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xfs_quota(8)		    System Manager's Manual		  xfs_quota(8)

       xfs_quota - manage use of quota on XFS filesystems

       xfs_quota  [  -x	] [ -p prog ] [	-c cmd ] ... [ -d project ] ...	[ path
       ... ]
       xfs_quota -V

       xfs_quota is a utility for reporting and	 editing  various  aspects  of
       filesystem quota.

       The options to xfs_quota	are:

       -c cmd	 xfs_quota  commands may be run	interactively (the default) or
		 as arguments on the command line. Multiple -c	arguments  may
		 be  given.   The commands are run in the sequence given, then
		 the program exits.

       -p prog	 Set the program name for prompts and some error messages, the
		 default value is xfs_quota.

       -x	 Enable	 expert	mode.  All of the administrative commands (see
		 the ADMINISTRATOR COMMANDS section below) which allow modifi-
		 cations  to  the  quota  system  are available	only in	expert

       -d project
		 Project names or numeric identifiers may  be  specified  with
		 this  option,	which  restricts  the output of	the individual
		 xfs_quota commands to the set of projects specified. Multiple
		 -d arguments may be given.

       -V	 Prints	the version number and exits.

       The  optional  path  argument(s)	can be used to specify mount points or
       device files which identify XFS filesystems. The	output of the individ-
       ual  xfs_quota  commands	will then be restricted	to the set of filesys-
       tems specified.

       This manual page	is divided into	two sections  -	 firstly,  information
       for users of filesystems	with quota enabled, and	the xfs_quota commands
       of interest to such users; and then information which is	useful only to
       administrators  of  XFS	filesystems using quota	and the	quota commands
       which allow modifications to the	quota system.

       Note that common	to almost all of the individual	commands described be-
       low  are	the options for	specifying which quota types are of interest -
       user quota (-u),	group quota (-g), and/or project  quota	 (-p).	 Also,
       several commands	provide	options	to operate on "blocks used" (-b), "in-
       odes used" (-i),	and/or "realtime blocks	used" (-r).

       Many commands also have extensive online	help. Use the help command for
       more details on any command.

       In  most	computing environments,	disk space is not infinite.  The quota
       subsystem provides a mechanism to control usage of disk space.	Quotas
       can  be	set  for each individual user on any/all of the	local filesys-
       tems.  The quota	subsystem warns	users when they	exceed their  allotted
       limit,  but  allows  some extra space for current work (hard limit/soft
       limit).	In addition, XFS filesystems with limit	enforcement turned off
       can be used as an effective disk	usage accounting system.

   Users' View of Disk Quotas
       To  most	 users,	disk quotas are	either of no concern or	a fact of life
       that cannot be avoided.	There are two possible quotas that can be  im-
       posed  -	 a  limit can be set on	the amount of space a user can occupy,
       and there may be	a limit	on the number of files (inodes)	he can own.

       The quota command provides information on the quotas that have been set
       by the system administrators and	current	usage.

       There  are  four	 numbers  for  each  limit:  current usage, soft limit
       (quota),	hard limit, and	time limit.  The soft limit is the  number  of
       1K-blocks  (or  files)  that the	user is	expected to remain below.  The
       hard limit cannot be exceeded.  If a  user's  usage  reaches  the  hard
       limit,  further	requests for space (or attempts	to create a file) fail
       with the	"Quota exceeded" (EDQUOT) error.

       When a user exceeds the soft limit, the timer is	enabled.  Any time the
       quota drops below the soft limits, the timer is disabled.  If the timer
       pops, the particular limit that has been	exceeded is treated as if  the
       hard limit has been reached, and	no more	resources are allocated	to the
       user.  The only way to reset this condition, short of turning off limit
       enforcement  or	increasing  the	limit, is to reduce usage below	quota.
       Only the	superuser (i.e.	a sufficiently capable process)	 can  set  the
       time limits and this is done on a per filesystem	basis.

