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wodim(1)							      wodim(1)

NAME
       wodim - write data to optical disk media

SYNOPSIS
       wodim [options] track1...trackn

NOTE
       There  may  be  similarities  and  differences between this program and
       other disk recording application(s). See	the CREDITS and	 AUTHORS  sec-
       tions below to learn about the origin of	wodim.

DESCRIPTION
       wodim  is  used to record data or audio Compact Discs on	an Orange Book
       CD-Recorder or to write DVD media on a DVD-Recorder.

       The device is the device	file or	label offered by the operating	system
       to access the recorder with SCSI	GENERIC	(sg) interface.	Note that some
       operating systems may provide separate device nodes for	block-oriented
       and  sg	access.	For example, on	older Linux systems, the sg access was
       available through /dev/sg...  files while the block oriented access was
       done  through associated	(but not identical) /dev/hd...	and /dev/sr...
       (or /dev/scd...	) files.

       In any case, the	user running wodim needs read and write	access to  the
       particular  device file on a Linux system. It is	recommended to be root
       or install the application as suid-root,	because	 certain  versions  of
       Linux  (kernel)	limit  the  set	 of SCSI commands allowed for non-root
       users. Even if usage without root identity is possible in  many	cases,
       some  device  drivers  still  may fail, show unexplainable problems and
       generally the problems become harder to debug. The risk for  buffer-un-
       derruns	is also	increased. See the PROCESS SCHEDULING PRIORITY section
       below for more details.

       There is	an alternative way of specifying the device, using the	tradi-
       tional  SCSI descriptions in form of devicetype:bus/target/lun specifi-
       cation. However,	the success of this method is not guaranteed since  it
       requires	 an  adaptation	 scheme	for your architecture, and the numbers
       may vary	depending on the hardware-internal numbering or	on  the	 order
       of hot-plug device detection. If	your operating system does not provide
       a sufficient framework for keeping this numbers persistent, don't  rely
       on them.	See -scanbus and --devices options below for details.

       There  are emulated SCSI	compatible device systems, using the SCSI pro-
       tocols transported over various hardware/media types.  The  most	 known
       examples	is ATAPI ("IDE burners") or USB	storage	("external USB case").
       If the pseudo-SCSI b/t/l	device address specification is	 used  instead
       of the native one, you need to prepend the "devicetype:"	description to
       the emulated "bus/target/lun" device address.

       If a file /etc/wodim.conf exists, the parameter to the dev= option  may
       also be a drive name label in that file (see FILES section).

       As  a  special  exception,  the	device specification can be -1 or just
       omitted,	which invokes automatic	guessing of an appropriate device  for
       the  selected operation.	However, this guessing is not available	every-
       where and is not	reliable; it is	only available for the	user's	conve-
       nience in simple	environments.

       In  Track  At  Once  mode, each track corresponds to a single file that
       contains	the prepared data for that track.  If  the  argument  is  `-',
       standard	 input	is  used  for that track.  Only	one track may be taken
       from stdin.  In the other write modes, the direct file to  track	 rela-
       tion  may  not  be implemented.	In -clone mode,	a single file contains
       all data	for the	whole disk.  To	allow DVD writing on platforms that do
       not implement large file	support, wodim concatenates all	file arguments
       to a single track when writing to DVD media.

PROCESS	SCHEDULING PRIORITY
       Wodim tries to get higher process  priority  using  different  methods.
       This  is	important because the burn process is usually a	realtime task,
       no long delays should  occur  while  transmitting  fresh	 data  to  the
       recorder. This is especially important on systems with insufficient RAM
       where swapping can create delays	of many	seconds.

       A possible workaround on	underpowered systems is	the use	of  the	 burn-
       free or similar feature,	allowing the recorder to resume.

       Root  permissions are usually required to get higher process scheduling
       priority.

       On SVr4 compliant systems, wodim	uses the real time class  to  get  the
       highest	scheduling  priority  that is possible (higher than all	kernel
       processes).  On systems with POSIX real time scheduling wodim uses real
       time  scheduling	 too,  but  may	not be able to gain a priority that is
       higher than all kernel processes.

       In order	to be able to use the SCSI transport subsystem of the OS,  run
       at  highest priority and	lock itself into core wodim either needs to be
       run as root, needs to be	installed suid root  or	 must  be  called  via
       RBACs pfexec mechanism.

GENERAL	OPTIONS
       General options must be before any track	file name or track option.

       -version
	      Print version information	and exit.

       -v     Increment	 the  level of general verbosity by one.  This is used
	      e.g. to display the progress of the writing process.

       -V     Increment	the verbose level in respect of	SCSI command transport
	      by  one.	 This  helps  to  debug	 problems  during  the writing
	      process, that occur in the CD/DVD-Recorder.  If you  get	incom-
	      prehensible  error messages you should use this flag to get more
	      detailed output.	-VV will show data buffer content in addition.
	      Using -V or -VV slows down the process and may be	the reason for
	      a	buffer underrun.

       debug=#,	-d
	      Set the misc debug value to # (with debug=#)  or	increment  the
	      misc  debug  level  by  one  (with -d). If you specify -dd, this
	      equals to	debug=2.  This may help	to find	problems while opening
	      a	 driver	 for  libusal  as well as with sector sizes and	sector
	      types.  Using -debug slows down the process and may be the  rea-
	      son for a	buffer underrun.

       kdebug=#, kd=#
	      Tell the usal-driver to modify the kernel	debug value while SCSI
	      commands are running.

       -silent,	-s
	      Do not print out a status	report for failed SCSI commands.

       -force Force to continue	on some	errors.	Be careful when	using this op-
	      tion.  wodim implements several checks that prevent you from do-
	      ing unwanted  things  like  damaging  CD-RW  media  by  improper
	      drives.  Many  of	the sanity checks are disabled when the	-force
	      option is	used.

	      This option also implements some tricks that will	allow  you  to
	      blank bad	CD-RW disks.

       -immed Tell  wodim  to  set  the	 SCSI  IMMED  flag in certain commands
	      (load/eject/blank/close_track/close_session).  This can be  use-
	      ful  on  broken systems with ATAPI harddisk and CD/DVD writer on
	      the same bus or with SCSI	systems	that don't use	disconnect/re-
	      connect.	These systems will freeze while	blanking or fixating a
	      CD/DVD or	while a	DVD writer is filling up a session to the min-
	      imum  amount (approx. 800	MB).  Setting the -immed flag will re-
	      quest the	command	to return immediately while the	operation pro-
	      ceeds in background, making the bus usable for the other devices
	      and avoiding the system freeze.  This is an experimental feature
	      which  may  work	or  not,  depending on the model of the	CD/DVD
	      writer.  A correct solution would	be to set up a correct cabling
	      but  there seem to be notebooks around that have been set	up the
	      wrong way	by the manufacturer.  As it is impossible to fix  this
	      problem in notebooks, the	-immed option has been added.

	      A	 second	 experimental  feature	of  the	-immed flag is to tell
	      wodim to try to wait short times while  writing  to  the	media.
	      This  is	expected  to free the IDE bus if the CD/DVD writer and
	      the data source are connected to the same	 IDE  cable.  In  this
	      case,  the  CD/DVD  writer would otherwise usually block the IDE
	      bus for nearly all the time making it impossible to  fetch  data
	      from the source drive. See also minbuf= and -v option.

	      Use  both	 features  at  your own	risk.  If it turns out that it
	      would make sense to have a separate option for the wait feature,
	      write to the author and convince him.

       minbuf=value
	      The  #  minbuf= option allows to define the minimum drive	buffer
	      fill ratio for the experimental ATAPI wait mode that is intended
	      to  free	the IDE	bus to allow hard disk and CD/DVD writer to be
	      on the same IDE cable.  As the wait mode	currently  only	 works
	      when the verbose option -v has been specified, wodim implies the
	      verbose option in	case the -immed	or minbuf=  option  have  been
	      specified.   Valid  values for minbuf= are between 25 and	95 for
	      25%...95%	minimum	drive buffer fill ratio.

       -dummy The CD/DVD-Recorder will go through all steps of	the  recording
	      process,	but the	laser is turned	off during this	procedure.  It
	      is recommended to	run several tests before actually writing to a
	      Compact  Disk  or	Digital	Versatile Disk,	if the timing and load
	      response of the system is	not known.

       -clone Tells wodim to handle images  created  by	 readom	 -clone.   The
	      -clone  may only be used in conjunction with with	the -raw96r or
	      with the -raw16 option.  Using -clone together with  -raw96r  is
	      preferred	as it allows to	write all subchannel data.  The	option
	      -raw16 should only be used with drives that do  not  support  to
	      write in -raw96r mode.

       -dao

       -sao   Set  SAO	(Session At Once) mode which is	usually	called Disk At
	      Once mode.  This currently only works with MMC drives that  sup-
	      port  Session  At	 Once mode.  Note that wodim needs to know the
	      size of each track in advance for	this mode (see the genisoimage
	      -print-size  option  and	the EXAMPLES section for more informa-
	      tion).

