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X509(1)                             OpenSSL                            X509(1)

N
       x509 - Certificate display and signing utility

S
       ooppeennssssll xx550099 [--iinnffoorrmm DDEERR||PPEEMM||NNEETT] [--oouuttffoorrmm DDEERR||PPEEMM||NNEETT] [--kkeeyyffoorrmm
       DDEERR||PPEEMM] [--CCAAffoorrmm DDEERR||PPEEMM] [--CCAAkkeeyyffoorrmm DDEERR||PPEEMM] [--iinn ffiilleennaammee] [--oouutt
       ffiilleennaammee] [--sseerriiaall] [--hhaasshh] [--ssuubbjjeecctt] [--iissssuueerr] [--nnaammeeoopptt ooppttiioonn]
       [--eemmaaiill] [--ssttaarrttddaattee] [--eennddddaattee] [--ppuurrppoossee] [--ddaatteess] [--mmoodduulluuss] [--ffiinn--
       ggeerrpprriinntt] [--aalliiaass] [--nnoooouutt] [--ttrruussttoouutt] [--ccllrrttrruusstt] [--ccllrrrreejjeecctt]
       [--aaddddttrruusstt aarrgg] [--aaddddrreejjeecctt aarrgg] [--sseettaalliiaass aarrgg] [--ddaayyss aarrgg]
       [--sseett_sseerriiaall nn] [--ssiiggnnkkeeyy ffiilleennaammee] [--xx550099ttoorreeqq] [--rreeqq] [--CCAA ffiilleennaammee]
       [--CCAAkkeeyy ffiilleennaammee] [--CCAAccrreeaatteesseerriiaall] [--CCAAsseerriiaall ffiilleennaammee] [--tteexxtt] [--CC]
       [--mmdd22||--mmdd55||--sshhaa11||--mmddcc22] [--ccllrreexxtt] [--eexxttffiillee ffiilleennaammee] [--eexxtteennssiioonnss sseecc--
       ttiioonn] [--eennggiinnee iidd]

D
       The xx550099 command is a multi purpose certificate utility. It can be used
       to display certificate information, convert certificates to various
       forms, sign certificate requests like a "mini CA" or edit certificate
       trust settings.

       Since there are a large number of options they will split up into vari-
       ous sections.

O
       IINNPPUUTT,, OOUUTTPPUUTT AANNDD GGEENNEERRAALL PPUURRPPOOSSEE OOPPTTIIOONNSS

       --iinnffoorrmm DDEERR||PPEEMM||NNEETT
           This specifies the input format normally the command will expect an
           X509 certificate but this can change if other options such as --rreeqq
           are present. The DER format is the DER encoding of the certificate
           and PEM is the base64 encoding of the DER encoding with header and
           footer lines added. The NET option is an obscure Netscape server
           format that is now obsolete.

       --oouuttffoorrmm DDEERR||PPEEMM||NNEETT
           This specifies the output format, the options have the same meaning
           as the --iinnffoorrmm option.

       --iinn ffiilleennaammee
           This specifies the input filename to read a certificate from or
           standard input if this option is not specified.

       --oouutt ffiilleennaammee
           This specifies the output filename to write to or standard output
           by default.

       --mmdd22||--mmdd55||--sshhaa11||--mmddcc22
           the digest to use. This affects any signing or display option that
           uses a message digest, such as the --ffiinnggeerrpprriinntt, --ssiiggnnkkeeyy and --CCAA
           options. If not specified then MD5 is used. If the key being used
           to sign with is a DSA key then this option has no effect: SHA1 is
           always used with DSA keys.

       --eennggiinnee iidd
           specifying an engine (by it's unique iidd string) will cause rreeqq to
           attempt to obtain a functional reference to the specified engine,
           thus initialising it if needed. The engine will then be set as the
           default for all available algorithms.

       DDIISSPPLLAAYY OOPPTTIIOONNSS

       Note: the --aalliiaass and --ppuurrppoossee options are also display options but are
       described in the TTRRUUSSTT SSEETTTTIINNGGSS section.

       --tteexxtt
           prints out the certificate in text form. Full details are output
           including the public key, signature algorithms, issuer and subject
           names, serial number any extensions present and any trust settings.

       --cceerrttoopptt ooppttiioonn
           customise the output format used with --tteexxtt. The ooppttiioonn argument
           can be a single option or multiple options separated by commas. The
           --cceerrttoopptt switch may be also be used more than once to set multiple
           options. See the TTEEXXTT OOPPTTIIOONNSS section for more information.

