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XAUTH(1)		    General Commands Manual		      XAUTH(1)

       xauth - X authority file	utility

       xauth [ -f authfile ] [ -vqib ] [ command arg ... ]

       The  xauth program is used to edit and display the authorization	infor-
       mation used in connecting to the	X server.   This  program  is  usually
       used  to	 extract authorization records from one	machine	and merge them
       in on another (as is the	case when using	remote logins or granting  ac-
       cess to other users).  Commands (described below) may be	entered	inter-
       actively, on the	xauth command line, or in  scripts.   Note  that  this
       program	does not contact the X server except when the generate command
       is used.	 Normally xauth	is not used to create the authority file entry
       in the first place; xdm does that.

       The  following options may be used with xauth.  They may	be given indi-
       vidually	(e.g., -q -i) or may combined (e.g., -qi).

       -f authfile
	       This option specifies the name of the authority	file  to  use.
	       By default, xauth will use the file specified by	the XAUTHORITY
	       environment variable or .Xauthority in the user's  home	direc-

       -q      This option indicates that xauth	should operate quietly and not
	       print unsolicited status	messages.  This	is the default	if  an
	       xauth  command  is is given on the command line or if the stan-
	       dard output is not directed to a	terminal.

       -v      This option indicates that xauth	should operate	verbosely  and
	       print  status messages indicating the results of	various	opera-
	       tions (e.g., how	many records have  been	 read  in  or  written
	       out).   This  is	 the default if	xauth is reading commands from
	       its standard input and its standard output  is  directed	 to  a

       -i      This  option  indicates	that xauth should ignore any authority
	       file locks.  Normally, xauth will refuse	to read	 or  edit  any
	       authority  files	 that have been	locked by other	programs (usu-
	       ally xdm	or another xauth).

       -b      This option indicates that xauth	should attempt	to  break  any
	       authority  file	locks before proceeding.  Use this option only
	       to clean	up stale locks.

       The following commands may be used to manipulate	authority files:

       add displayname protocolname hexkey
	       An authorization	entry for  the	indicated  display  using  the
	       given protocol and key data is added to the authorization file.
	       The data	is specified as	an even-lengthed string	of hexadecimal
	       digits,	each  pair representing	one octet.  The	first digit of
	       each pair gives the most	significant 4 bits of the  octet,  and
	       the  second  digit  of  the  pair gives the least significant 4
	       bits.  For example, a 32	character  hexkey  would  represent  a
	       128-bit value.  A protocol name consisting of just a single pe-
	       riod is treated as an abbreviation for MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1.

       generate	displayname protocolname [trusted|untrusted]
	       [timeout	seconds] [group	group-id] [data	hexdata]

	       This command is similar to add.	The main  difference  is  that
	       instead	of  requiring the user to supply the key data, it con-
	       nects to	the server specified in	displayname and	uses the SECU-
	       RITY extension in order to get the key data to store in the au-
	       thorization file.  If the server	cannot be contacted or	if  it
	       does  not  support  the	SECURITY extension, the	command	fails.
	       Otherwise, an authorization entry for the indicated display us-
	       ing  the	 given protocol	is added to the	authorization file.  A
	       protocol	name consisting	of just	a single period	is treated  as
	       an abbreviation for MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1.

	       If  the trusted option is used, clients that connect using this
	       authorization will have full run	of the display,	as usual.   If
	       untrusted  is  used, clients that connect using this authoriza-
	       tion will be considered untrusted and prevented	from  stealing
	       or  tampering  with data	belonging to trusted clients.  See the
	       SECURITY	extension specification	for full details  on  the  re-
	       strictions  imposed  on	untrusted clients.  The	default	is un-

	       The timeout option specifies how	long in	 seconds  this	autho-
	       rization	 will  be  valid.  If the authorization	remains	unused
	       (no clients are connected with it) for longer  than  this  time
	       period,	the  server  purges  the authorization,	and future at-
	       tempts to connect using it will fail.  Note  that  the  purging
	       done by the server does not delete the authorization entry from
	       the authorization file.	The default timeout is 60 seconds.

	       The group option	specifies the application group	 that  clients
	       connecting  with	 this authorization should belong to.  See the
	       application group extension  specification  for	more  details.
	       The default is to not belong to an application group.

