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XDEVIEW(1)		    General Commands Manual		    XDEVIEW(1)

       xdeview - a powerful decoder for	binary files

       xdeview [Xt options] [--	options] [file(s)]

       XDeview	is  a  smart decoder for attachments that you have received in
       encoded form via	electronic mail	or from	the usenet. It is  similar  to
       the  standard  uudecode(1) command, yet with more comfort and flexibil-
       ity.  XDeview supports the uuencoding, xxencoding,  Base64  and	BinHex
       encoding	 methods,  and	is able	to handle split-files (which have been
       sent in multiple	parts) as well as multiple files at once, thus greatly
       simplifying  the	 decoding process. Usually, you	will not have to manu-
       ally edit files to prepare them for decoding.

       If you don't really need	a graphical frontend for these kinds of	 jobs,
       have a look at uudeview(1) and uuenview(1).

       After  invoking	the  program, it will scan all the given files for en-
       coded data. If any of them were directories, they will  be  recursively
       dived  into.  You don't need to give files on the command line; you can
       also select files later from within the program.	After  completing  the
       initial scan, you will be presented with	a list of files	that seem like
       they can	be decoded properly. You can then pick files individually  for

       There's	no real	need to	set options on the command line; they can also
       be set from within the program. Note that options must be preceded by a
       double-hyphen  '--',  otherwise	they might be mistaken for display op-

       -d     Sets the program into desperate mode. It will then offer you  to
	      decode  incomplete  files. This is useful	if you are missing the
	      last part	of a 50-parts posting, but in most cases  the  desper-
	      ately-decoded files will simply be corrupt and unusable. The de-
	      gree of usefulness of an incomplete file	depends	 on  the  file

       -f     Uses  fast mode for file scanning. The program assumes that each
	      input file holds at most one part, which	is  usually  true  for
	      files  in	a news spool directory.	This option breaks decoding of
	      input files with multiple	articles. Also,	certain	sanity	checks
	      are  disabled,  probably causing erroneous files to be presented
	      for decoding.  Sometimes you'll get error	messages  when	decod-
	      ing,  sometimes  you'll just receive invalid files. Don't	use -f
	      if you can't live	with these problems.

       -o     Gives the	OK to overwrite	files already there on	decoding.  The
	      default  is  to  prompt the user whether to overwrite, rename or
	      skip the file.

       -v     Disables verbosity. Normally, the	 program  prints  some	status
	      messages	while reading the input	files, which can be very help-
	      ful if something should go wrong.	Use if these messages  disturb

       -p path
	      Sets the path where decoded files	shall be written to. This must
	      be a valid pathname, or you'll get errors	when trying to	decode
	      anything.	Defaults to the	current	working	directory.

       -b     This changes xdeview's policy of finding a part number on	a sub-
	      ject line	and may	only be	needed in some rare  cases  when  part
	      numbers  are  found in ()	parentheses as well as in [] brackets,
	      for example in a series of  multi-part  postings.	  By  default,
	      xdeview  uses  the numbers found in () parentheses first.	But if
	      this number indicates the	file's number in the  series  and  the
	      part number is given in [] brackets, use this parameters to make
	      the program read the other number	first. This  does  not	affect
	      decoding of files	with only one or neither type of brackets.  If
	      you prefer, you can also use the option as -b[]

       -s     Read "minus smartness". This option  turns  off  automatic  part
	      number  detection	from the subject line. Try this	option if xde-
	      view fails to parse the subject line correctly and makes	errors
	      at guessing part numbers,	resulting in incorrect ordering	of the
	      parts. With this option, parts are always	put  together  sequen-
	      tially  (so  the	parts  must  be	correctly ordered in the input
	      file).  Note: The	correct	part number found in proper MIME files
	      is still evaluated.

       -t     Use  plaintext  messages.	Usually, XDeview only presents encoded
	      data for decoding. With this option set, text  parts  from  MIME
	      messages	and  non-encoded  messages are also offered. Plaintext
	      messages	frequently  don't  have	 an  associated	 filename,  so
	      they're assigned a unique	name from a sequential four-digit num-

       The main	window of xdeview is composed of six main elements. At the top
       is  the Menu Bar.  Centered is the File List, which lists all the files
       that have been detected in the encoded data and are ready for decoding.
       Left of the File	List is	the Status List, which describes the status of
       each file. Usually, this	list will show "OK" for	all files, as  display
       of  erroneous files is normally suppressed.  On the right is a bunch of
       short-cut buttons with the most heavily-used functions. At  the	bottom
       of the window is	the Save Path entry field, and the status bar. Each of
       these items will	be described individually in the following text.