   Surviving When the Quota Limit Is Reached
       In  most	cases, the only	way for	a user to recover from over-quota con-
       ditions is to abort whatever activity is	in progress on the  filesystem
       that  has reached its limit, remove sufficient files to bring the limit
       back below quota, and retry the failed program.
       However,	if a user is in	the editor and a write	fails  because	of  an
       over  quota  situation, that is not a suitable course of	action.	 It is
       most likely that	initially attempting to	write the file	has  truncated
       its  previous  contents,	 so if the editor is aborted without correctly
       writing the file, not only are the recent changes  lost,	 but  possibly
       much, or	even all, of the contents that previously existed.
       There  are several possible safe	exits for a user caught	in this	situa-
       tion.  He can use the editor shell escape command to examine  his  file
       space  and  remove  surplus  files.  Alternatively, using sh(1),	he can
       suspend the editor, remove some files, then resume it.  A third	possi-
       bility is to write the file to some other filesystem (perhaps to	a file
       on /tmp)	where the user's quota has not been exceeded.  Then after rec-
       tifying the quota situation, the	file can be moved back to the filesys-
       tem it belongs on.

       print  Lists all	paths with devices/project identifiers.	 The path list
	      can  come	 from several places - the command line, the mount ta-
	      ble, and the /etc/projects file.

       df     See the free command.

       quota [ -gpu ] [	-bir ] [ -hnNv ] [ -f file ] [ ID | name ] ...
	      Show individual usage and	limits,	for a single user name or  nu-
	      meric user ID.  The -h option reports in a "human-readable" for-
	      mat similar to the df(1) command.	The -n option reports the  nu-
	      meric  IDs rather	than the name. The -N option omits the header.
	      The -v option outputs verbose information. The -f	 option	 sends
	      the output to file instead of stdout.

       free [ -bir ] [ -hN ] [ -f file ]
	      Reports  filesystem  usage, much like the	df(1) utility.	It can
	      show usage for blocks, inode, and/or realtime block  space,  and
	      shows  used, free, and total available.  If project quota	are in
	      use (see the DIRECTORY TREE QUOTA	section	below),	it  will  also
	      report  utilisation for those projects (directory	trees).	The -h
	      option reports in	a "human-readable" format. The -N option omits
	      the  header. The -f option outputs the report to file instead of

       help [ command ]
	      Online help for all commands, or one specific command.

       quit   Exit xfs_quota.

       q      See the quit command.

       The XFS quota system differs to that of other filesystems in  a	number
       of ways.	 Most importantly, XFS considers quota information as filesys-
       tem metadata and	uses journaling	to provide a higher level guarantee of
       consistency.  As	such, it is administered differently, in particular:

       1.     The  quotacheck  command	has no effect on XFS filesystems.  The
	      first time quota accounting is turned on (at  mount  time),  XFS
	      does  an	automatic quotacheck internally; afterwards, the quota
	      system will always be completely	consistent  until  quotas  are
	      manually turned off.

       2.     There  is	 no  need  for	quota  file(s)	in the root of the XFS

       3.     XFS distinguishes	between	quota accounting  and  limit  enforce-
	      ment.   Quota accounting must be turned on at the	time of	mount-
	      ing the XFS filesystem.  However,	it is possible to turn	on/off
	      limit  enforcement  any time quota accounting is turned on.  The
	      "quota" option to	the mount command turns	on both	 (user)	 quota
	      accounting  and  enforcement.   The "uqnoenforce"	option must be
	      used to turn on user accounting with limit enforcement disabled.

       4.     Turning on quotas	on the root filesystem is  slightly  different
	      from  the	above.	For IRIX XFS, refer to quotaon(1M).  For Linux
	      XFS, the quota mount flags must be passed	 in  with  the	"root-
	      flags=" boot parameter.

       5.     It is useful to use the state to monitor the XFS quota subsystem
	      at various stages	- it can be used to see	if quotas  are	turned
	      on,  and	also to	monitor	the space occupied by the quota	system

       6.     There is a mechanism built into xfsdump that allows quota	 limit
	      information  to  be  backed up for later restoration, should the
	      need arise.

       7.     Quota limits cannot be set before	turning	on quotas on.

       8.     XFS filesystems keep quota accounting on the superuser (user  ID
	      zero),  and the tool will	display	the superuser's	usage informa-
	      tion.  However, limits are never enforced	on the superuser  (nor
	      are they enforced	for group and project ID zero).

       9.     XFS  filesystems	perform	 quota accounting whether the user has
	      quota limits or not.

       10.    XFS supports the notion of project quota,	which can be  used  to
	      implement	a form of directory tree quota (i.e. to	restrict a di-
	      rectory tree to only being able to use up	 a  component  of  the
	      filesystems  available  space;  or  simply  to keep track	of the
	      amount of	space used, or number of inodes, within	the tree).

       path [ N	]
	      Lists all	paths with devices/project identifiers or set the cur-
	      rent  path  to  the  Nth list entry (the current path is used by
	      many of the commands described here, it identifies the  filesys-
	      tem toward which a command is directed).	The path list can come
	      from several places - the	command	line, the mount	table, and the
	      /etc/projects file.

