuses, and then apply doubles.

       The following points are	given for tiles:

       Bonus tiles:
	      4	each (M	114(a))

       Pungs: 2	for exposed minor tiles; 4 for exposed major or	concealed  mi-
	      nor; 8 for concealed major. (M 114(b))

       Kongs: 8	for exposed minor; 16 for exposed major	or concealed minor; 32
	      for concealed major. (M 114(c))

       Chows: no score.	(M 114(d))

       Pair:  2	for a pair of Dragons, Own Wind, or Prevailing Wind.   A  pair
	      that  is	both Own and Prevailing	Wind scores 4. (M 114(e)) Non-
	      winning hands may	score more than	one pair.

       Basic points:
	      the winner gets 20 points	for  going  Mah	 Jong.	 This  can  be
	      changed  by  the	MahJongScore  game  option  (M	115(a)	has 10

       Seven Pairs hand:
	      If Seven Pairs hands are allowed,	 they  receive	an  additional
	      score of 20 points, changed by the SevenPairsVal game option.

       Winning from wall:
	      if  the final tile is drawn from the wall, 2 points are added (M

       Filling the only	place:
	      if the final tile	is the only denomination that could have  com-
	      pleted  the hand,	2 points are added (M 115(c)).	NOTE: As in M,
	      if all four copies of a tile are exposed on the table,  it  does
	      not count	as available for completing the	hand.

       Fishing the eyes:
	      a	 player	who completes by obtaining a pair gets 2 points	if the
	      pair is minor, or	4 if major (M 115(d)).	Note: to obtain	 these
	      points for a discard, the	player must actually claim the discard
	      for a pair: e.g. if waiting on 5677, and	7  is  discarded,  the
	      player must claim	for the	pair, not the chow.

       The  following  doubles apply to	all hands.  All	possible clauses apply
       unless stated otherwise.

       Having own flower or own	season.
	      No extra score. Changed by the FlowersOwnEach game option.

       Having own flower AND own season,
	      1	double.	(M 116(a)). Changed by the FlowersOwnBoth game option.

       Having all four flowers,
	      1	double.	(M 116(b)). Changed by the FlowersBouquet game option.

       Having all four seasons,
	      1	double.	(M 116(b)). Changed by the FlowersBouquet game option.

       Each set	of dragons,
	      1	double.	(M 116(d))

       A set of	the player's own wind,
	      1	double.	(M 116(e))

       A set of	the prevailing wind,
	      1	double.	(M 116(f))

       "Little Three Dragons": two sets	and a pair of dragons.
	      1	double.	(M 116(g))

       "Big Three Dragons": three sets of dragons.
	      2	doubles. (M 116(h))

       "Little Four Winds": three sets and a pair of winds.
	      1	double.	(M 116(i))

       "Big Four Winds": four sets of winds.
	      2	doubles. (M 116(j))

	      (Note: the definitions of	these last four	doubles	 when  applied
	      to  non-winning  hands  are subject to wide variations. Possibly
	      there should be options to allow other possibilities.)

       Three concealed pungs:
	      1	double.	(M 116(k)) (Note: if the KongHas3Types game option  is
	      set,  a  claimed kong counts as concealed	for this hand; see the
	      note above under "Kongs".)

       The following doubles apply to the winning hand only:

       No score	hand: four chows and a non-scoring pair.
	      1	double.	(M 117(a)) (Note: like M, we allow any	of  the	 extra
	      points  (Fishing	the  Eyes,  etc)  to go	with this double. Some
	      rules say	that the extra points invalidate this  hand.  Possibly
	      there should be an option	for this.)

       No chows:
	      1	double.	(M 117(b))

       Concealed hand:
	      1	double (M 117(c)), changeable with the ConcealedFully game op-
	      tion. (Note: this	means a	hand that is fully concealed after go-
	      ing  out.	 Another  common value for this	is 3 doubles, in which
	      case 1 double is usually given for a  semi-concealed  hand  (see
	      below).)	 (Note:	 if  the  KongHas3Types	 game option is	set, a
	      claimed kong counts as concealed for this	 hand;	see  the  note
	      above under "Kongs".)

       The following doubles normally apply to the winning hand	only; however,
       the LosersPurity	game option can	be set to allow	losing hands to	 score
       them  (this  is	a highly deprecated American feature, but has been re-
       quested by a user).