       --nnoooouutt
           this option prevents output of the encoded version of the request.

       --mmoodduulluuss
           this option prints out the value of the modulus of the public key
           contained in the certificate.

       --sseerriiaall
           outputs the certificate serial number.

       --hhaasshh
           outputs the "hash" of the certificate subject name. This is used in
           OpenSSL to form an index to allow certificates in a directory to be
           looked up by subject name.

       --ssuubbjjeecctt
           outputs the subject name.

       --iissssuueerr
           outputs the issuer name.

       --nnaammeeoopptt ooppttiioonn
           option which determines how the subject or issuer names are dis-
           played. The ooppttiioonn argument can be a single option or multiple
           options separated by commas.  Alternatively the --nnaammeeoopptt switch may
           be used more than once to set multiple options. See the NNAAMMEE
           OOPPTTIIOONNSS section for more information.

       --eemmaaiill
           outputs the email address(es) if any.

       --ssttaarrttddaattee
           prints out the start date of the certificate, that is the notBefore
           date.

       --eennddddaattee
           prints out the expiry date of the certificate, that is the notAfter
           date.

       --ddaatteess
           prints out the start and expiry dates of a certificate.

       --ffiinnggeerrpprriinntt
           prints out the digest of the DER encoded version of the whole cer-
           tificate (see digest options).

       --CC  this outputs the certificate in the form of a C source file.

       TTRRUUSSTT SSEETTTTIINNGGSS

       Please note these options are currently experimental and may well
       change.

       A ttrruusstteedd cceerrttiiffiiccaattee is an ordinary certificate which has several
       additional pieces of information attached to it such as the permitted
       and prohibited uses of the certificate and an "alias".

       Normally when a certificate is being verified at least one certificate
       must be "trusted". By default a trusted certificate must be stored
       locally and must be a root CA: any certificate chain ending in this CA
       is then usable for any purpose.

       Trust settings currently are only used with a root CA. They allow a
       finer control over the purposes the root CA can be used for. For exam-
       ple a CA may be trusted for SSL client but not SSL server use.

       See the description of the vveerriiffyy utility for more information on the
       meaning of trust settings.

       Future versions of OpenSSL will recognize trust settings on any cer-
       tificate: not just root CAs.

       --ttrruussttoouutt
           this causes xx550099 to output a ttrruusstteedd certificate. An ordinary or
           trusted certificate can be input but by default an ordinary cer-
           tificate is output and any trust settings are discarded. With the
           --ttrruussttoouutt option a trusted certificate is output. A trusted cer-
           tificate is automatically output if any trust settings are modi-
           fied.

       --sseettaalliiaass aarrgg
           sets the alias of the certificate. This will allow the certificate
           to be referred to using a nickname for example "Steve's Certifi-
           cate".

       --aalliiaass
           outputs the certificate alias, if any.

       --ccllrrttrruusstt
           clears all the permitted or trusted uses of the certificate.

       --ccllrrrreejjeecctt
           clears all the prohibited or rejected uses of the certificate.

       --aaddddttrruusstt aarrgg
           adds a trusted certificate use. Any object name can be used here
           but currently only cclliieennttAAuutthh (SSL client use), sseerrvveerrAAuutthh (SSL
           server use) and eemmaaiillPPrrootteeccttiioonn (S/MIME email) are used.  Other
           OpenSSL applications may define additional uses.

       --aaddddrreejjeecctt aarrgg
           adds a prohibited use. It accepts the same values as the --aaddddttrruusstt
           option.

       --ppuurrppoossee
           this option performs tests on the certificate extensions and out-
           puts the results. For a more complete description see the CCEERRTTIIFFII--
           CCAATTEE EEXXTTEENNSSIIOONNSS section.

       SSIIGGNNIINNGG OOPPTTIIOONNSS

       The xx550099 utility can be used to sign certificates and requests: it can
       thus behave like a "mini CA".

       --ssiiggnnkkeeyy ffiilleennaammee
           this option causes the input file to be self signed using the sup-
           plied private key.

           If the input file is a certificate it sets the issuer name to the
           subject name (i.e.  makes it self signed) changes the public key to
           the supplied value and changes the start and end dates. The start
           date is set to the current time and the end date is set to a value
           determined by the --ddaayyss option. Any certificate extensions are
           retained unless the --ccllrreexxtt option is supplied.