       report [	-gpu ] [ -bir ]	[ -ahntLNU ] [ -f file ]
	      Report filesystem	quota information.  This reports all quota us-
	      age for a	filesystem, for	the specified quota type (u/g/p	and/or
	      blocks/inodes/realtime).	 It reports blocks in 1KB units	by de-
	      fault. The -h option reports in a	"human-readable" format	 simi-
	      lar  to  the  df(1) command. The -f option outputs the report to
	      file instead of stdout. The -a option reports  on	 all  filesys-
	      tems.  The -n option outputs the numeric ID instead of the name.
	      The -L and -U options specify lower and upper ID bounds  to  re-
	      port  on.	 The  -N option	reports	information without the	header
	      line. The	-t option performs a terse report.

       state [ -gpu ] [	-av ] [	-f file	]
	      Report overall quota state information.	This  reports  on  the
	      state  of	quota accounting, quota	enforcement, and the number of
	      extents being used by quota metadata within the filesystem.  The
	      -f  option  outputs state	information to file instead of stdout.
	      The -a option reports state on all filesystems and not just  the
	      current path.

       limit [ -gpu ] bsoft=N |	bhard=N	| isoft=N | ihard=N | rtbsoft=N	| rtb-
	      hard=N -d	| id | name
	      Set  quota  block	 limits	 (bhard/bsoft),	 inode	count	limits
	      (ihard/isoft)  and/or  realtime  block limits (rtbhard/rtbsoft).
	      The -d option (defaults) can be used to set  the	default	 value
	      that  will be used, otherwise a specific user/group/project name
	      or numeric identifier must be specified.

       timer [ -gpu ] [	-bir ] value
	      Allows the quota enforcement timeout (i.e. the  amount  of  time
	      allowed  to pass before the soft limits are enforced as the hard
	      limits) to be modified. The current timeout setting can be  dis-
	      played  using  the state command.	The value argument is a	number
	      of seconds, but units of 'minutes', 'hours', 'days', and 'weeks'
	      are  also	 understood (as	are their abbreviations	'm', 'h', 'd',
	      and 'w').

       warn [ -gpu ] [ -bir ] value -d | id | name
	      Allows the quota warnings	limit (i.e.  the  number  of  times  a
	      warning  will  be	 send  to someone over quota) to be viewed and
	      modified.	The -d option (defaults) can be	used to	 set  the  de-
	      fault   time   that   will   be	used,	otherwise  a  specific
	      user/group/project name or numeric identifier must be specified.
	      NOTE: this feature is not	currently implemented.

       enable [	-gpu ] [ -v ]
	      Switches	on  quota enforcement for the filesystem identified by
	      the current path.	 This requires the  filesystem	to  have  been
	      mounted  with  quota enabled, and	for accounting to be currently
	      active. The -v option (verbose) displays the state after the op-
	      eration has completed.

       disable [ -gpu ]	[ -v ]
	      Disables	quota  enforcement, while leaving quota	accounting ac-
	      tive. The	-v option (verbose) displays the state after the oper-
	      ation has	completed.

       off [ -gpu ] [ -v ]
	      Permanently  switches quota off for the filesystem identified by
	      the current path.	 Quota can only	be  switched  back  on	subse-
	      quently by unmounting and	then mounting again.

       remove [	-gpu ] [ -v ]
	      Remove any space allocated to quota metadata from	the filesystem
	      identified by the	current	path.  Quota must not  be  enabled  on
	      the filesystem, else this	operation will report an error.

       dump [ -gpu ] [ -f file ]
	      Dump out quota limit information for backup utilities, either to
	      standard output (default)	or to a	file.  This is only  the  lim-
	      its, not the usage information, of course.

       restore [ -gpu ]	[ -f file ]
	      Restore  quota  limits  from a backup file.  The file must be in
	      the format produced by the dump command.

       quot [ -gpu ] [ -bir ] [	-acnv ]	[ -f file ]
	      Summarize	filesystem ownership, by user, group or	project.  This
	      command  uses a special XFS "bulkstat" interface to quickly scan
	      an entire	filesystem and report usage information.  This command
	      can be used even when filesystem quota are not enabled, as it is
	      a	full-filesystem	scan (it may also take a long time...).	The -a
	      option  displays	information  on	all filesystems. The -c	option
	      displays a histogram instead of a	report.	The -n option displays
	      numeric  IDs  rather  than names.	The -v option displays verbose
	      information. The -f option send the output to  file  instead  of

       project [ -cCs [	-d depth ] [ -p	path ] id | name ]
	      The -c, -C, and -s options allow the directory tree quota	mecha-
	      nism to be maintained.  -d allows	to limit recursion level  when
	      processing  project directories and -p allows to specify project
	      paths at command line ( instead of /etc/projects ). All  options
	      are discussed in detail below.