       Semi-concealed hand:
	      no doubles, changeable with  the	ConcealedAlmost	 game  option.
	      (Not in M) (Note:	this means a winning hand that is concealed up
	      to the point of going out, or, if	enabled,  a  concealed	losing
	      hand.  According to a discussion on, a winning
	      semi-concealed hand is  classically  awarded  one	 double	 (with
	      three  given  for	 fully	concealed).  One book in my possession
	      (U.S.A., early 1920s) awards this	double only to a hand that  is
	      concealed	 except	 for  the  pair.)  (Note: if the KongHas3Types
	      game option is set, a claimed kong counts	as concealed for  this
	      hand; see	the note above under "Kongs".)

       One suit	with honours:
	      1	double.	(M 117(d))

       One suit	only:
	      3	doubles. (M 117(e))

       All majors:
	      1	double.	(M 117(f))

       All honours (in an unlimited game):
	      2	 doubles.  (M  117(g))	(Note: such a hand will	also score the
	      double for all majors.)

       All terminals (in an unlimited game):
	      2	doubles. (Not in M) (Note: such	a hand	will  also  score  the
	      double for all majors.)

       The following doubles apply only	to the winning hand:

       Winning with loose tile:
	      1	 double. (M 117(h)) (Note: with	the default settings, replace-
	      ments for	bonus tiles come from the live wall. Hence this	double
	      applies only to winning after Kong.)

       Winning from the	bottom of the sea (winning with	last tile),
	      1	double.	(M 117(i))

       Catching	a fish from the	bottom of the sea (winning with	last discard),
	      1	double.	(M 117(j))

       Robbing a kong,
	      1	double.	(M 117(k))

       Completing Original Call,
	      1	double.	(M 117(l))

       Limit  (M 118-120): the limit is	1000 by	default, and can be changed by
       the ScoreLimit game option. The NoLimit game option can be used to play
       a game "with the	roof off".

       The following hands are limit hands:

       Heaven's	Blessing: East wins with dealt hand. (M	122(a))

       Earth's Blessing: player	wins with East's first discard.	(M 122(b))

       Gathering Plum Blossom from the Roof: winning with 5 Circles from the
	      loose wall. (M 122(c))

       Catching	the Moon from the Bottom of the	Sea: winning with 1 Circle as
	      the  last	 tile.	(M 122(d)) (Note: M says that the tile must be
	      drawn. It	seems more reasonable also to allow it to be the  last
	      discard, which is	what we	do. Objections?)

       Scratching a Carrying Pole: robbing a kong of 2 Bamboos.	(M 122(e))

       (Note: these last three limits are rather arbitrary, but	of the
	      arbitrary	 limits	 they  are  apparently	the most common. There
	      should be	options	to disable them.)

       Kong upon Kong: making a	Kong, making another Kong with the loose
	      tile, and	with the second	loose tile obtaining Mah Jong.	(Also,
	      of course, with three or four successive kongs.) (M 122(f))

       Four Kongs. (M 122(g))

       Buried Treasure:	all concealed and no chows. (M 122(h))

       The  Three  Great  Scholars:  three  sets  of  dragons and no chows. (M
	      (Note: in	most rules I have seen,	there is no restriction	 to  a
	      no  chow	hand. Since in M's rules, three	sets and a chow	scores
	      at least (10 (M has 10 for Mah Jong) + 12	(at  least  3  pungs))
	      times 8 (2 for each set of dragons) times	4 (for Big Three Drag-
	      ons) = 704, this is significant with the default limit. For  us,
	      with  20	for  going  out, Big Three Dragons is over the default
	      limit anyway.)

       Four Blessings o'er the Door: four sets of winds	and a pair. (M 122(j))

       All Honours. (M 122(k))

       Heads and Tails:	all terminals. (M 122(l))

       Imperial	Jade: contains only Green  Dragon  and	2,3,4,6,8  Bamboo.  (M
	      (Note: another rather arbitrary hand, but	widely adopted.)

       Nine  Gates:  calling  on  1-1-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-9-9  of	 one  suit. (M

       Wriggling Snake:	1-1-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-9-9 plus 2, 5 or 8 of
	      one suit (M 122(o)).  (Note: another rather arbitrary hand.)