           If the input is a certificate request then a self signed certifi-
           cate is created using the supplied private key using the subject
           name in the request.

       --ccllrreexxtt
           delete any extensions from a certificate. This option is used when
           a certificate is being created from another certificate (for exam-
           ple with the --ssiiggnnkkeeyy or the --CCAA options). Normally all extensions
           are retained.

       --kkeeyyffoorrmm PPEEMM||DDEERR
           specifies the format (DER or PEM) of the private key file used in
           the --ssiiggnnkkeeyy option.

       --ddaayyss aarrgg
           specifies the number of days to make a certificate valid for. The
           default is 30 days.

       --xx550099ttoorreeqq
           converts a certificate into a certificate request. The --ssiiggnnkkeeyy
           option is used to pass the required private key.

       --rreeqq
           by default a certificate is expected on input. With this option a
           certificate request is expected instead.

       --sseett_sseerriiaall nn
           specifies the serial number to use. This option can be used with
           either the --ssiiggnnkkeeyy or --CCAA options. If used in conjunction with the
           --CCAA option the serial number file (as specified by the --CCAAsseerriiaall or
           --CCAAccrreeaatteesseerriiaall options) is not used.

           The serial number can be decimal or hex (if preceded by 00xx). Nega-
           tive serial numbers can also be specified but their use is not rec-
           ommended.

       --CCAA ffiilleennaammee
           specifies the CA certificate to be used for signing. When this
           option is present xx550099 behaves like a "mini CA". The input file is
           signed by this CA using this option: that is its issuer name is set
           to the subject name of the CA and it is digitally signed using the
           CAs private key.

           This option is normally combined with the --rreeqq option. Without the
           --rreeqq option the input is a certificate which must be self signed.

       --CCAAkkeeyy ffiilleennaammee
           sets the CA private key to sign a certificate with. If this option
           is not specified then it is assumed that the CA private key is
           present in the CA certificate file.

       --CCAAsseerriiaall ffiilleennaammee
           sets the CA serial number file to use.

           When the --CCAA option is used to sign a certificate it uses a serial
           number specified in a file. This file consist of one line contain-
           ing an even number of hex digits with the serial number to use.
           After each use the serial number is incremented and written out to
           the file again.

           The default filename consists of the CA certificate file base name
           with ".srl" appended. For example if the CA certificate file is
           called "mycacert.pem" it expects to find a serial number file
           called "mycacert.srl".

       --CCAAccrreeaatteesseerriiaall
           with this option the CA serial number file is created if it does
           not exist: it will contain the serial number "02" and the certifi-
           cate being signed will have the 1 as its serial number. Normally if
           the --CCAA option is specified and the serial number file does not
           exist it is an error.

       --eexxttffiillee ffiilleennaammee
           file containing certificate extensions to use. If not specified
           then no extensions are added to the certificate.

       --eexxtteennssiioonnss sseeccttiioonn
           the section to add certificate extensions from. If this option is
           not specified then the extensions should either be contained in the
           unnamed (default) section or the default section should contain a
           variable called "extensions" which contains the section to use.

       NNAAMMEE OOPPTTIIOONNSS

       The nnaammeeoopptt command line switch determines how the subject and issuer
       names are displayed. If no nnaammeeoopptt switch is present the default "one-
       line" format is used which is compatible with previous versions of
       OpenSSL.  Each option is described in detail below, all options can be
       preceded by a -- to turn the option off. Only the first four will nor-
       mally be used.

       ccoommppaatt
           use the old format. This is equivalent to specifying no name
           options at all.

       RRFFCC22225533
           displays names compatible with RFC2253 equivalent to eesscc_22225533,
           eesscc_ccttrrll, eesscc_mmssbb, uuttff88, dduummpp_nnoossttrr, dduummpp_uunnkknnoowwnn, dduummpp_ddeerr,
           sseepp_ccoommmmaa_pplluuss, ddnn_rreevv and ssnnaammee.

       oonneelliinnee
           a oneline format which is more readable than RFC2253. It is equiva-
           lent to specifying the  eesscc_22225533, eesscc_ccttrrll, eesscc_mmssbb, uuttff88,
           dduummpp_nnoossttrr, dduummpp_ddeerr, uussee_qquuoottee, sseepp_ccoommmmaa_pplluuss_ssppcc, ssppcc_eeqq and
           ssnnaammee options.