       -tao   Set TAO (Track At	Once) writing mode.  This is the default write
	      mode  in	previous wodim versions.  With most drives, this write
	      mode is required for multi session recording.

       -raw   Set RAW writing mode.  Using this	option	defaults  to  -raw96r.
	      Note  that wodim needs to	know the size of each track in advance
	      for this mode (see the genisoimage -print-size  option  and  the
	      EXAMPLES section for more	information).

       -raw96r
	      Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes
	      of raw P-W subchannel data resulting in a	sector	size  of  2448
	      bytes.   This is the preferred raw writing mode as it gives best
	      control over the CD writing process.  If you find	 any  problems
	      with  the	 layout	 of  a	disk or	with sub channel content (e.g.
	      wrong times on the display when playing the CD) and  your	 drive
	      supports	to write in -raw96r or -raw16 mode, you	should give it
	      a	try. There are several CD writers with bad firmware  that  re-
	      sult  in	broken disks when writing in TAO or SAO	mode.  Writing
	      data disks in raw	mode needs significantly more  CPU  time  than
	      other  write  modes. If your CPU is too slow, this may result in
	      buffer underruns.	 Note that wodim needs to  know	 the  size  of
	      each track in advance for	this mode (see the genisoimage -print-
	      size option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96p
	      Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes
	      of packed	P-W subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2448
	      bytes.  This is the less preferred raw writing mode  as  only  a
	      few  recorders  support it and some of these recorders have bugs
	      in the firmware implementation.  Don't use  this	mode  if  your
	      recorder	supports -raw96r or -raw16.  Writing data disks	in raw
	      mode needs significantly more CPU	time than other	 write	modes.
	      If  your	CPU  is	too slow, this may result in buffer underruns.
	      Note that	wodim needs to know the	size of	each track in  advance
	      for  this	 mode  (see the	genisoimage -print-size	option and the
	      EXAMPLES section for more	information).

       -raw16 Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 16 bytes
	      of P-Q subchannel	data resulting in a sector size	of 2368	bytes.
	      If a recorder does not support -raw96r, this  is	the  preferred
	      raw  writing  mode.   It	does  not  allow  to  write CD-Text or
	      CD+Graphics but it is the	only raw  writing  mode	 in  cheap  CD
	      writers.	 As  these  cheap writers in most cases	do not support
	      -dao mode.  Don't	 use  this  mode  if  your  recorder  supports
	      -raw96r.	 Writing  data	disks  in raw mode needs significantly
	      more CPU time than other write modes. If your CPU	is  too	 slow,
	      this  may	 result	in buffer underruns.  Note that	wodim needs to
	      know the size of each track in advance for this  mode  (see  the
	      genisoimage -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for more
	      information).

       -multi Allow multi session CDs to  be  made.  This  flag	 needs	to  be
	      present on all sessions of a multi session disk, except you want
	      to create	a session that will be the last	session	on the	media.
	      The  fixation  will  be  done  in	 a way that allows the CD/DVD-
	      Recorder to append additional sessions later. This  is  done  by
	      generation  a  TOC  with a link to the next program area.	The so
	      generated	media is not 100% compatible to	manufactured CDs  (ex-
	      cept  for	CDplus).  Use only for recording of multi session CDs.
	      If this option is	present, the default track type	is  CD-ROM  XA
	      mode  2 form 1 and the sector size is 2048 bytes.	 The XA	sector
	      subheaders will be created by the	drive.	The Sony  drives  have
	      no  hardware  support  for CD-ROM	XA mode	2 form 1.  You have to
	      specify the -data	option in order	to create multi	session	 disks
	      on  these	 drives.   As  long as wodim does not have a coder for
	      converting data sectors to audio sectors,	you need to force  CD-
	      ROM  sectors by including	the -data option if you	like to	record
	      a	multisession disk in SAO mode.	Not all	drives allow multises-
	      sion CDs in SAO mode.

       -msinfo
	      Retrieve	multi  session info in a form suitable for genisoimage
	      and print	it to standard output. See msifile= option for another
	      version.

	      This  option  makes  only	sense with a CD	that contains at least
	      one closed session and is	appendable (not	finally	 closed	 yet).
	      Some  drives  create  error messages if you try to get the multi
	      session info for a disk that is not suitable for this operation.

       msifile=filename
	      Like -msinfo option but also stores the multi session info in  a
	      file.

       -toc   Retrieve	and  print  out	 the  table of content or PMA of a CD.
	      With this	option,	wodim will work	with CD-R drives and with  CD-
	      ROM drives.

       -atip  Retrieve	and  print  out	the ATIP (absolute Time	in Pre-groove)
	      info of a	CD/DVD recordable or CD/DVD re-writable	 media.	  With
	      this  option,  wodim  will try to	retrieve the ATIP info.	If the
	      actual drive does	not support to read the	ATIP info, it  may  be
	      that  only  a reduced set	of information records or even nothing
	      is displayed. Only a limited number of MMC compliant drives sup-
	      port to read the ATIP info.

	      If  wodim	 is  able  to  retrieve	the lead-in start time for the
	      first session, it	will try to decode and print the  manufacturer
	      info  from  the media.  DVD media	does not have ATIP information
	      but there	is equivalent prerecorded information that is read out
	      and printed.

       -fix   The  disk	 will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a	CD-Reader will
	      be written).  This may be	used, if for some reason the disk  has
	      been  written  but  not  fixated.	This option currently does not
	      work with	old TEAC drives	(CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -nofix Do not fixate the	disk after writing the	tracks.	 This  may  be
	      used  to	create	an audio disk in steps.	An un-fixated disk can
	      usually not be used on a non CD-writer type drive	but there  are
	      audio CD players that will be able to play such a	disk.

       -waiti Wait for input to	become available on standard input before try-
	      ing to open the SCSI driver. This	allows wodim to	read its input
	      from  a  pipe  even  when	writing	additional sessions to a multi
	      session disk.  When writing another session to a	multi  session
	      disk,  genisoimage needs to read the old session from the	device
	      before writing output.  This cannot be done if wodim  opens  the
	      SCSI driver at the same time.

       -load  Load  the	 media	and  exit. This	only works with	a tray loading
	      mechanism	but seems to be	 useful	 when  using  the  Kodak  disk
	      transporter.

       -lock  Load  the	 media,	lock the door and exit.	This only works	with a
	      tray loading mechanism but seems to be useful when using the Ko-
	      dak disk transporter.

       -eject Eject  disk  after  doing	the work.  Some	devices	(e.g. Philips)
	      need to eject the	medium before creating a  new  disk.  Doing  a
	      -dummy  test and immediately creating a real disk	would not work
	      on these devices.

       speed=#
	      Set the speed factor of the writing process to #.	 # is an inte-
	      ger,  representing a multiple of the audio speed.	 This is about
	      150 KB/s for CD-ROM,  about  172 KB/s  for  CD-Audio  and	 about
	      1385 kB/s	 for  DVD media.  If no	speed option is	present, wodim
	      will try to get a	drive  specific	 speed	value  from  the  file
	      /etc/wodim.conf  and  if	it cannot find one, it will try	to get
	      the speed	value from the CDR_SPEED environment  and  later  from
	      the  CDR_SPEED=  entry  in  /etc/wodim.conf.   If	no speed value
	      could be found, wodim uses a drive specific default speed.   The
	      default for all new (MMC compliant) drives is to use the maximum
	      supported	by the drive.  If you use speed=0 with a MMC compliant
	      drive,  wodim will switch	to the lowest possible speed for drive
	      and medium.  If you are using an old (non	MMC)  drive  that  has
	      problems with speed=2 or speed=4,	you should try speed=0.

       blank=type
	      Blank  a	CD-RW  and  exit  or blank a CD-RW before writing. The
	      blanking type may	be one of:

	      help	  Display a list of possible blanking types.

	      all	  Blank	the entire disk. This may take a long time.

	      fast	  Minimally blank the disk. This  results  in  erasing
			  the PMA, the TOC and the pregap.

	      track	  Blank	a track.

	      unreserve	  Unreserve a reserved track.

	      trtail	  Blank	the tail of a track.

	      unclose	  Unclose last session.

	      session	  Blank	the last session.
       Not  all	 drives	support	all blanking types. It may be necessary	to use
       blank=all if a drive reports a specified	command	as being invalid.   If
       used  together  with  the -force	flag, this option may be used to blank
       CD-RW disks that	otherwise cannot be blanked. Note that you may need to
       specify	blank=all  because  some drives	will not continue with certain
       types of	bad CD-RW disks. Note also that	wodim does  its	 best  if  the
       -force  flag  is	 used  but  it finally depends on the drive's firmware
       whether the blanking operation will succeed or not.