	       The  data  option  specifies data that the server should	use to
	       generate	the authorization.  Note that this  is	not  the  same
	       data  that  gets	written	to the authorization file.  The	inter-
	       pretation of this data depends on the  authorization  protocol.
	       The  hexdata  is	 in the	same format as the hexkey described in
	       the add command.	 The default is	to send	no data.

       [n]extract filename displayname...
	       Authorization entries for each of the  specified	 displays  are
	       written	to  the	 indicated  file.   If the nextract command is
	       used, the entries are written in	a numeric format suitable  for
	       non-binary  transmission	(such as secure	electronic mail).  The
	       extracted entries can be	read  back  in	using  the  merge  and
	       nmerge  commands.   If  the  filename consists of just a	single
	       dash, the entries will be written to the	standard output.

       [n]list [displayname...]
	       Authorization entries for each of the  specified	 displays  (or
	       all  if no displays are named) are printed on the standard out-
	       put.  If	the nlist command is used, entries will	 be  shown  in
	       the  numeric  format  used  by the nextract command; otherwise,
	       they are	shown in a textual format.  Key	data  is  always  dis-
	       played  in  the	hexadecimal format given in the	description of
	       the add command.

       [n]merge	[filename...]
	       Authorization entries are read from the specified files and are
	       merged  into the	authorization database,	superceding any	match-
	       ing existing entries. If	the nmerge command is  used,  the  nu-
	       meric format given in the description of	the extract command is
	       used.  If a filename consists of	just a single dash, the	 stan-
	       dard input will be read if it hasn't been read before.

       remove displayname...
	       Authorization  entries  matching	the specified displays are re-
	       moved from the authority	file.

       source filename
	       The specified file is treated as	a script containing xauth com-
	       mands to	execute.  Blank	lines and lines	beginning with a sharp
	       sign (#)	are ignored.  A	single dash may	be  used  to  indicate
	       the standard input, if it hasn't	already	been read.

       info    Information  describing	the authorization file,	whether	or not
	       any changes have	been made, and from where xauth	 commands  are
	       being read is printed on	the standard output.

       exit    If  any	modifications  have  been  made, the authority file is
	       written out (if allowed), and the program  exits.   An  end  of
	       file is treated as an implicit exit command.

       quit    The  program  exits, ignoring any modifications.	 This may also
	       be accomplished by pressing the interrupt character.

       help [string]
	       A description of	all commands that begin	with the given	string
	       (or all commands	if no string is	given) is printed on the stan-
	       dard output.

       ?       A short list of the valid commands is printed on	 the  standard

       Display	names  for  the	add, [n]extract, [n]list, [n]merge, and	remove
       commands	use the	same format as the DISPLAY  environment	 variable  and
       the  common  -display command line argument.  Display-specific informa-
       tion (such as the screen	number)	is unnecessary and  will  be  ignored.
       Same-machine  connections  (such	 as local-host sockets,	shared memory,
       and the Internet	Protocol hostname localhost) are referred to as	 host-
       name/unix:displaynumber	so  that  local	entries	for different machines
       may be stored in	one authority file.

       The most	common use for xauth is	to extract the entry for  the  current
       display,	 copy  it to another machine, and merge	it into	the user's au-
       thority file on the remote machine:

	       %  xauth	extract	- $DISPLAY | rsh otherhost xauth merge -

       The following command contacts the server :0 to create an authorization
       using  the MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1 protocol.	Clients	that connect with this
       authorization will be untrusted.
	    %  xauth generate :0 .

       This xauth program uses the following environment variables:

	       to get the name of the authority	file to	use if the  -f	option
	       isn't used.

       HOME    to get the user's home directory	if XAUTHORITY isn't defined.

	       default authority file if XAUTHORITY isn't defined.

       Users  that  have  unsecure  networks should take care to use encrypted
       file transfer mechanisms	to  copy  authorization	 entries  between  ma-
       chines.	 Similarly, the	MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1 protocol is not very	useful
       in unsecure environments.  Sites	that are interested in additional  se-
       curity  may need	to use encrypted authorization mechanisms such as Ker-

       Spaces are currently not	allowed	in the protocol	name.	Quoting	 could
       be added	for the	truly perverse.

       Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium

X Version 11			  Release 6.6			      XAUTH(1)


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