       File Menu

	      Load ...
		     Loads encoded files. These	files are then scanned for en-
		     coded  data  and files; these files are added to the File
		     List. You can also	select directories, which are then re-
		     cursively descended into

	      Encode Encode file(s), storing the encoded data on disk, sending
		     them via email, or	posting	them to	newsgroups. See	below.

		     Xdeview  reads  information  from	 your	.mailcap   and
		     .mime.types  to  perform  the  appropriate	default	action
		     when you hit the "Execute"	button.	In this	dialogue,  you
		     can configure the locations of these files.

	      Save Setup
		     Saves  all	 current  options,  the	 input and output file
		     paths etc.	into the .xdeviewrc file in your  home	direc-
		     tory.  This  file	is automatically read upon startup, so
		     the saved settings	will be	set by default in future  ses-
		     sions.  The  resource file	is actually a Tcl script which
		     you can edit with any editor.

	      Quit   Exits the program.

	      Set various options that modify the behaviour  of	 the  program.
	      Note that	most options only catch	for files read afterwards.

	      Fast Scanning
		     Sets  fast	 scanning  mode.  The program will then	assume
		     that all input files contain at most one encoded part (as
		     it	 is  true  with	files from a news spool). The scanning
		     engine will be sped up because it does not	have  to  read
		     each  input  file completely but stops scanning after en-
		     coded data	has been found.

	      The decoder has to disable some safety options in	fast mode,  so
	      certain  problems	 with  the file	will only be detected when fi-
	      nally decoding the file.

	      Automatic	Overwrite
		     When decoding a file which	is already present in the tar-
		     get  directory,  the  user	will be	asked whether the file
		     shall be overwritten. By  enabling	 this  option,	target
		     files will	be overwritten without asking.

	      Desperate	Mode
		     Usually,  you  will  only be presented files to which all
		     parts have	been found. Enabling  Desperate	 Mode,	you'll
		     also  get	to see the other files as well,	with an	appro-
		     priate description	of the problem in the Status List.  In
		     desperate mode, the decoder will also try to detect short
		     Base64 files outside of MIME messages. This  is  normally
		     disabled,	because	 these	desperate tries	to find	Base64
		     encoding may cause	misdetection of	 encoded  data,	 again
		     resulting in invalid files.

	      Verbose Mode
		     Opens  a  separate	 text box to which additional messages
		     will be written while scanning  the  input	 files.	 These
		     messages  are extremely helpful for finding out what went
		     wrong if files cannot be decoded properly.

	      Alternate	Bracket	Policy
		     Changes the heuristics by which the decoder tries to  ex-
		     tract  a part number from the subject line. The algorithm
		     usually gives numbers in braces ()	higher	priority  than
		     numbers  in  brackets  [].	 If both kinds of brackets are
		     present, and their	use is	conflicting  (for  example  if
		     both the part number and a	series number are given), then
		     you may have to explicitely select	the bracket policy. If
		     this option is false (default), then the "part number" is
		     taken from	the braces (), otherwise from the brackets [].

	      Dumb Mode
		     Disables automatic	part number detection by  parsing  the
		     subject  line.   Use if xdeview fails to pick up the cor-
		     rect part numbers.	Note that with	the  option  set,  the
		     parts must	be correctly ordered in	the input files. Also,
		     missing parts will	not be detected	this way.

	      Handle Text Files
		     Usually, XDeview only presents encoded data for decoding.
		     With  this	 option	set, text parts	from MIME messages and
		     non-encoded messages are also offered. Plaintext messages
		     frequently	 don't have an associated filename, so they're
		     assigned a	unique name from a sequential four-digit  num-

	      Auto Info
		     Opens  up	the information	window whenever	you click on a
		     file in the File List.

	      Remove Input Files
		     With this option set, input files are removed if any file
		     was  successfully decoded from them. Use with care! UUDe-
		     view only checks if any data was decoded  from  an	 input
		     file,  but	does not care about any	other contents of that
		     input file, or whether a file also	held an	incomplete at-

	      MIME Compliance
		     Be	more strict when reading MIME input files.