       -format
	      Format a CD-RW/DVD-RW/DVD+RW disc.  Formatting is	currently only
	      implemented  for DVD+RW media.  A	'maiden' DVD+RW	media needs to
	      be formatted before you may write	to it.	However, as wodim  au-
	      todetects	 the need for formatting in this case and auto formats
	      the medium before	it starts writing, the -format option is  only
	      needed if	you like to forcibly reformat a	DVD+RW medium.

       fs=#   Set the FIFO (ring buffer) size to #.  You may use the same syn-
	      tax as in	dd(1), sdd(1) or star(1).  The number representing the
	      size  is taken in	bytes unless otherwise specified.  If a	number
	      is followed directly by the letter `b', `k', `m',	 `s'  or  `f',
	      the  size	 is  multiplied	by 512,	1024, 1024*1024, 2048 or 2352.
	      If the size consists of numbers separated	by `x' or `*',	multi-
	      plication	 of the	two numbers is performed.  Thus	fs=10x63k will
	      specify a	FIFO size of 630 kBytes.

	      The size specified by the	fs= argument includes the shared  mem-
	      ory that is needed for administration. This is at	least one page
	      of memory.  If no	fs= option is present, wodim will try  to  get
	      the  FIFO	size value from	the CDR_FIFOSIZE environment.  The de-
	      fault FIFO size is currently 4 MB.

	      The FIFO is used to increase buffering for the real time writing
	      process.	It allows to run a pipe	from genisoimage directly into
	      wodim.  If the FIFO is active and	a pipe from  genisoimage  into
	      wodim  is	 used to create	a CD, wodim will abort prior to	do any
	      modifications on the disk	if genisoimage dies before  it	starts
	      writing.	The recommended	FIFO size is between 4 and 128 MBytes.
	      As a rule	of thumb, the FIFO size	should be at  least  equal  to
	      the  size	 of  the internal buffer of the	CD/DVD-Recorder	and no
	      more than	half of	the physical amount of RAM  available  in  the
	      machine.	 If  the  FIFO size is big enough, the FIFO statistics
	      will print a FIFO	empty count of zero and	the FIFO min  fill  is
	      not  below  20%.	 It  is	not wise to use	too much space for the
	      FIFO. If you need	more than 8 MB to write	a CD at	a  speed  less
	      than  20x	 from  an  image on a local file system	on an idle ma-
	      chine, your machine is either underpowered, has  hardware	 prob-
	      lems  or is mis-configured.  If you like to write	DVDs or	CDs at
	      higher speed, it makes sense to use at least 16 MB for the FIFO.

	      On old and small machines, you need to be	more careful with  the
	      FIFO  size.   If	your  machine has less than 256	MB of physical
	      RAM, you should not set up a FIFO	size that is more than	32 MB.
	      The sun4c	architecture (e.g. a Sparcstation-2) has only MMU page
	      table  entries  for  16 MBytes  per  process.  Using  more  than
	      14 MBytes	 for  the  FIFO	may cause the operating	system in this
	      case to spend much time to constantly  reload  the  MMU  tables.
	      Newer machines from Sun do not have this MMU hardware problem. I
	      have no information on PC-hardware reflecting this problem.

	      Old Linux	systems	for non	x86 platforms have broken  definitions
	      for the shared memory size. You need to fix them and rebuild the
	      kernel or	manually tell wodim to use a smaller FIFO.

	      If you have buffer underruns or similar problems	(like  a  con-
	      stantly empty drive buffer) and observe a	zero fifo empty	count,
	      you have hardware	problems that prevents the data	 from  flowing
	      fast  enough  from the kernel memory to the drive. The FIFO size
	      in this case is sufficient, but you should check for  a  working
	      DMA setup.

       ts=#   Set  the	maximum	 transfer size for a single SCSI command to #.
	      The syntax for the ts= option is the same	as for wodim  fs=#  or
	      sdd bs=#.

	      If  no ts= option	has been specified, wodim defaults to a	trans-
	      fer size of 63 kB. If libusal gets lower values from the operat-
	      ing  system,  the	 value is reduced to the maximum value that is
	      possible with the	current	operating system.  Sometimes,  it  may
	      help  to	further	reduce the transfer size or to enhance it, but
	      note that	it may take a long time	to find	a better value by  ex-
	      perimenting with the ts= option.

       dev=target
	      Sets  the	 SCSI target for the CD/DVD-Recorder, see notes	above.
	      A	typical	device specification is	dev=6,0	.  A filename or  vir-
	      tual device name can be passed instead of	the symbolic SCSI num-
	      bers.  The correct device/filename in this case can be found  in
	      the  system specific manuals of the target operating system.  On
	      a	FreeBSD	system without CAM support, you	need to	use  the  con-
	      trol  device (e.g.  /dev/rcd0.ctl).  A correct device specifica-
	      tion in this case	may be dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

	      On Linux and Windows 2000/XP, drives are accessible  with	 their
	      device  (or  drive) names	or with	the symbolic SCSI numbers (not
	      recommended, mapping is not stable and could be  completely  re-
	      moved in the future).

	      If  no  dev  option is present, wodim will try to	get the	device
	      from the CDR_DEVICE environment.

	      If the argument to the dev= option does not contain the  charac-
	      ters  ',',  '/',	'@' or ':', it is interpreted as an label name
	      that may be found	in the file /etc/wodim.conf  (see  FILES  sec-
	      tion).

       gracetime=#
	      Set  the grace time before starting to write to #	seconds.  Val-
	      ues below	2 seconds are not recommended to give  the  kernel  or
	      volume management	a chance to learn the new state.

       timeout=#
	      Set  the	default	 SCSI command timeout value to # seconds.  The
	      default SCSI command timeout is the  minimum  timeout  used  for
	      sending  SCSI  commands.	If a SCSI command fails	due to a time-
	      out, you may try to raise	the default SCSI command timeout above
	      the  timeout  value  of the failed command.  If the command runs
	      correctly	with a raised command timeout, please report the  bet-
	      ter timeout value	and the	corresponding command to the author of
	      the program.  If no timeout option is present, a default timeout
	      of 40 seconds is used.

       driver=name
	      Allows the user to manually select a driver for the device.  The
	      reason for the existence of the driver=name option is  to	 allow
	      users  to	 use  wodim  with drives that are similar to supported
	      drives but not known directly by wodim.  All drives  made	 after
	      1997  should be MMC standard compliant and thus supported	by one
	      of the MMC drivers.  It is most unlikely that wodim is unable to
	      find  the	 right driver automatically.  Use this option with ex-
	      treme care. If a wrong driver is used for	a device,  the	possi-
	      bility of	creating corrupted disks is high.  The minimum problem
	      related to a wrong driver	is that	the speed= or -dummy will  not
	      work.

	      The following driver names are supported:

	      help   To	 get  a	list of	possible drivers together with a short
		     description.

	      mmc_cd The generic SCSI-3/mmc  CD-ROM  driver  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever  wodim finds a MMC compliant drive that does not
		     identify itself to	support	writing	at all,	or  that  only
		     identifies	 to  support  media  or	write modes not	imple-
		     mented in wodim.

	      mmc_cd_dvd
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc  CD/DVD  driver  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever  wodim  finds  a	MMC-2 or MMC-3 compliant drive
		     that seems	to support more	than one medium	type  and  the
		     tray  is  open  or	no medium could	be found to select the
		     right driver.  This  driver  tries	 to  close  the	 tray,
		     checks  the medium	found in the tray and then branches to
		     the driver	that matches the current medium.

	      mmc_cdr
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
		     whenever  wodim find a MMC	compliant drive	that only sup-
		     ports to write CDs	or a multi system drive	that  contains
		     a CD as the current medium.

	      mmc_cdr_sony
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
		     whenever wodim would otherwise select the mmc_cdr	driver
		     but   the	 device	  seems	 to  be	 made  by  Sony.   The
		     mmc_cdr_sony is definitely	needed for the Sony CDU	928 as
		     this drive	does not completely implement the MMC standard
		     and some of the MMC SCSI commands have to be replaced  by
		     Sony  proprietary commands. It seems that all Sony	drives
		     (even newer ones) still implement	the  Sony  proprietary
		     SCSI  commands  so	it has not yet become a	problem	to use
		     this driver for all Sony drives. If you find a newer Sony
		     drive that	does not work with this	driver,	please report.

	      mmc_dvd
		     The  generic SCSI-3/mmc-2 DVD-R/DVD-RW driver is auto-se-
		     lected whenever wodim finds a MMC-2  or  MMC-3  compliant
		     drive  that  supports  to	write  DVDs and	an appropriate
		     medium is loaded.	There is no Track At Once mode for DVD
		     writers.

	      mmc_dvdplus
		     The  generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+R/DVD+RW driver is auto-se-
		     lected whenever one of the	DVD+ media types that are  in-
		     compatible	 to  each other	is found.  It checks media and
		     then branches to the  driver  that	 matches  the  current
		     medium.

	      mmc_dvdplusr
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3	 DVD+R driver is auto-selected
		     whenever a	 DVD+R	medium	is  found  in  an  appropriate
		     writer.   Note  that for unknown reason, the DVD-Plus al-
		     liance does not like that there is	a simulation mode  for
		     DVD+R media.  The author of wodim tries to	convince manu-
		     facturers to implement a simulation mode  for  DVD+R  and
		     implement	support.   DVD+R  only supports	one write mode
		     that is somewhere between Track At	Once and Packet	 writ-
		     ing;  this	 mode is selected in wodim via a the -dao/-sao
		     option.

