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XAUTH(1)							      XAUTH(1)

NAME
       xauth - X authority file	utility

SYNOPSIS
       xauth [ -f authfile ] [ -vqibn ]	[ command arg ... ]

DESCRIPTION
       The  xauth program is used to edit and display the authorization	infor-
       mation used in connecting to the	X server.   This  program  is  usually
       used  to	 extract authorization records from one	machine	and merge them
       in on another (as is the	case when  using  remote  logins  or  granting
       access  to  other  users).   Commands  (described below)	may be entered
       interactively, on the xauth command line, or  in	 scripts.   Note  that
       this  program  does  not	 contact the X server except when the generate
       command is used.	 Normally xauth	is not used to	create	the  authority
       file  entry  in	the  first place; the program that starts the X	server
       (often xdm or startx) does that.

OPTIONS
       The following options may be used with xauth.  They may be given	 indi-
       vidually	(e.g., -q -i) or may combined (e.g., -qi).

       -f authfile
	       This  option  specifies	the name of the	authority file to use.
	       By default, xauth will use the file specified by	the XAUTHORITY
	       environment  variable  or .Xauthority in	the user's home	direc-
	       tory.

       -q      This option indicates that xauth	should operate quietly and not
	       print  unsolicited  status messages.  This is the default if an
	       xauth command is	given on the command line or if	 the  standard
	       output is not directed to a terminal.

       -v      This  option  indicates that xauth should operate verbosely and
	       print status messages indicating	the results of various	opera-
	       tions  (e.g.,  how  many	 records  have been read in or written
	       out).  This is the default if xauth is  reading	commands  from
	       its  standard  input  and  its standard output is directed to a
	       terminal.

       -i      This option indicates that xauth	should	ignore	any  authority
	       file  locks.   Normally,	 xauth will refuse to read or edit any
	       authority files that have been locked by	other  programs	 (usu-
	       ally xdm	or another xauth).

       -b      This  option  indicates	that xauth should attempt to break any
	       authority file locks before proceeding.	Use this  option  only
	       to clean	up stale locks.

       -n      This  option indicates that xauth should	not attempt to resolve
	       any hostnames, but should simply	always print the host  address
	       as stored in the	authority file.

       -V      This option shows the version number of the xauth executable.

COMMANDS
       The following commands may be used to manipulate	authority files:

       add displayname protocolname hexkey
	       An  authorization  entry	 for  the  indicated display using the
	       given protocol and key data is added to the authorization file.
	       The data	is specified as	an even-lengthed string	of hexadecimal
	       digits, each pair representing one octet.  The first  digit  of
	       each  pair  gives the most significant 4	bits of	the octet, and
	       the second digit	of the pair  gives  the	 least	significant  4
	       bits.   For  example,  a	 32 character hexkey would represent a
	       128-bit value.  A protocol name consisting  of  just  a	single
	       period is treated as an abbreviation for	MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1.

       generate	displayname protocolname [trusted|untrusted]
	       [timeout	seconds] [group	group-id] [data	hexdata]

	       This  command  is  similar to add.  The main difference is that
	       instead of requiring the	user to	supply the key data,  it  con-
	       nects to	the server specified in	displayname and	uses the SECU-
	       RITY extension in order to get the key data  to	store  in  the
	       authorization file.  If the server cannot be contacted or if it
	       does not	support	the SECURITY  extension,  the  command	fails.
	       Otherwise,  an  authorization  entry  for the indicated display
	       using the given protocol	is added to the	authorization file.  A
	       protocol	 name consisting of just a single period is treated as
	       an abbreviation for MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1.

	       If the trusted option is	used, clients that connect using  this
	       authorization  will have	full run of the	display, as usual.  If
	       untrusted is used, clients that connect using  this  authoriza-
	       tion  will  be considered untrusted and prevented from stealing
	       or tampering with data belonging	to trusted clients.   See  the
	       SECURITY	 extension  specification  for	full  details  on  the
	       restrictions imposed on	untrusted  clients.   The  default  is
	       untrusted.

	       The  timeout  option  specifies how long	in seconds this	autho-
	       rization	will be	valid.	If the	authorization  remains	unused
	       (no  clients  are  connected with it) for longer	than this time
	       period,	the  server  purges  the  authorization,  and	future
	       attempts	 to connect using it will fail.	 Note that the purging
	       done by the server does not delete the authorization entry from
	       the authorization file.	The default timeout is 60 seconds.

	       The  group  option specifies the	application group that clients
	       connecting with this authorization should belong	to.   See  the
	       application  group  extension  specification  for more details.
	       The default is to not belong to an application group.