	      Decode Decode the	selected file(s).

	      Rename Rename  the selected file(s), for example if the filename
		     conflicts with existing files, or	if  the	 name  doesn't
		     meet system limitations.

	      Decode All
		     Decode all	files currently	visible	in the File List.

	      Info   Displays  available  info	on the currently selected file
		     (if more than one file is selected,  only	info  for  the
		     first  will be displayed).	 This is the zeroeth part of a
		     file, if available, or the	header of the first part up to
		     the beginning of encoded data.

		     Runs  an  external	 program  with	the currently selected
		     file. A program is	selected by first looking at the  Con-
		     tent-Type	of the message,	if available, then by checking
		     the file's	extension.   The  appropriate  information  is
		     read  from	 your .mailcap and .mime.types files (although
		     the handling of information in  .mailcap  files  is  cur-
		     rently  incomplete). If no	matching type is found,	a dia-
		     log box pops up where you can enter any command.

	      List Text	File
		     This is for the rare cases	when a text file has been sent
		     through  the  net	in  encoded form. Use this action only
		     when you know the file in question	 is  in	 fact  a  text
		     file, otherwise you'll get	a load of trash	on the screen.


	      About  A short message from the Author.

		     Displays  the license under which xdeview is distributed,
		     the GPL.  Read it,	or you'll hear from my lawyers.

       The File	List is	a list box displaying all the  files  that  have  been
       picked  up  while  scanning the encoded data. These files are ready for
       decoding, previewing or anything. The list can be  scrolled  using  the
       scrollbar on the	right of the list.

       Individual  files  can be selected simply by clicking on	them. Multiple
       files can be selected by	holding	down the CTRL key and clicking on  the
       individual files.

       The  Status  Lists  notes the corresponding status for each file	in the
       File List, Usually, you'll just see "OK"	here; otherwise, an error mes-
       sage is shown describing	why the	file cannot be decoded properly. There
       are the following states:

       OK     All parts	of the file have been  found,  and  the	 encoded  data
	      looks  correct  on  first	sight. There are certain problems that
	      might only appear	when decoding the file,	but usually everything
	      is fine.

	      This file	is missing one or more parts. If you decode this file,
	      the output data will be corrupt and usually unusable.

       No Begin
	      The file doesn't have a beginning. The decoded file will be most
	      certainly	corrupt	and unusable.

       No End No  end  was  found  on the file.	This usually means that	one or
	      more parts at the	end are	missing. The degree of usefulness of a
	      decoded file depends on the file type.

       Error  A	previous attempt to decode the file has	failed.

       The buttons on the right	side of	the window are short-cuts for the menu
       items. Read the discussion of the Main Menu items above for an explana-

       This is the path	where decoded files will be written to.

       A  short	message	what the program is currently doing or what it expects
       you to do.

       When encoding files ("Encode" from the "File" menu), a large dialog box
       opens  where  you can set various options for the file. If you selected
       multiple	files for encoding, a status line at the top displays the num-
       ber  of	files  left. The dialog	itself stays open until	all files have
       been handled.

	      The current file to encode. You cannot edit this field.

       Send As
	      The file name by which the file will be sent.  Defaults  to  the
	      filename stripped	of all directory information.

       Use Subject
	      When  mailing or posting,	this text will be used as subject. The
	      filename and part	numbers	are added automatically,  so  you  can
	      choose to	leave this line	empty.

       Lines per File
	      Sets  the	number of encoded lines	per part. Bigger files will be
	      automatically split into multiple	parts. Use if you are  posting
	      files to a newsgroup, or if the recipient's system cannot	handle
	      large files. A good splitting size  is  1000  lines.  "0"	 lines
	      means not	to split.

       ... Encoding
	      Selects  the  encoding  method to	use. If	you wonder which one's
	      the best,	you might find a clue in my article  "Introduction  to

       File In (Path)
	      Sets  a directory	where to encode	the file to. The encoding will
	      go to files with the same	base name as the  original  file,  but
	      with extensions of .001, .002 (depending on the number of	neces-
	      sary parts as enforced by	the "Lines per File" setting).

       Email To
	      Give a comma-separated list  of  email  addresses.  This	option
	      might  be	 disabled  if  your  system  does not allow sending of

       Post To
	      Here you can enter a comma-separated list	of newsgroups to which
	      the file should be posted. This option might be disabled if your
	      system does not support posting news.