	      mmc_dvdplusrw
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+RW driver  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever  a  DVD+RW  medium  is  found  in	an appropriate
		     writer.  As DVD+RW	media needs to be formatted before its
		     first  use,  wodim	auto-detects this media	state and per-
		     forms a format before it starts to	write.	Note that  for
		     unknown  reason, the DVD-Plus alliance does not like that
		     there is a	simulation mode	nor a way to erase DVD+RW  me-
		     dia.   DVD+RW  only supports one write mode that is close
		     to	Packet writing;	this mode is selected in wodim	via  a
		     the -dao/-sao option.

	      cw_7501
		     The  driver  for Matsushita/Panasonic CW-7501 is auto-se-
		     lected when wodim finds this old pre  MMC	drive.	 wodim
		     supports all write	modes for this drive type.

	      kodak_pcd_600
		     The  driver for Kodak PCD-600 is auto-selected when wodim
		     finds this	old pre	MMC drive which	 has  been  the	 first
		     high speed	(6x) CD	writer for a long time.	This drive be-
		     haves similar to the Philips CDD-521 drive.

	      philips_cdd521
		     The driver	for  Philips  CDD-521  is  auto-selected  when
		     wodim  finds  a Philips CDD-521 drive (which is the first
		     CD	writer ever made) or one of the	other drives that  are
		     known  to	behave	similar	 to  this  drive.  All Philips
		     CDD-521 or	similar	drives	(see  other  drivers  in  this
		     list) do not support Session At Once recording.

	      philips_cdd521_old
		     The  driver for Philips old CDD-521 is auto-selected when
		     wodim finds a Philips  CDD-521  with  very	 old  firmware
		     which has some known limitations.

	      philips_cdd522
		     The  driver  for  Philips	CDD-522	 is auto-selected when
		     wodim finds a Philips CDD-522 which is the	 successor  of
		     the  521  or one of its variants with Kodak label.	 wodim
		     does not support Session At  Once	recording  with	 these
		     drives.

	      philips_dumb
		     The  driver  for Philips CDD-521 with pessimistic assump-
		     tions is never auto-selected.  It may  be	used  by  hand
		     with drives that behave similar to	the Philips CDD-521.

	      pioneer_dws114x
		     The  driver  for  Pioneer	DW-S114X is auto-selected when
		     wodim finds one of	the old	non MMC	CD writers  from  Pio-
		     neer.

	      plasmon_rf4100
		     The  driver  for  Plasmon	RF  4100 is auto-selected when
		     wodim finds this specific variant of the Philips CDD-521.

	      ricoh_ro1060c
		     The driver	for Ricoh RO-1060C is auto-selected when wodim
		     finds this	drive. There is	no real	support	for this drive
		     yet.

	      ricoh_ro1420c
		     The driver	for Ricoh RO-1420C is auto-selected when wodim
		     finds  a  drive with this specific	variant	of the Philips
		     CDD-521 command set.

	      scsi2_cd
		     The generic SCSI-2	CD-ROM driver is  auto-selected	 when-
		     ever  wodim  finds	 a pre MMC drive that does not support
		     writing or	a pre MMC writer  that	is  not	 supported  by
		     wodim.

	      sony_cdu924
		     The  driver  for  Sony CDU-924 / CDU-948 is auto-selected
		     whenever wodim finds one of the old pre  MMC  CD  writers
		     from Sony.

	      teac_cdr50
		     The  driver for Teac CD-R50S, Teac	CD-R55S, JVC XR-W2010,
		     Pinnacle RCD-5020 is auto-selected	whenever  one  of  the
		     drives  is	found that is known to the non MMC command set
		     used by TEAC and JVC.  Note that  many  drives  from  JVC
		     will not work because they	do not correctly implement the
		     documented	command	set and	JVC has	been unwilling to  fix
		     or	 document  the bugs.  There is no support for the Ses-
		     sion At Once write	mode yet.

	      tyuden_ew50
		     The driver	for Taiyo Yuden	EW-50  is  auto-selected  when
		     wodim  finds  a  drive  with this specific	variant	of the
		     Philips CDD-521 command set.

	      yamaha_cdr100
		     The driver	for Yamaha CDR-100 / CDR-102 is	 auto-selected
		     when  wodim  finds	one of the old pre MMC CD writers from
		     Yamaha.  There is no support  for	the  Session  At  Once
		     write mode	yet.

	      cdr_simul
		     The simulation CD-R driver	allows to run timing and speed
		     tests with	parameters that	match the behavior of CD writ-
		     ers.

	      dvd_simul
		     The  simulation  DVD-R  driver  allows  to	run timing and
		     speed tests with parameters that match  the  behavior  of
		     DVD writers.

	      There  are two special driver entries in the list: cdr_simul and
	      dvd_simul.  These	driver entries are  designed  to  make	timing
	      tests  at	 any speed or timing tests for drives that do not sup-
	      port the -dummy option.	The  simulation	 drivers  implement  a
	      drive  with  a  buffer  size of 1	MB that	can be changed via the
	      CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE	environment variable.  The  simulation	driver
	      correctly	 simulates  even  a buffer underrun condition.	If the
	      -dummy option is present,	the simulation is not aborted in  case
	      of a buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
	      Set  driver  specific options. The options are specified a comma
	      separated	 list.	 To  get  a  list   of	 valid	 options   use
	      driveropts=help  together	 with  the -checkdrive option.	If you
	      like to set driver options without running a typical wodim task,
	      you need to use the -setdropts option in addition, otherwise the
	      command line parser in wodim will	 complain.   Currently	imple-
	      mented driver options are:

	      burnfree
		     Turn  the	support	 for  Buffer Underrun Free writing on.
		     This only works for drives	that support  Buffer  Underrun
		     Free  technology, which is	available on most drives manu-
		     factured in this millennium.  This	may be	called:	 Sanyo
		     BURN-Proof, Ricoh Just-Link, Yamaha Lossless-Link or sim-
		     ilar.

		     This option is deprecated and is mentioned	here for docu-
		     mentation purposes	only. The BURN-Free feature is enabled
		     by	default	if the drive supports  it.   However,  use  of
		     BURN-Free	may cause decreased burning quality. Therefore
		     it	can be useful to disable it for	certain	purposes,  eg.
		     when creating a master copy for mass CD production.

	      noburnfree
		     Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing off.

	      varirec=value
		     Turn  on  the Plextor VariRec writing mode. The mandatory
		     parameter value is	the laser power	offset	and  currently
		     may  be  selected from -2,	-1, 0, 1, 2.  In addition, you
		     need to set the write  speed  to  4  in  order  to	 allow
		     VariRec to	work.

	      gigarec=value
		     Manage  the  Plextor  GigaRec writing mode. The mandatory
		     parameter value is	the disk capacity  ratio  compared  to
		     normal  recording and currently may be selected from 0.6,
		     0.7, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4.  If values <	1.0 are	 used,
		     then  the effect is similar to the	Yamaha Audio Master Q.
		     R.	 feature. If values > 1.0 are used, then the disk  ca-
		     pacity is increased.

		     Not  all drives support all GigaRec values.  When a drive
		     uses the GigaRec feature, the write speed is  limited  to
		     8x.

	      audiomaster
		     Turn on the Yamaha	Audio Master Q.	R.  feature which usu-
		     ally should result	in high	quality	 CDs  that  have  less
		     reading  problems	in  Hi-Fi  players.  As	this is	imple-
		     mented as a variant of the	Session	at Once	write mode, it
		     will  only	work if	you select SAO write mode and there is
		     no	need to	turn it	off.  The Audio	Master mode will  work
		     with  a limited speed but may also	be used	with data CDs.
		     In	Audio Master mode, the pits on the CD will be  written
		     larger  then  usual  so the capacity of the medium	is re-
		     duced when	turning	this feature on.  A 74 minute CD  will
		     only have a capacity of 63	minutes	if Audio Master	is ac-
		     tive and the capacity of a	80 minute CD will  be  reduced
		     to	68 minutes.

	      forcespeed
		     Normally,	modern	drives know the	highest	possible speed
		     for different media and may reduce	the speed in order  to
		     grant best	write quality.	This technology	may be called:
		     Plextor PowerRec, Ricoh Just-Speed, Yamaha	Optimum	 Write
		     Speed Control or similar.	Some drives (e.g. Plextor, Ri-
		     coh and Yamaha) allow to force the	drive to use  the  se-
		     lected  speed even	if the medium is so bad	that the write
		     quality would be poor. This option	tells such a drive  to
		     force  to use the selected	speed regardless of the	medium
		     quality.