       mmuullttiilliinnee
           a multiline format. It is equivalent eesscc_ccttrrll, eesscc_mmssbb, sseepp_mmuullttii--
           lliinnee, ssppcc_eeqq, llnnaammee and aalliiggnn.

       eesscc_22225533
           escape the "special" characters required by RFC2253 in a field That
           is ,,++""<>;;. Additionally ## is escaped at the beginning of a string
           and a space character at the beginning or end of a string.

       eesscc_ccttrrll
           escape control characters. That is those with ASCII values less
           than 0x20 (space) and the delete (0x7f) character. They are escaped
           using the RFC2253 \XX notation (where XX are two hex digits repre-
           senting the character value).

       eesscc_mmssbb
           escape characters with the MSB set, that is with ASCII values
           larger than 127.

       uussee_qquuoottee
           escapes some characters by surrounding the whole string with ""
           characters, without the option all escaping is done with the \\
           character.

       uuttff88
           convert all strings to UTF8 format first. This is required by
           RFC2253. If you are lucky enough to have a UTF8 compatible terminal
           then the use of this option (and nnoott setting eesscc_mmssbb) may result in
           the correct display of multibyte (international) characters. Is
           this option is not present then multibyte characters larger than
           0xff will be represented using the format \UXXXX for 16 bits and
           \WXXXXXXXX for 32 bits.  Also if this option is off any UTF8Strings
           will be converted to their character form first.

       nnoo_ttyyppee
           this option does not attempt to interpret multibyte characters in
           any way. That is their content octets are merely dumped as though
           one octet represents each character. This is useful for diagnostic
           purposes but will result in rather odd looking output.

       sshhooww_ttyyppee
           show the type of the ASN1 character string. The type precedes the
           field contents. For example "BMPSTRING: Hello World".

       dduummpp_ddeerr
           when this option is set any fields that need to be hexdumped will
           be dumped using the DER encoding of the field. Otherwise just the
           content octets will be displayed. Both options use the RFC2253
           ##XXXXXXXX...... format.

       dduummpp_nnoossttrr
           dump non character string types (for example OCTET STRING) if this
           option is not set then non character string types will be displayed
           as though each content octet represents a single character.

       dduummpp_aallll
           dump all fields. This option when used with dduummpp_ddeerr allows the DER
           encoding of the structure to be unambiguously determined.

       dduummpp_uunnkknnoowwnn
           dump any field whose OID is not recognised by OpenSSL.

       sseepp_ccoommmmaa_pplluuss, sseepp_ccoommmmaa_pplluuss_ssppaaccee, sseepp_sseemmii_pplluuss_ssppaaccee, sseepp_mmuullttii--
       lliinnee
           these options determine the field separators. The first character
           is between RDNs and the second between multiple AVAs (multiple AVAs
           are very rare and their use is discouraged). The options ending in
           "space" additionally place a space after the separator to make it
           more readable. The sseepp_mmuullttiilliinnee uses a linefeed character for the
           RDN separator and a spaced ++ for the AVA separator. It also indents
           the fields by four characters.

       ddnn_rreevv
           reverse the fields of the DN. This is required by RFC2253. As a
           side effect this also reverses the order of multiple AVAs but this
           is permissible.

       nnooffnnaammee, ssnnaammee, llnnaammee, ooiidd
           these options alter how the field name is displayed. nnooffnnaammee does
           not display the field at all. ssnnaammee uses the "short name" form (CN
           for commonName for example). llnnaammee uses the long form.  ooiidd repre-
           sents the OID in numerical form and is useful for diagnostic pur-
           pose.

       aalliiggnn
           align field values for a more readable output. Only usable with
           sseepp_mmuullttiilliinnee.

       ssppcc_eeqq
           places spaces round the == character which follows the field name.