       The  project  quota mechanism in	XFS can	be used	to implement a form of
       directory tree quota, where a specified directory and all of the	 files
       and  subdirectories below it (i.e. a tree) can be restricted to using a
       subset of the available space in	the filesystem.

       A managed tree must be setup initially  using  the  -s  option  to  the
       project command.	The specified project name or identifier is matched to
       one or more trees defined in /etc/projects, and these  trees  are  then
       recursively descended to	mark the affected inodes as being part of that
       tree.  This process sets	an inode flag and the  project	identifier  on
       every  file  in	the affected tree.  Once this has been done, new files
       created in the tree will	automatically be accounted to the  tree	 based
       on  their  project  identifier.	 An attempt to create a	hard link to a
       file in the tree	will only succeed if the  project  identifier  matches
       the project identifier for the tree.  The xfs_io	utility	can be used to
       set the project ID for an arbitrary file, but this can only be done  by
       a privileged user.

       A  previously  setup  tree  can	be  cleared from project quota control
       through use of the project -C option, which  will  recursively  descend
       the tree, clearing the affected inodes from project quota control.

       Finally,	 the  project -c option	can be used to check whether a tree is
       setup, it reports nothing if the	tree is	correct, otherwise it  reports
       the paths of inodes which do not	have the project ID of the rest	of the
       tree, or	if the inode flag is not set.

       Option -d can be	used to	limit recursion	level (-1 is  infinite,	 0  is
       top  level only,	1 is first level ... ).	 Option	-p adds	possibility to
       specify project paths in	command	line without a need for	 /etc/projects
       to exist. Note that if projects file exists then	it is also used.

       Enabling	 quota	enforcement on an XFS filesystem (restrict a user to a
       set amount of space).

	    # mount -o uquota /dev/xvm/home /home
	    # xfs_quota	-x -c 'limit bsoft=500m	bhard=550m tanya' /home
	    # xfs_quota	-x -c report /home

       Enabling	project	quota on an XFS	filesystem (restrict files in log file
       directories to only using 1 gigabyte of space).

	    # mount -o prjquota	/dev/xvm/var /var
	    # echo 42:/var/log >> /etc/projects
	    # echo logfiles:42 >> /etc/projid
	    # xfs_quota	-x -c 'project -s logfiles' /var
	    # xfs_quota	-x -c 'limit -p	bhard=1g logfiles' /var

       Same as above without a need for	configuration files.

	    # rm -f /etc/projects /etc/projid
	    # mount -o prjquota	/dev/xvm/var /var
	    # xfs_quota	-x -c 'project -s -p /var/log 42' /var
	    # xfs_quota	-x -c 'limit -p	bhard=1g 42' /var

       XFS implements delayed allocation (aka. allocate-on-flush) and this has
       implications for	the quota subsystem.  Since quota accounting can  only
       be  done	 when  blocks  are actually allocated, it is possible to issue
       (buffered) writes into a	file and not see  the  usage  immediately  up-
       dated.	Only  when the data is actually	written	out, either via	one of
       the kernels flushing mechanisms,	or via a manual	sync(2), will the  us-
       age reported reflect what has actually been written.

       In addition, the	XFS allocation mechanism will always reserve the maxi-
       mum amount of space required before proceeding with an allocation.   If
       insufficient  space for this reservation	is available, due to the block
       quota limit being reached for example, this may result in  the  alloca-
       tion  failing even though there is sufficient space.  Quota enforcement
       can thus	sometimes happen in situations where the user is  under	 quota
       and the end result of some operation would still	have left the user un-
       der quota had the operation been	allowed	to run its course.  This addi-
       tional overhead is typically in the range of tens of blocks.

       Both  of	 these	properties are unavoidable side	effects	of the way XFS
       operates, so should be kept in mind when	assigning block	limits.

       Quota support for filesystems with realtime subvolumes is not  yet  im-
       plemented,  nor	is the quota warning mechanism (the Linux warnquota(8)
       tool can	be used	to provide similar functionality on that platform).

       /etc/projects	   Mapping of numeric project identifiers to  directo-
			   ries	trees.
       /etc/projid	   Mapping  of	numeric	project	identifiers to project

       quotaon(1M), xfs(4).

       warnquota(8), xfs(5).

       df(1), mount(1),	sync(2), projid(5), projects(5).



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