		     Use this option with extreme care and note	that the drive
		     should  know better which medium will work	at full	speed.
		     The default is to turn forcespeed off, regardless of  the
		     defaults of the drive.

	      noforcespeed
		     Turn off the force	speed feature.

	      speedread
		     Some  ultra  high	speed  drives  such  as	48x and	faster
		     drives from Plextor limit the read	speed for unknown  me-
		     dia  to  e.g.  40x	 in  order  to avoid damaged disks and
		     drives.  Using this option	tells the drive	 to  read  any
		     media  as	fast as	possible.  Be very careful as this may
		     cause the media to	break in the drive while reading,  re-
		     sulting in	a damaged media	and drive!

	      nospeedread
		     Turn off unlimited	read speed.

	      singlesession
		     Turn  the	drive  into a single session only drive.  This
		     allows to read defective or non-compliant (illegal) media
		     with  extremely  non-standard additional (broken/illegal)
		     TOC entries in the	TOC from the second or higher session.
		     Some of these disks become	usable if only the information
		     from the first session is used.  You need to enable  Sin-
		     gle Session mode before you insert	the defective disk!

	      nosinglesession
		     Turn off single session mode. The drive will again	behave
		     as	usual.

	      hidecdr
		     Hide the fact that	a medium might be a recordable medium.
		     This  allows to make CD-Rs	look like CD-ROMs and applica-
		     tions believe that	the media in the drive is not a	CD-R.

	      nohidecdr
		     Turn off hiding CD-R media.

	      tattooinfo
		     Use this option together with -checkdrive to retrieve the
		     image  size  information  for the Yamaha DiskT@2 feature.
		     The images	always have a line length of 3744 pixel.  Line
		     number  0 (radius 0) is mapped to the center of the disk.
		     If	you know the inner and outer radius you	will  be  able
		     to	 create	 a  pre	 distorted image that later may	appear
		     undistorted on the	disk.

	      tattoofile=name
		     Use this option together with -checkdrive to write	an im-
		     age  prepared  for	 the  Yamaha  DiskT@2  feature	to the
		     medium.  The file must be a file with raw image B&W  data
		     (one byte per pixel) in a size as retrieved by a previous
		     call to tattoofile=name .	 If  the  size	of  the	 image
		     equals  the  maximum  possible  size  (3744 x 320 pixel),
		     wodim will	use the	first part of  the  file.  This	 first
		     part  then	 will  be written to the leftover space	on the
		     CD.

		     Note that the image must be mirrored to be	readable  from
		     the pick up side of the CD.

       -setdropts
	      Set  the	driveropts  specified  by  driveropts=option list, the
	      speed of the drive and the dummy flag  and  exit.	  This	allows
	      wodim  to	 set  drive  specific parameters that are not directly
	      used by wodim like e.g.  single session mode, hide cdr and simi-
	      lar.  It is needed in case that driveropts=option	list should be
	      called without planning to run a typical wodim task.

       -checkdrive
	      Checks if	a driver for the current drive is  present  and	 exit.
	      If the drive is a	known drive, wodim uses	exit code 0.

       -prcap Print  the drive capabilities for	SCSI-3/mmc compliant drives as
	      obtained from mode page 0x2A. Values marked  with	 kB  use  1000
	      bytes  as	 kilo-byte,  values  marked  with KB use 1024 bytes as
	      Kilo-byte.

       -inq   Do an inquiry for	the drive, print the inquiry info and exit.

       -scanbus
	      Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI	busses and print  the  inquiry
	      strings.	This  option  may  be used to find SCSI	address	of the
	      CD/DVD-Recorder on a system. If some device types	are invisible,
	      try  using  dev=ATA:  or similar option to give a	hint about the
	      device type you are looking for.	The numbers printed out	as la-
	      bels  are	computed by: bus * 100 + target.  On platforms and de-
	      vice systems without persistent SCSI number management  the  re-
	      sults are	not reliable. Use the .B --devices option instead.

       --devices
	      Look  for	 useable  devices using	the system specific functions,
	      eg. probing with usual device nodes in /dev/*, and  display  the
	      detections using symbolic	device names in	OS specific syntax.

       -reset Try to reset the SCSI bus	where the CD recorder is located. This
	      works not	on all operating systems.

       -abort Try to send an abort sequence to the drive.  If  you  use	 wodim
	      only,  this should never be needed; but other software may leave
	      a	drive in an unusable condition.	 Calling wodim -reset  may  be
	      needed if	a previous write has been interrupted and the software
	      did not tell the drive that it will not continue to write.

       -overburn
	      Allow wodim to write more	than the official size	of  a  medium.
	      This  feature  is	 usually called	overburning and	depends	on the
	      fact that	most blank media may hold more space than the official
	      size.  As	 the official size of the lead-out area	on the disk is
	      90 seconds (6750 sectors)	and a disk usually works if there  are
	      at least 150 sectors of lead out,	all media may be overburned by
	      at least 88 seconds (6600	sectors).  Most	CD recorders  only  do
	      overburning  in  SAO  or RAW mode. Known exceptions are TEAC CD-
	      R50S, TEAC CD-R55S and the Panasonic CW-7502.   Some  drives  do
	      not  allow  to  overburn as much as you might like and limit the
	      size of a	CD to e.g. 76 minutes. This  problem  may  be  circum-
	      vented  by writing the CD	in RAW mode because this way the drive
	      has no chance to find the	size before starting to	 burn.	 There
	      is  no  guarantee	 that  your drive supports overburning at all.
	      Make a test to check if your drive implements the	feature.

       -ignsize
	      Ignore the known size of the medium. This	option should be  used
	      with  extreme  care, it exists only for debugging	purposes don't
	      use it for other reasons.	 It is not needed to write disks  with
	      more than	the nominal capacity.  This option implies -overburn.

       -useinfo
	      Use  *.inf  files	to overwrite audio options.  If	this option is
	      used, the	pregap size information	is read	from  the  *.inf  file
	      that  is	associated  with the file that contains	the audio data
	      for a track.

	      If used together with the	-audio option, wodim may  be  used  to
	      write  audio  CDs	from a pipe from icedax	if you call wodim with
	      the *.inf	files as track parameter list instead of  using	 audio
	      files.  The audio	data is	read from stdin	in this	case.  See EX-
	      AMPLES section below.  wodim first verifies that	stdin  is  not
	      connected	 to  a	terminal  and  runs some heuristic consistency
	      checks on	the *.inf files	and then sets the track	 lengths  from
	      the information in the *.inf files.

	      If  you like to write from stdin,	make sure that wodim is	called
	      with a large enough FIFO size, reduce the	write speed to a value
	      below  the  read	speed of the source drive and switch the burn-
	      free option for the recording drive on.

       defpregap=#
	      Set the default pre-gap size for all tracks except track	number
	      1.   This	 option	currently only makes sense with	the TEAC drive
	      when creating track-at-once disks	without	the 2  second  silence
	      before each track.
	      This option may go away in future.

       -packet
	      Set Packet writing mode.	This is	an experimental	interface.

       pktsize=#
	      Set  the packet size to #, forces	fixed packet mode.  This is an
	      experimental interface.

       -noclose
	      Do not close the current track, useful only when in packet writ-
	      ing mode.	 This is an experimental interface.

       mcn=med_cat_nr
	      Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to	med_cat_nr.

       -text  Write CD-Text information	based on information taken from	a file
	      that contains ascii information for  the	text  strings.	 wodim
	      supports	CD-Text	 information based on the content of the *.inf
	      files created by icedax and CD-Text  information	based  on  the
	      content  from  a	CUE  sheet file.  If a CUE sheet file contains
	      both (binary CDTEXTFILE and text based SONGWRITER) entries, then
	      the information based on the CDTEXTFILE entry will win.

	      You need to use the -useinfo option in addition in order to tell
	      wodim to read the	*.inf files or cuefile=filename	 in  order  to
	      tell wodim to read a CUE sheet file in addition.	If you like to
	      write your own CD-Text information, edit the *.inf files or  the
	      CUE sheet	file with a text editor	and change the fields that are
	      relevant for CD-Text.

       textfile=filename
	      Write CD-Text based on information  found	 in  the  binary  file
	      filename.	  This	file must contain information in a data	format
	      defined in the SCSI-3 MMC-2 standard and in the  Red  Book.  The
	      four  byte  size	header that is defined in the SCSI standard is
	      optional and allows to make the recognition of correct data less
	      ambiguous.   This	 is the	best option to be used to copy CD-Text
	      data from	existing CDs that already carry	 CD-Text  information.
	      To  get  data in a format	suitable for this option use wodim -vv
	      -toc  to	extract	 the  information   from   disk.    If	 both,
	      textfile=filename	 and  CD-Text  information from	*.inf or *.cue
	      files are	present, textfile=filename will	 overwrite  the	 other
	      information.

       cuefile=filename
	      Take  all	 recording related information from a CDRWIN compliant
	      CUE sheet	file.  No track	files are allowed when this option  is
	      present and the option -dao is currently needed in addition.