       TTEEXXTT OOPPTTIIOONNSS

       As well as customising the name output format, it is also possible to
       customise the actual fields printed using the cceerrttoopptt options when the
       tteexxtt option is present. The default behaviour is to print all fields.

       ccoommppaattiibbllee
           use the old format. This is equivalent to specifying no output
           options at all.

       nnoo_hheeaaddeerr
           don't print header information: that is the lines saying "Certifi-
           cate" and "Data".

       nnoo_vveerrssiioonn
           don't print out the version number.

       nnoo_sseerriiaall
           don't print out the serial number.

       nnoo_ssiiggnnaammee
           don't print out the signature algorithm used.

       nnoo_vvaalliiddiittyy
           don't print the validity, that is the nnoottBBeeffoorree and nnoottAAfftteerr
           fields.

       nnoo_ssuubbjjeecctt
           don't print out the subject name.

       nnoo_iissssuueerr
           don't print out the issuer name.

       nnoo_ppuubbkkeeyy
           don't print out the public key.

       nnoo_ssiiggdduummpp
           don't give a hexadecimal dump of the certificate signature.

       nnoo_aauuxx
           don't print out certificate trust information.

       nnoo_eexxtteennssiioonnss
           don't print out any X509V3 extensions.

       eexxtt_ddeeffaauulltt
           retain default extension behaviour: attempt to print out unsup-
           ported certificate extensions.

       eexxtt_eerrrroorr
           print an error message for unsupported certificate extensions.

       eexxtt_ppaarrssee
           ASN1 parse unsupported extensions.

       eexxtt_dduummpp
           hex dump unsupported extensions.

       ccaa_ddeeffaauulltt
           the value used by the ccaa utility, equivalent to nnoo_iissssuueerr, nnoo_ppuubb--
           kkeeyy, nnoo_hheeaaddeerr, nnoo_vveerrssiioonn, nnoo_ssiiggdduummpp and nnoo_ssiiggnnaammee.

E
       Note: in these examples the '\' means the example should be all on one
       line.

       Display the contents of a certificate:

        openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -text

       Display the certificate serial number:

        openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -serial

       Display the certificate subject name:

        openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -subject

       Display the certificate subject name in RFC2253 form:

        openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -subject -nameopt RFC2253

       Display the certificate subject name in oneline form on a terminal sup-
       porting UTF8:

        openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -subject -nameopt oneline,-escmsb

       Display the certificate MD5 fingerprint:

        openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -fingerprint

       Display the certificate SHA1 fingerprint:

        openssl x509 -sha1 -in cert.pem -noout -fingerprint

       Convert a certificate from PEM to DER format:

        openssl x509 -in cert.pem -inform PEM -out cert.der -outform DER

       Convert a certificate to a certificate request:

        openssl x509 -x509toreq -in cert.pem -out req.pem -signkey key.pem

       Convert a certificate request into a self signed certificate using
       extensions for a CA:

        openssl x509 -req -in careq.pem -extfile openssl.cnf -extensions v3_ca \
               -signkey key.pem -out cacert.pem

       Sign a certificate request using the CA certificate above and add user
       certificate extensions:

        openssl x509 -req -in req.pem -extfile openssl.cnf -extensions v3_usr \
               -CA cacert.pem -CAkey key.pem -CAcreateserial

       Set a certificate to be trusted for SSL client use and change set its
       alias to "Steve's Class 1 CA"

        openssl x509 -in cert.pem -addtrust clientAuth \
               -setalias "Steve's Class 1 CA" -out trust.pem

N
       The PEM format uses the header and footer lines:

        -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
        -----END CERTIFICATE-----

       it will also handle files containing:

        -----BEGIN X509 CERTIFICATE-----
        -----END X509 CERTIFICATE-----

       Trusted certificates have the lines

        -----BEGIN TRUSTED CERTIFICATE-----
        -----END TRUSTED CERTIFICATE-----

       The conversion to UTF8 format used with the name options assumes that
       T61Strings use the ISO8859-1 character set. This is wrong but Netscape
       and MSIE do this as do many certificates. So although this is incorrect
       it is more likely to display the majority of certificates correctly.

       The --ffiinnggeerrpprriinntt option takes the digest of the DER encoded certifi-
       cate.  This is commonly called a "fingerprint". Because of the nature
       of message digests the fingerprint of a certificate is unique to that
       certificate and two certificates with the same fingerprint can be con-
       sidered to be the same.

       The Netscape fingerprint uses MD5 whereas MSIE uses SHA1.

       The --eemmaaiill option searches the subject name and the subject alternative
       name extension. Only unique email addresses will be printed out: it
       will not print the same address more than once.

C
       The --ppuurrppoossee option checks the certificate extensions and determines
       what the certificate can be used for. The actual checks done are rather
       complex and include various hacks and workarounds to handle broken cer-
       tificates and software.

       The same code is used when verifying untrusted certificates in chains
       so this section is useful if a chain is rejected by the verify code.