       Concealed Clear Suit: one suit only and all concealed. (M 122(p))

       Thirteen	Unique Wonders:	one of each major tile,	and a match to any of
	      them. (M 122(q))

       East's 13th consecutive Mah-Jong. (M 122(r))

       General note: there are many other doubles and limits kicking around. I
       welcome opinions	on which should	be possible options; and also on which
       of the above I should eject from	the default set.  I  dislike  Imperial
       Jade, Wriggling Snake, and the ones depending on	a specific tile	(Gath-
       ering Plum Blossom, Catching the	Moon,  Scratching  a  Carrying	Pole):
       which  of  these	 are so	commonly adopted that they should be in	even a
       fairly minimalist default set?

       This section describes the options that can be set in the game. Whether
       an  option can be used, depends on the version of the programs. This is
       described by a "protocol	version	number"; this is not strictly speaking
       a  version just of the communication protocol, but a version number re-
       flecting	the combination	of protocol and	programs. When playing by one-
       self,  this does	not matter, but	in the case of a networked game, play-
       ers might have different	versions of the	software, in  which  case  the
       game is played according	to the lowest version of any player.

       Game  options can be controlled in two ways: the	--option-file argument
       to the mj-server	program	gives options to be applied to	the  game,  or
       options can be set by the players, using	the interface described	in the
       manual section for xmj.

       In the user interface, the options are referred to by a	one  line  de-
       scription, but each option also has a short name, given here.

       Options are of several types:

       bool   boolean, or on/off, options.

       int    integer options

       nat    non-negative integer options

       string is a miscellaneous type, whose values are	strings	of at most 127
	      characters which must not	contain	white space

       score  is the type used for options that	give the score of some	combi-
	      nation  or  feature  in  a hand. A score is either a limit (or a
	      half-limit; the underlying protocol supports percentages of lim-
	      its,  but	the current user programs only support limits and half
	      limits); or a number of doubles to be awarded; or	 a  number  of
	      points to	be added. It is	possible (though never needed) to have
	      both points and doubles. If points/doubles are specified as well
	      as  a  limit,  they will be used in a no-limit game. (The	server
	      implements a hard	limit of 100000000  on	all  scores  to	 avoid
	      arithmetic overflow, but that's unlikely to worry	anybody.)

   Currently supported options
       The  following  options	are implemented	in the versions	of the program
       with which this document	is distributed.	If playing against people with
       older  versions of the software,	some options may not be	available. The
       list gives for each option the short name, type,	and short description,
       followed	by a detailed explanation.

       Timeout (nat) time limit	for claims
	      This  is	the  time in seconds allowed to	claim a	discard, or to
	      rob a kong. If set to zero, there	is no timeout. The default  is
	      15 seconds.

       TimeoutGrace (nat) grace	period when clients handle timeouts
	      This  period  (in	 seconds) is added to the Timeout above	before
	      the server actually forces a timeout. This is for	 when  clients
	      handle  timeouts	locally,  and allows for network lags. If this
	      option is	zero, clients are not permitted	to handle timeouts lo-
	      cally.  The  current  server  also only allows players to	handle
	      timeouts locally if all of them wish to do so.

       ScoreLimit (nat)	limit on hand score
	      This is the limit	for the	score of a hand. In a  no-limit	 game,
	      it is the	notional value of a "limit" hand. The default is 1000.

       NoLimit (bool) no-limit game
	      If this option is	set, the game has no limit on hand scores. The
	      default is unset.

       MahJongScore (score) base score for going out
	      This is the number of points for obtaining  Mah-Jong.   The  de-
	      fault is 20.

       SevenPairs (bool) seven pairs hand allowed
	      If  this	option is set, then Mah-Jong hands of seven pairs (any
	      seven pairs) are allowed.	The default is unset.

       SevenPairsVal (score) score for a seven pair hand
	      This gives the score (in addition	to the	base  Mah-Jong	score)
	      for a seven pairs	hand. The default is 20.

       Flowers (bool) play using flowers and seasons
	      If  this	option is set, the deal	includes four flowers and four
	      seasons in the Chinese Classical style. If unset,	only  the  136
	      standard tiles are used. The default is set.

       FlowersLoose (bool) flowers replaced by loose tiles
	      If  playing with flowers,	this option determines whether flowers
	      and seasons are replaced from the	live wall (unset), or by loose
	      tiles (set). The default is unset.

       FlowersOwnEach (score) score for	each own flower	or season
	      This  option gives the score for having one's own	flower or sea-
	      son.  If one has both, this score	will be	given twice.  The  de-
	      fault is no score.