TRACK OPTIONS
       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

       isrc=ISRC_number
	      Set  the	International  Standard	 Recording Number for the next
	      track to ISRC_number.

       index=list
	      Sets an index list for the next track.  In index list is a comma
	      separated	 list  of  numbers that	are counting from index	1. The
	      first entry in this list must contain a 0, the following numbers
	      must  be an ascending list of numbers (counting in 1/75 seconds)
	      that represent the start of the indices. An index	 list  in  the
	      form: 0,7500,15000 sets index 1 to the start of the track, index
	      2	100 seconds from the start of the track	and index 3  200  sec-
	      onds from	the start of the track.

       -audio If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks	are written in
	      CD-DA (similar to	Red Book) audio	format.	 The  file  with  data
	      for this tracks should contain stereo, 16-bit digital audio with
	      44100 samples/s.	The byte order should be  the  following:  MSB
	      left,  LSB  left,	 MSB right, LSB	right, MSB left	and so on. The
	      track should be a	multiple of 2352 bytes.	It is not possible  to
	      put  the	master	image  of an audio track on a raw disk because
	      data will	be read	in multiple of 2352 bytes during the recording
	      process.

	      If a filename ends in .au	or .wav	the file is considered to be a
	      structured audio data file.  wodim assumes that the file in this
	      case  is	a Sun audio file or a Microsoft	.WAV file and extracts
	      the audio	data from the files by	skipping  over	the  non-audio
	      header  information.   In	 all other cases, wodim	will only work
	      correctly	if the audio data stream does  not  have  any  header.
	      Because many structured audio files do not have an integral num-
	      ber of blocks (1/75th second) in length, it is  often  necessary
	      to specify the -pad option as well.  wodim recognizes that audio
	      data in a	.WAV file is stored in Intel (little-endian) byte  or-
	      der,  and	 will  automatically  byte-swap	 the  data  if	the CD
	      recorder requires	big-endian data.  wodim	will reject any	 audio
	      file  that  does	not  match the Red Book	requirements of	16-bit
	      stereo samples in	PCM coding at 44100 samples/second.

	      Using other structured audio data	formats	as input to wodim will
	      usually  work  if	the structure of the data is the structure de-
	      scribed above (raw pcm data in big-endian	byte order).  However,
	      if  the  data format includes a header, you will hear a click at
	      the start	of a track.

	      If neither -data nor -audio have been specified, wodim  defaults
	      to -audio	for all	filenames that end in .au or .wav and to -data
	      for all other files.

       -swab  If this flag is present, audio data is assumed to	 be  in	 byte-
	      swapped  (little-endian)	order.	 Some types of CD-Writers e.g.
	      Yamaha, Sony and the new SCSI-3/mmc drives require audio data to
	      be presented in little-endian order, while other writers require
	      audio data to be presented in the	big-endian (network) byte  or-
	      der  normally  used  by the SCSI protocol.  wodim	knows if a CD-
	      Recorder needs audio data	in big-	or  little-endian  order,  and
	      corrects the byte	order of the data stream to match the needs of
	      the recorder.  You only need the -swab flag if your data	stream
	      is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

	      Note  that the verbose output of wodim will show you if swapping
	      is necessary to make the byte order of the input	data  fit  the
	      required byte order of the recorder.  wodim will not show	you if
	      the -swab	flag was actually present for a	track.

       -data  If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-ROM  mode 1 (Yellow Book) format. The data size is a multiple
	      of 2048 bytes.  The file	with  track  data  should  contain  an
	      ISO-9660	or  Rock  Ridge	 filesystem image (see genisoimage for
	      more details). If	the track data is  an  ufs  filesystem	image,
	      fragment	size  should be	set to 2 KB or more to allow CD-drives
	      with 2 KB	sector size to be used for reading.

	      -data is the default, if no other	flag is	present	and  the  file
	      does not appear to be of one of the well known audio file	types.

	      If  neither -data	nor -audio have	been specified,	wodim defaults
	      to -audio	for all	filenames that end in .au or .wav and to -data
	      for all other files.

       -mode2 If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks	are written in
	      CD-ROM mode 2 format. The	data size is a multiple	of 2336	bytes.

       -xa    If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 1	format.	The data size is a multiple of
	      2048 bytes.  The XA sector sub headers will be  created  by  the
	      drive.  With this	option,	the write mode is the same as with the
	      -multi option.

       -xa1   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 1	format.	The data size is a multiple of
	      2056 bytes.  The XA sector sub headers are part of the user data
	      and  have	 to  be	 supplied by the application that prepares the
	      data to be written.

       -xa2   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 2	format.	The data is a multiple of 2324
	      bytes.  The XA sector sub	headers	will be	created	by the drive.

       -xamix If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in  a
	      way  that	 allows	a mix of CD-ROM	XA mode	2 form 1/2 format. The
	      data size	is a multiple of 2332 bytes.  The XA sector sub	 head-
	      ers are part of the user data and	have to	be supplied by the ap-
	      plication	that prepares the data to be written.  The CRC and the
	      P/Q  parity  ECC/EDC  information	(depending on the sector type)
	      have to be supplied by the application that prepares the data to
	      be written.

       -cdi   If  this	flag  is  present, the TOC type	for the	disk is	set to
	      CDI.  This only makes sense with XA disks.

       -isosize
	      Use the ISO-9660 file system size	as the size of the next	track.
	      This option is needed if you want	wodim to directly read the im-
	      age of a track from a raw	disk partition or from	a  TAO	master
	      CD. In the first case the	option -isosize	is needed to limit the
	      size of the CD to	the size of the	ISO filesystem.	 In the	second
	      case the option -isosize is needed to prevent wodim from reading
	      the two run out blocks that are appended by each CD-recorder  in
	      track  at	once mode. These two run out blocks cannot be read and
	      would cause a buffer underrun that would cause a defective copy.
	      Do  not  use  this option	on files created by genisoimage	and in
	      case wodim reads the track data from stdin.  In the first	 case,
	      you  would prevent wodim from writing the	amount of padding that
	      has been appended	by genisoimage and in the latter case, it will
	      not work because stdin is	not seekable.

	      If  -isosize  is	used for a track, wodim	will automatically add
	      padding for this track as	if the -pad option has been  used  but
	      the  amount  of  padding may be less than	the padding written by
	      genisoimage.  Note that if you use -isosize on a track that con-
	      tains Sparc boot information, the	boot information will be lost.

	      Note  also that this option cannot be used to determine the size
	      of a file	system if the multi session option is present.

       -pad   If the track is a	data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data will  be
	      added  to	 the  end  of this and each subsequent data track.  In
	      this case, the -pad option is superseded by the padsize= option.
	      It  will	remain however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.	If the
	      -pad option refers to an audio track, wodim will pad  the	 audio
	      data  to be a multiple of	2352 bytes.  The audio data padding is
	      done with	binary zeroes which is equal to	absolute silence.

	      -pad remains valid until disabled	by -nopad.

       padsize=#
	      Set the amount of	data to	be appended as	padding	 to  the  next
	      track  to	 #.   Opposed  to the behavior of the -pad option, the
	      value for	padsize= is reset to zero for each new	track.	 wodim
	      assumes a	sector size of 2048 bytes for the padsize= option, in-
	      dependent	from the real sector size  and	independent  from  the
	      write  mode.  The	megabytes mentioned in the verbose mode	output
	      however are counting the output sector size which	is  e.g.  2448
	      bytes when writing in RAW/RAW96 mode.  See fs= option for	possi-
	      ble arguments.  To pad the equivalent of 20 minutes on a CD, you
	      may  write  padsize=20x60x75s.  Use this option if your CD-drive
	      is not able to read the last sectors of a	track or if  you  want
	      to  be  able  to read the	CD on a	Linux system with the ISO-9660
	      filesystem read ahead bug.  If an	empty file is used  for	 track
	      data,  this option may be	used to	create a disk that is entirely
	      made of padding.	This may e.g. be used to  find	out  how  much
	      overburning is possible with a specific media.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks -	the default.

       -shorttrack
	      Allow all	subsequent tracks to violate the Red Book track	length
	      standard which requires a	minimum	track  length  of  4  seconds.
	      This  option  is	only useful when used in SAO or	RAW mode.  Not
	      all drives support this feature. The drive must accept  the  re-
	      sulting CUE sheet	or support RAW writing.

       -noshorttrack
	      Re-enforce the Red Book track length standard. Tracks must be at
	      least 4 seconds.

       pregap=#
	      Set the  pre-gap size for	the next track.	 This option currently
	      only makes sense with the	TEAC drive when	creating track-at-once
	      disks without the	2 second silence before	each track.
	      This option may go away in future.

       -preemp
	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks  will  indicate that the audio data has been sampled with
	      50/15 microsec pre-emphasis.  The	data, however is not  modified
	      during  the process of transferring from file to disk.  This op-
	      tion has no effect on data tracks.

       -nopreemp
	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks  will indicate that the audio data	has been mastered with
	      linear data - this is the	default.

       -copy  If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks of	the resulting CD will indicate that the	audio data has
	      permission to be copied without limit.  This option has  no  ef-
	      fect on data tracks.