	       The data	option specifies data that the server  should  use  to
	       generate	 the  authorization.   Note  that this is not the same
	       data that gets written to the authorization file.   The	inter-
	       pretation  of  this data	depends	on the authorization protocol.
	       The hexdata is in the same format as the	 hexkey	 described  in
	       the add command.	 The default is	to send	no data.

       [n]extract filename displayname...
	       Authorization  entries  for  each of the	specified displays are
	       written to the indicated	file.	If  the	 nextract  command  is
	       used,  the entries are written in a numeric format suitable for
	       non-binary transmission (such as	secure electronic mail).   The
	       extracted  entries  can	be  read  back	in using the merge and
	       nmerge commands.	 If the	filename consists  of  just  a	single
	       dash, the entries will be written to the	standard output.

       [n]list [displayname...]
	       Authorization  entries  for  each of the	specified displays (or
	       all if no displays are named) are printed on the	standard  out-
	       put.   If  the  nlist command is	used, entries will be shown in
	       the numeric format used by  the	nextract  command;  otherwise,
	       they  are  shown	 in a textual format.  Key data	is always dis-
	       played in the hexadecimal format	given in  the  description  of
	       the add command.

       [n]merge	[filename...]
	       Authorization entries are read from the specified files and are
	       merged into the authorization database, superseding any	match-
	       ing  existing  entries.	If  the	 nmerge	 command  is used, the
	       numeric format given in the description of the extract  command
	       is  used.   If  a  filename consists of just a single dash, the
	       standard	input will be read if it hasn't	been read before.

       remove displayname...
	       Authorization  entries  matching	 the  specified	 displays  are
	       removed from the	authority file.

       source filename
	       The specified file is treated as	a script containing xauth com-
	       mands to	execute.  Blank	lines and lines	beginning with a sharp
	       sign  (#)  are  ignored.	 A single dash may be used to indicate
	       the standard input, if it hasn't	already	been read.

       info    Information describing the authorization	file, whether  or  not
	       any  changes  have been made, and from where xauth commands are
	       being read is printed on	the standard output.

       exit    If any modifications have been  made,  the  authority  file  is
	       written	out  (if  allowed),  and the program exits.  An	end of
	       file is treated as an implicit exit command.

       quit    The program exits, ignoring any modifications.  This  may  also
	       be accomplished by pressing the interrupt character.

       version This  command shows the version number of the xauth executable.

       help [string]
	       A description of	all commands that begin	with the given	string
	       (or all commands	if no string is	given) is printed on the stan-
	       dard output.

       ?       A short list of the valid commands is printed on	 the  standard
	       output.

DISPLAY	NAMES
       Display	names  for  the	add, [n]extract, [n]list, [n]merge, and	remove
       commands	use the	same format as the DISPLAY  environment	 variable  and
       the  common  -display command line argument.  Display-specific informa-
       tion (such as the screen	number)	is unnecessary and  will  be  ignored.
       Same-machine  connections  (such	 as local-host sockets,	shared memory,
       and the Internet	Protocol hostname localhost) are referred to as	 host-
       name/unix:displaynumber	so  that  local	entries	for different machines
       may be stored in	one authority file.

EXAMPLE
       The most	common use for xauth is	to extract the entry for  the  current
       display,	 copy  it  to  another	machine,  and merge it into the	user's
       authority file on the remote machine:

	       %  xauth	extract	- $DISPLAY | ssh otherhost xauth merge -

       The following command contacts the server :0 to create an authorization
       using  the MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1 protocol.	Clients	that connect with this
       authorization will be untrusted.
	    %  xauth generate :0 .

ENVIRONMENT
       This xauth program uses the following environment variables:

       XAUTHORITY
	       to get the name of the authority	file to	use if the  -f	option
	       isn't used.

       HOME    to get the user's home directory	if XAUTHORITY isn't defined.

FILES
       $HOME/.Xauthority
	       default authority file if XAUTHORITY isn't defined.

SEE ALSO
       X(7), Xsecurity(7), xhost(1), Xserver(1), xdm(1), startx(1), Xau(3).

BUGS
       Users  that  have  unsecure  networks should take care to use encrypted
       file  transfer  mechanisms  to  copy  authorization   entries   between
       machines.   Similarly, the MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1 protocol is not very use-
       ful in unsecure environments.  Sites that are interested	in  additional
       security	 may  need  to	use encrypted authorization mechanisms such as
       Kerberos.

       Spaces are currently not	allowed	in the protocol	name.	Quoting	 could
       be added	for the	truly perverse.

AUTHOR
       Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium

X Version 11			  xauth	1.0.9			      XAUTH(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | COMMANDS | DISPLAY NAMES | EXAMPLE | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | SEE ALSO | BUGS | AUTHOR

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