       FlowersOwnBoth (score) score for	own flower and own season
	      This is the score	for having both	one's own flower and one's own
	      season. Note that	this is	awarded	in addition to twice the  pre-
	      vious score. The default is 1 double.

       FlowersBouquet (score) score for	all four flowers or all	four seasons
	      This  is	the score for having all four flowers or all four sea-
	      sons.  The default is 1 double.

       DeadWall	(bool) there is	a dead wall
	      This determines whether there is a dead wall, so that play  ends
	      when it is reached (set),	or whether all tiles may be drawn (un-
	      set).  The default is set.

       DeadWall16 (bool) dead wall is 16 tiles,	unreplenished
	      If this option is	set, then  the	dead  wall  initially  has  16
	      tiles, and does not have any more	tiles added to it (this	is the
	      set-up described by Millington). If the option  is  unset,  then
	      the dead wall initially  has 14 tiles, and after two loose tiles
	      have been	taken, two tiles are moved from	the live wall  to  the
	      dead  wall  (this	 is  the  set-up  described by almost everyone
	      else). The default is unset in versions  1.1  onwards,  and  set
	      previously.  (To	be precise, the	protocol level default is set,
	      but all servers from 1.1 onwards will change this	to unset.)

       ConcealedFully (score) score for	fully concealed	hand
	      This is the score	for a winning hand with	no open	sets.  The de-
	      fault is 1 double.

       ConcealedAlmost (score) score for almost	concealed hand
	      This  is	the score for a	hand that is concealed up to the point
	      of going out.  The default is no additional score.

       LosersPurity (bool) losing hands	score doubles for pure,	concealed etc.
	      If this option is	set, losing hands will score  various  doubles
	      for  one suit, almost concealed, etc. See	the rules for details.
	      This option is an	(Anglo-)Americanism alien to Chinese Classical
	      (see  Foster  for	 a spirited but	faulty argument	in its favour,
	      and Millington for the rejoinder).  The default is unset.

       KongHas3Types (bool) claimed kongs count	as concealed for doubling
	      If this option is	set, claimed kongs count as concealed for var-
	      ious  doubling  combinations, although they score	as exposed for
	      basic points. See	the note above under "Kongs".  The default  is

       LosersSettle (bool) losers pay each other
	      If  this option is set, the losers pay each other	the difference
	      between their scores. If it unset, they  pay  only  the  winner.
	      The default is set.

       EastDoubles (bool) east pays and	receives double
	      If  this	option is set, payments	to and from East Wind are dou-
	      bled, as in the Chinese Classical	game.  The default is set.

       DiscDoubles (bool) the discarder	pays double
	      If this option is	set, the settlement procedure is changed to  a
	      style  common  in	Singapore. That	is, if the winning player wins
	      off a discard, the discarder pays	double the hand	value, and the
	      other  players  pay  the hand value. If the winner wins from the
	      wall, then all other players pay double the hand value.  The de-
	      fault  is	 unset.	  Note:	EastDoubles and	DiscDoubles can	be set
	      together,	but nobody plays such a	rule.

       ShowOnWashout (bool) reveal tiles on washout
	      If this option is	set, the players' hands	will  be  revealed  in
	      the event	of a washout.

       NumRounds (nat) number of rounds	to play
	      This  option  says how many rounds to play in the	game. For aes-
	      thetic reasons, the possible values are 1, 2, or a  multiple  of
	      4.  In  the  2  round  case,  the	 East and South	rounds will be
	      played. It defaults to the usual 4 rounds.

   Option file format
       Both in the option file and in the .xmjrc file, options are recorded in
       the format used by the server protocol. This is a line of the form

       GameOption 0 name type minprot enabled value desc

       The meanings of the elements are:

       GameOption 0
	      identifies  this	as  a game option line (the 0 is an irrelevant
	      field from the protocol).

       name   is the name of the option.

       type   is the type of the option.

	      is the minimum protocol version with which  the  option  can  be
	      used  (which  is not necessarily the version at which it was in-

	      will always be 1.

       value  is the value: a decimal (signed) integer for nat and int;	0 or 1
	      for  bool; the string for	string;	and for	score, if the score is
	      c	centi-limits, d	doubles	and p points, the value	is c*1000000 +
	      d*10000 +	p.

       desc   is  a short description of the option, which is not required but
	      is usually copied	in from	the server.

J.C.Bradfield			   Mah-Jong				XMJ(1)


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