       -nocopy
	      If  this	flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
	      tracks of	the resulting CD will indicate that the	audio data has
	      permission to be copied only once	for personal use - this	is the
	      default.

       -scms  If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks of	the resulting CD will indicate that the	audio data has
	      no permission to be copied anymore.

       tsize=#
	      If the master image for the next track has been stored on	a  raw
	      disk,  use  this	option	to specify the valid amount of data on
	      this disk. If the	image of the next track	is stored in a regular
	      file,  the size of that file is taken to determine the length of
	      this track.  If the track	contains an ISO	9660 filesystem	 image
	      use the -isosize option to determine the length of that filesys-
	      tem image.
	      In Disk at Once mode and with some drives	that use the TEAC pro-
	      gramming	interface,  even in Track at Once mode,	wodim needs to
	      know the size of each track before starting to write  the	 disk.
	      wodim  now  checks this and aborts before	starting to write.  If
	      this happens you will need to run	genisoimage -print-size	before
	      and  use	the  output  (with `s' appended) as an argument	to the
	      tsize= option of wodim (e.g. tsize=250000s).
	      See fs= option for possible arguments.

EXAMPLES
       For all examples	below, it will be assumed that the CD/DVD-Recorder  is
       connected to the	primary	SCSI bus of the	machine. The SCSI target id is
       set to 2.

       To record a pure	CD-ROM at double speed,	using data from	the file cdim-
       age.raw:

	   wodim -v speed=2 dev=2,0 cdimage.raw

       To  create  an  image  for a ISO	9660 filesystem	with Rock Ridge	exten-
       sions:

	   genisoimage -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To check	the resulting file before writing to CD	on Solaris:

	   mount -r -F fbk -o type=hsfs	/dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw /mnt

       On Linux:

	   mount cdimage.raw -r	-t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
	   ls -lR /mnt
	   umount /mnt

       If the overall speed of the system is sufficient	and the	 structure  of
       the  filesystem	is not too complex, wodim will run without creating an
       image of	the ISO	9660 filesystem. Simply	run the	pipeline:

	   genisoimage -R /master/tree | wodim -v fs=6m	speed=2	dev=2,0	-

       The recommended minimum FIFO  size  for	running	 this  pipeline	 is  4
       MBytes.	As the default FIFO size is 4 MB, the fs= option needs only be
       present if you want to use a different FIFO size.  If  your  system  is
       loaded,	you  should  run  genisoimage  in the real time	class too.  To
       raise the priority of genisoimage replace the command

	   genisoimage -R /master/tree
       by
	   priocntl -e -c RT -p	59 genisoimage -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

	   nice	--18 genisoimage -R /master/tree

       on systems that	don't  have  UNIX  International  compliant  real-time
       scheduling.

       wodim  runs at priority 59 on Solaris, you should run genisoimage at no
       more than priority 58. On other systems,	you should run genisoimage  at
       no less than nice --18.

       Creating	 a CD-ROM without file system image on disk has	been tested on
       a Sparcstation-2	with a Yamaha CDR-400. It did work up  to  quad	 speed
       when  the machine was not loaded.  A faster machine may be able to han-
       dle quad	speed also in the loaded case.

       To record a pure	CD-DA (audio) at single	speed, with  each  track  con-
       tained in a file	named track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio,	etc:

	   wodim -v speed=1 dev=/dev/cdrw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  check  if  it will be ok to use double speed	for the	example	above.
       Use the dummy write option:

	   wodim -v -dummy speed=2 dev=/dev/cdrw -audio	track*.cdaudio

       To record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO 9660 filesystem from  cdimage.raw
       on  the first track, the	other tracks being audio tracks	from the files
       track01.cdaudio,	track02.cdaudio, etc:

	   wodim -v dev=2,0 cdimage.raw	-audio track*.cdaudio

       To handle drives	that need to know the size of a	track before  starting
       to write, first run

	   genisoimage -R -q -print-size /master/tree

       and then	run

	   genisoimage -R /master/tree | wodim speed=2 dev=2,0 tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by	the output of the previous run of genisoimage.

       To copy an audio	CD in the most accurate	way, first run

	   icedax dev=/dev/cdrom -vall cddb=0 -B -Owav

       and then	run

	   wodim dev=/dev/cdrw -v -dao -useinfo	-text  *.wav

       This  will  try	to  copy track indices and to read CD-Text information
       from disk.  If there is no CD-Text information, icedax will try to  get
       the information from freedb.org instead.

       To copy an audio	CD from	a pipe (without	intermediate files), first run

	   icedax dev=1,0 -vall	cddb=0 -info-only

       and then	run

	   icedax dev=1,0 -no-infofile -B -Oraw	- | \
	   wodim dev=2,0 -v -dao -audio	-useinfo -text *.inf

       This  will  get	all  information  (including track size	info) from the
       *.inf files and then read the audio data	from stdin.

       If you like to write from stdin,	make sure that wodim is	called with  a
       large  enough  FIFO  size  (e.g.	 fs=128m), reduce the write speed to a
       value below the read speed of the source	drive  (e.g.   speed=12),  and
       get a CD/DVD drive with BURN-Free feature if it is not available	yet.

       To  set	drive  options without writing a CD (e.g. to switch a drive to
       single session mode), run

	   wodim dev=1,0 -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       If you like to do this when no CD is in the drive, call

	   wodim dev=1,0 -force	-setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       To copy a CD in clone mode, first read the master CD using:

	   readom dev=b,t,l -clone f=somefile

       or (in case the CD contains many	sectors	that are unreadable by	inten-
       tion) by	calling:

	   readom dev=1,0 -clone -nocorr f=somefile

       will create the files somefile and somefile.toc.	 Then write the	CD us-
       ing:

	   wodim dev=1,0 -raw96r -clone	-v somefile

ENVIRONMENT
       CDR_DEVICE
	      This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable	to the
	      open  call  of the SCSI transport	library	or a label in the file
	      /etc/wodim.conf.

       CDR_SPEED
	      Sets the default speed value for writing (see  also  speed=  op-
	      tion).

       CDR_FIFOSIZE
	      Sets the default size of the FIFO	(see also fs=# option).

       CDR_FORCERAWSPEED
	      If  this	environment  variable  is set, wodim will allow	you to
	      write at the full	RAW encoding  speed  a	single	CPU  supports.
	      This  will  create  high potential of buffer underruns. Use with
	      care.

       CDR_FORCESPEED
	      If this environment variable is set, wodim  will	allow  you  to
	      write  at	 the  full DMA speed the system	supports.  There is no
	      DMA reserve for reading the data that  is	 to  be	 written  from
	      disk.   This will	create high potential of buffer	underruns. Use
	      with care.

       RSH    If the RSH environment is	present, the  remote  connection  will
	      not be created via rcmd(3) but by	calling	the program pointed to
	      by RSH.  Use e.g.	 RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to  create  a	 secure	 shell
	      connection.

	      Note  that this forces wodim to create a pipe to the rsh(1) pro-
	      gram and disallows wodim to directly access the  network	socket
	      to  the  remote server.  This makes it impossible	to set up per-
	      formance parameters and slows down the connection	compared to  a
	      root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment is present, the remote SCSI server will
	      not  be  the  program  /opt/schily/sbin/rscsi  but  the  program
	      pointed  to  by RSCSI.  Note that	the remote SCSI	server program
	      name will	be ignored if you log in using	an  account  that  has
	      been created with	a remote SCSI server program as	login shell.

FILES
       /etc/wodim.conf
	      Default	values	can  be	 set  for  the	following  options  in
	      /etc/wodim.conf.	For example: CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m or	CDR_SPEED=2

	      CDR_DEVICE
		     This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable
		     to	the open call of the SCSI transport library or a label
		     in	the file /etc/wodim.conf that  allows  to  identify  a
		     specific drive on the system.

	      CDR_SPEED
		     Sets the default speed value for writing (see also	speed=
		     option).

	      CDR_FIFOSIZE
		     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      CDR_MAXFIFOSIZE
		     Sets the maximum size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      Any other	keyword	(label)	is an identifier (symbolic name) for a
	      specific drive
		     on	 the  system.	Such an	identifier may not contain the
		     characters	',', '/', '@' or ':'.

		     Each line that follows a label contains a whitespace sep-
		     arated  list  of items.  Currently, four items are	recog-
		     nized: the	 drive's  target  specification,  the  default
		     speed  that  should  be  used for this drive, the default
		     FIFO size that should be used for this  drive  and	 drive
		     specific  options.	 The values for	speed and fifosize may
		     be	set to -1 to tell wodim	to use	the  global  defaults.
		     target  can  be  -1 to use	the auto-guessing of the drive
		     (see above).

		     The value for driveropts may be omitted or	set to	""  if
		     no	 driveropts  are  used.	  A typical line may look this
		     way:

		     plex760= 0,5,0 12	 50m  varirec=1

		     pioneer= /dev/hdd	 -1   -1

		     This tells	wodim that a drive named plex760 is at scsibus
		     0,	target 5, lun 0	and should be used with	speed 12 and a
		     FIFO size of 50 MB. It also uses some device specific pa-
		     rameter.  A second	drive may is accessible	via the	device
		     file /dev/hdd and uses the	default	speed and the  default
		     FIFO size.