       The basicConstraints extension CA flag is used to determine whether the
       certificate can be used as a CA. If the CA flag is true then it is a
       CA, if the CA flag is false then it is not a CA. AAllll CAs should have
       the CA flag set to true.

       If the basicConstraints extension is absent then the certificate is
       considered to be a "possible CA" other extensions are checked according
       to the intended use of the certificate. A warning is given in this case
       because the certificate should really not be regarded as a CA: however
       it is allowed to be a CA to work around some broken software.

       If the certificate is a V1 certificate (and thus has no extensions) and
       it is self signed it is also assumed to be a CA but a warning is again
       given: this is to work around the problem of Verisign roots which are
       V1 self signed certificates.

       If the keyUsage extension is present then additional restraints are
       made on the uses of the certificate. A CA certificate mmuusstt have the
       keyCertSign bit set if the keyUsage extension is present.

       The extended key usage extension places additional restrictions on the
       certificate uses. If this extension is present (whether critical or
       not) the key can only be used for the purposes specified.

       A complete description of each test is given below. The comments about
       basicConstraints and keyUsage and V1 certificates above apply to aallll CA
       certificates.

       SSSSLL CClliieenntt
           The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the "web
           client authentication" OID.  keyUsage must be absent or it must
           have the digitalSignature bit set. Netscape certificate type must
           be absent or it must have the SSL client bit set.

       SSSSLL CClliieenntt CCAA
           The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the "web
           client authentication" OID. Netscape certificate type must be
           absent or it must have the SSL CA bit set: this is used as a work
           around if the basicConstraints extension is absent.

       SSSSLL SSeerrvveerr
           The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the "web
           server authentication" and/or one of the SGC OIDs.  keyUsage must
           be absent or it must have the digitalSignature, the keyEncipherment
           set or both bits set.  Netscape certificate type must be absent or
           have the SSL server bit set.

       SSSSLL SSeerrvveerr CCAA
           The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the "web
           server authentication" and/or one of the SGC OIDs.  Netscape cer-
           tificate type must be absent or the SSL CA bit must be set: this is
           used as a work around if the basicConstraints extension is absent.

       NNeettssccaappee SSSSLL SSeerrvveerr
           For Netscape SSL clients to connect to an SSL server it must have
           the keyEncipherment bit set if the keyUsage extension is present.
           This isn't always valid because some cipher suites use the key for
           digital signing.  Otherwise it is the same as a normal SSL server.

       CCoommmmoonn SS//MMIIMMEE CClliieenntt TTeessttss
           The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the
           "email protection" OID. Netscape certificate type must be absent or
           should have the S/MIME bit set. If the S/MIME bit is not set in
           netscape certificate type then the SSL client bit is tolerated as
           an alternative but a warning is shown: this is because some
           Verisign certificates don't set the S/MIME bit.

       SS//MMIIMMEE SSiiggnniinngg
           In addition to the common S/MIME client tests the digitalSignature
           bit must be set if the keyUsage extension is present.

       SS//MMIIMMEE EEnnccrryyppttiioonn
           In addition to the common S/MIME tests the keyEncipherment bit must
           be set if the keyUsage extension is present.

       SS//MMIIMMEE CCAA
           The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the
           "email protection" OID. Netscape certificate type must be absent or
           must have the S/MIME CA bit set: this is used as a work around if
           the basicConstraints extension is absent.

       CCRRLL SSiiggnniinngg
           The keyUsage extension must be absent or it must have the CRL sign-
           ing bit set.

       CCRRLL SSiiggnniinngg CCAA
           The normal CA tests apply. Except in this case the basicConstraints
           extension must be present.

B
       Extensions in certificates are not transferred to certificate requests
       and vice versa.

       It is possible to produce invalid certificates or requests by specify-
       ing the wrong private key or using inconsistent options in some cases:
       these should be checked.

       There should be options to explicitly set such things as start and end
       dates rather than an offset from the current time.

       The code to implement the verify behaviour described in the TTRRUUSSTT SSEETT--
       TTIINNGGSS is currently being developed. It thus describes the intended be-
       haviour rather than the current behaviour. It is hoped that it will
       represent reality in OpenSSL 0.9.5 and later.

S
       req(1), ca(1), genrsa(1), gendsa(1), verify(1)

3rd Berkeley Distribution           0.9.7a                             X509(1)

N | S | D | O | E | N | C | B | S

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