       NNTP Server
	      This field only appears on some systems, in the case that	a news
	      host is needed, but none was configured at compile-time. If this
	      field does appear, you must enter	a valid	host name here in  or-
	      der for posting to work. If you don't want to post the file any-
	      way, don't worry about it.

       OK     Performs the selected action(s) on this file and	skips  to  the
	      next one.

       OK to All
	      Uses  these  settings for	each file in question (does not	prompt
	      you for the other	files),	thus sending all files at once.

       Next   Does not encode the file and  skips  to  the  next  one  (sorry,
	      there's no button	to skip	backwards).

       Cancel Cancels encoding and returns to the main menu.

       If  it  exists, the file	.xdeviewrc in your home	directory will be exe-
       cuted in	the Tcl	interpreter during program initialization. It must  be
       a  valid	 Tcl  program, which you can use to set	certain	options	by de-
       fault. For the Tcl-illaterate: variables	can be set using the following
       set var_name value
       The  following  variables  (options) can	be set (look at	the text above
       for an explanation of what they're doing)

	      If set to	1, use fast scanning mode.

	      If set to	1, use the alternate bracket policy.

	      If set to	1, assume it's Ok to overwrite files without asking.

	      If set to	1, switch into desperate mode.

	      If set to	1, print progress messages.

	      This is a	string variable	with the default Save Path, where  you
	      want decoded files to go.

	      Maximum  number  of  lines per file for encoding.	"0" for	unlim-

	      Default encoding to use. "0" for UUencoding, "1" for  XXencoding
	      and "2" for Base64 encoding.

	      The  address  of your NNTP server	(only needed on	some systems).
	      Can also be  set	(preferredly)  in  your	 environment  variable

       If  you	have enabled verbose mode, progress messages will appear in an
       own text	window titled Runtime Messages.	 The messages generated	during
       the  scanning  phase  are extremely helpful in tracing what the program
       does, and can be	used to	figure out the reason why files	cannot be  de-
       coded,  if  you understand them.	This section explains how to interpret
       them. Understanding this	section	is not necessary to operate  the  pro-

       First,  there  are  "Loading"  messages,	 which	begin  with the	string
       "Loaded". Each line should feature the following	items:

       Source File
	      The first	item is	the source file	from which a part was  loaded.
	      Many parts can be	detected within	a single file.

       Subject Line
	      The complete subject is reproduced in single quotes.

	      The program derives a unique identification for this thread from
	      the subject line,	for grouping articles that look	like they  be-
	      long to the same file. The result	of this	algorithm is presented
	      in braces.

	      If a filename was	detected on the	subject	 line  or  within  the
	      data  (for  example, on a	begin line, or as part of the Content-
	      Type information).

       Part Number
	      The part number derived from the subject line, or, in  the  case
	      of  properly  MIME-formatted  messages, from the "part" informa-

	      If a "begin" or "end" token was detected,	it is printed here.

       Encoding	Type
	      If encoded data was detected within this part, either  "UUdata",
	      "Base64",	"XXdata" or "Binhex" is	printed	here.

       More  messages  are printed after scanning has completed. A single line
       will be printed for each	group of articles. The contents	of  this  line
       are best	understood by looking at an example. Here is one:

       Found 'mailfile.gz' State 16 UUData Parts begin 1 2 3 4 5 end 6 OK

       This  indicates	that the file mailfile.gz has been found. The file was
       uuencoded ("UUData") and	consists of 6 parts.  The  "begin"  token  was
       found  in  the  first  part, and	the "end" token	was found in the sixth
       part. Because it	looks like everything's	there, this file is tagged  as
       being  "OK". The	State is a set of bits,	where the following values may
       be or'ed:

       1      Missing Part

       2      No Begin

       4      No End

       8      No encoded data found.

       16     File looks Ok

       32     An error occured during decoding of the file.

       64     File was successfully decoded.

       If you cannot execute xdeview, and it reports something	like  "command
       not  found",  but are sure that the file	itself can be found, check the
       reference to the	main file uuwish at the	top of the file.

       uudeview(1), uuenview(1), uudecode(1), uuencode(1),
       The uudeview homepage on	the Web,

				   June	1996			    XDEVIEW(1)


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