SEE ALSO
       icedax(1), readom(1), genisoimage(1), ssh(1).

NOTES
       On  Solaris  you	 need to stop the volume management if you like	to use
       the USCSI fallback SCSI transport code. Even things like	wodim -scanbus
       will not	work if	the volume management is running.

       Disks  made  in Track At	Once mode are not suitable as a	master for di-
       rect mass production by CD manufacturers.  You will need	 the  disk  at
       once option to record such disks.  Nevertheless the disks made in Track
       At Once will normally be	read in	all CD	players.  Some	old  audio  CD
       players	however	 may  produce  a  two  second  click between two audio
       tracks.

       The minimal size	of a track is 4	seconds	or 300 sectors.	If  you	 write
       smaller	tracks,	 the CD-Recorder will add dummy	blocks.	This is	not an
       error, even though the SCSI-error message looks this way.

       The Yamaha CDR-400 and all new SCSI-3/mmc conforming  drives  are  sup-
       ported in single	and multi-session.

       You should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with
       the -dummy option turned	on if you are using wodim on an	 unknown  sys-
       tem.  Writing a CD is a real-time process.  NFS,	CIFS and other network
       file systems won't always deliver constantly the	needed data rates.  If
       you  want to use	wodim with CD-images that are located on a NFS mounted
       filesystem, be sure that	the FIFO size is big enough.  If you  want  to
       make sure that buffer underruns are not caused by your source disk, you
       may use the command

	   wodim -dummy	dev=2,0	padsize=600m /dev/null

       to create a disk	that is	entirely made of dummy data.

       There are also cases where you either need to be	root or	install	 wodim
       executable with suid-root permissions. First, if	you are	using a	device
       manufactured before 1999	which requires a non-MMC  driver,  you	should
       run  wodim in dummy mode	before writing data. If	you find a problem do-
       ing this, please	report it to the cdrkit	maintainers (see below).

       Second, certain functionality may be unusable because of	 Linux's  SCSI
       command	filtering.  When  using	wodim for anything except of pure data
       writing,	you should also	test the process  in  dummy  mode  and	report
       trouble to the contact address below.

       If  you	still want to run wodim	with root permissions, you can set the
       permissions of the executable to	suid-root. See the additional notes of
       your  system/program  distribution  or README.suidroot which is part of
       the cdrkit source.

       You should not connect old drives that do not support disconnect/recon-
       nect to either the SCSI bus that	is connected to	the CD-Recorder	or the
       source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When creating a disc with both audio and	data tracks, the  data	should
       be  on  track  1	 otherwise  you	should create a	CDplus disk which is a
       multi session disk with the first session containing the	 audio	tracks
       and the following session containing the	data track.

       Many  operating	systems	 are  not able to read more than a single data
       track, or need special software to do so.

       If you have more	information or SCSI command manuals for	currently  un-
       supported  CD/DVD/BR/HD-DVD-Recorders,  please contact the cdrkit main-
       tainers (see below).

       Many CD recorders have bugs and often require a firmware	update to work
       correctly.  If  you  experience	problems which cannot be solved	or ex-
       plained by the notes above, please look for instructions	on  the	 home-
       page of the particular manufacturer.

       Some bugs will force you	to power cycle the device or to	reboot the ma-
       chine.

       The FIFO	percent	output is computed just	after a	block of data has been
       written	to  the	 CD/DVD-Recorder. For this reason, there will never be
       100% FIFO fill ratio while the FIFO is in streaming mode.

DIAGNOSTICS
       You have	4 seconds to abort wodim start after you see the message:

       Starting	to write CD at speed %d	in %s mode for %s  session.   In  most
       shells you can do that by pressing Ctrl-C.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks	like:

	      wodim: I/O error.	test unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  00 20 00 00	00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00	0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00	00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s	timeout	40s

       The  first  line	 gives information about the transport of the command.
       The text	after the first	colon gives the	error text for the system call
       from  the  view	of  the	 kernel. It usually is:	I/O error unless other
       problems	happen.	The next words contain a  short	 description  for  the
       SCSI  command  that fails. The rest of the line tells you if there were
       any problems for	the transport of the command over the SCSI bus.	 fatal
       error  means that it was	not possible to	transport the command (i.e. no
       device present at the requested SCSI address).

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block	for the	failed
       command.

       The  third  line	 gives information on the SCSI status code returned by
       the command, if the transport of	the command succeeds.  This  is	 error
       information from	the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hex	dump of	the auto request sense information for
       the command.

       The fifth line is the error text	for the	sense key if  available,  fol-
       lowed  by  the  segment	number that is only valid if the command was a
       copy command. If	the error message is not directly related to the  cur-
       rent command, the text deferred error is	appended.

       The sixth line is the error text	for the	sense code and the sense qual-
       ifier if	available.  If the type	of the device is known,	the sense data
       is decoded from tables in scsierrs.c .  The text	is followed by the er-
       ror value for a field replaceable unit.

       The seventh line	prints the block number	that is	related	to the	failed
       command	and  text for several error flags. The block number may	not be
       valid.

       The eight line reports the timeout set up for this command and the time
       that the	command	really needed to complete.

       The following message is	not an error:

	      Track 01:	Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
	      wodim: I/O error.	flush cache: scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  35 00 00 00	00 00 00 00 00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27	0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00	00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy	data blocks added) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s	timeout	40s

       It  simply notifies, that a track that is smaller than the minimum size
       has been	expanded to 300	sectors.

BUGS
       netscsid	does not work properly and is generally	 unmaintained.	It  is
       probably	 not compatible	with rscsi from	cdrtools either. Good bugfixes
       are welcome, talk to Cdrkit maintainers.

       cuefile support is very limited,	only one file is allowed.  For	volun-
       teers, see TODO file in the source.

       Specifying an audio file	multiple times causes corruption of the	second
       track (effectively no data plus minimum padding).

       Some of the bugs	may be fixed in	Joerg Schilling's cdrtools. See	 there
       for details, URL	attached below.

CREDITS
       Joerg Schilling (schilling@fokus.fhg.de)
		      For writing cdrecord and libscg which represent the most
		      parts of wodim's code.

       Bill Swartz    (Bill_Swartz@twolf.com)
		      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsome@wdc.com)
		      For letting me develop Sony support on his drive

       Eric Youngdale (eric@andante.jic.com)
		      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadio@netvision.net.il)
		      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (finnag@guardian.no)
		      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplatt@feghoot.ml.org)
		      For creating the experimental  packet  writing  support,
		      the  first implementation	of CD-RW blanking support, the
		      first .wav file decoder and  many	 nice  discussions  on
		      cdrecord.

       Chris P.	Ross (cross@eng.us.uu.net)
		      For the first implementation of a	BSDI SCSI transport.

       Grant R.	Guenther   (grant@torque.net)
		      For creating the first parallel port transport implemen-
		      tation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry	(ken@kdm.org)
		      for providing the	CAM port  for  FreeBSD	together  with
		      Michael Smith (msmith@freebsd.org)

       Heiko Eiszfeldt (heiko@hexco.de)
		      for  making  libedc_ecc  available  (needed to write RAW
		      data sectors).

MAILING	LISTS
       If you want to actively take part on the	development of wodim, you  may
       join the	developer mailing list via this	URL:

       https://alioth.debian.org/mail/?group_id=31006

       The mail	address	of the list is:	debburn-devel@lists.alioth.debian.org

AUTHORS
       wodim  is currently maintained as part of the cdrkit project by its de-
       velopers. Most of the code and this manual page was originally  written
       by:

       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

       This application	is derived from	"cdrecord" as included in the cdrtools
       package [1] created by Joerg Schilling, who deserves most of the	credit
       for  its	 success.  However, he is not involved into the	development of
       this spinoff and	therefore he shall not be  held	 responsible  for  any
       problems	 caused	by it. Do not refer to this application	as "cdrecord",
       do not try to get support for wodim by contacting the original authors.

       Additional information can be found on:
       https://alioth.debian.org/projects/debburn/

       If you have support questions, send them	to

       debburn-devel@lists.alioth.debian.org

       If you have definitely found a bug, send	a mail to this list or to

       submit@bugs.debian.org

       writing at least	a short	description into  the  Subject	and  "Package:
       cdrkit" in the first line of the	mail body.

SOURCES
       [1] Cdrtools 2.01.01a08 from May	2006, http://cdrecord.berlios.de

				  Version 2.0			      wodim(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | NOTE | DESCRIPTION | PROCESS SCHEDULING PRIORITY | GENERAL OPTIONS | TRACK OPTIONS | EXAMPLES | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | SEE ALSO | NOTES | DIAGNOSTICS | BUGS | CREDITS | MAILING LISTS | AUTHORS | SOURCES

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=wodim&sektion=1&manpath=FreeBSD+12.0-RELEASE+and+Ports>

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