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WNSEARCH(3WN)		  WordNettm Library Functions		 WNSEARCH(3WN)

NAME
       findtheinfo, findtheinfo_ds, is_defined,	in_wn, index_lookup, parse_in-
       dex,  getindex,	read_synset,  parse_synset,  free_syns,	  free_synset,
       free_index, traceptrs_ds, do_trace

SYNOPSIS
       #include	"wn.h"

       char   *findtheinfo(char	  *searchstr,	int  pos,  int	ptr_type,  int
       sense_num);

       SynsetPtr findtheinfo_ds(char *searchstr, int pos,  int	ptr_type,  int
       sense_num );

       unsigned	int is_defined(char *searchstr,	int pos);

       unsigned	int in_wn(char *searchstr, int pos);

       IndexPtr	index_lookup(char *searchstr, int pos);

       IndexPtr	parse_index(long offset, int dabase, char *line);

       IndexPtr	getindex(char *searchstr, int pos);

       SynsetPtr read_synset(int pos, long synset_offset, char *searchstr);

       SynsetPtr parse_synset(FILE *fp,	int pos, char *searchstr);

       void free_syns(SynsetPtr	synptr);

       void free_synset(SynsetPtr synptr);

       void free_index(IndexPtr	idx);

       SynsetPtr  traceptrs_ds(SynsetPtr  synptr,  int	ptr_type, int pos, int
       depth);

       char *do_trace(SynsetPtr	synptr,	int ptr_type, int pos, int depth);

DESCRIPTION
       These functions are used	for searching the WordNet database.  They gen-
       erally  fall into several categories: functions for reading and parsing
       index file entries; functions for reading and parsing synsets  in  data
       files;  functions  for  tracing pointers	and hierarchies; functions for
       freeing space occupied by data structures allocated with	malloc(3).

       In the following	function descriptions, pos is one of the following:

	      1	   NOUN
	      2	   VERB
	      3	   ADJECTIVE
	      4	   ADVERB

       findtheinfo() is	the primary search algorithm for use with database in-
       terface	applications.  Search results are automatically	formatted, and
       a pointer to the	text buffer is returned.  All searches listed  in  WN-
       HOME/include/wn.h  can  be done by findtheinfo().  findtheinfo_ds() can
       be used to perform most of the searches,	with  results  returned	 in  a
       linked  list  data  structure.	This is	for use	with applications that
       need to analyze the search results rather than just display them.

       Both functions are passed the same arguments: searchstr is the word  or
       collocation  to	search	for;  pos  indicates the syntactic category to
       search in; ptr_type is one of the valid search types for	 searchstr  in
       pos.   (Available  searches can be obtained by calling is_defined() de-
       scribed below.)	sense_num should be ALLSENSES if the search is	to  be
       done  on	all senses of searchstr	in pos,	or a positive integer indicat-
       ing which sense to search.

       findtheinfo_ds()	returns	a linked  list	data  structures  representing
       synsets.	  Senses  are linked through the nextss	field of a Synset data
       structure.  For each sense, synsets that	 match	the  search  specified
       with ptr_type are linked	through	the ptrlist field.  See	Synset Naviga-
       tion , below, for detailed information on the linked lists returned.

       is_defined() sets a bit for each	search type that is valid for  search-
       str  in pos, and	returns	the resulting unsigned integer.	 Each bit num-
       ber corresponds to  a  pointer  type  constant  defined	in  WNHOME/in-
       clude/wn.h.  For	example, if bit	2 is set, the HYPERPTR search is valid
       for searchstr.  There are 29 possible searches.

       in_wn() is used to find the syntactic categories	in the	WordNet	 data-
       base  that contain one or more senses of	searchstr.  If pos is ALL_POS,
       all syntactic categories	are checked.   Otherwise,  only	 the  part  of
       speech  passed  is checked.  An unsigned	integer	is returned with a bit
       set corresponding to each syntactic category containing searchstr.  The
       bit number matches the number for the part of speech.  0	is returned if
       searchstr is not	present	in pos.

       index_lookup() finds searchstr in the index file	for pos	and returns  a
       pointer to the parsed entry in an Index data structure.	searchstr must
       exactly match the form of the word (lower case only, hyphens and	under-
       scores  in  the	same places) in	the index file.	 NULL is returned if a
       match is	not found.

       parse_index() parses an entry from an index file	and returns a  pointer
       to the parsed entry in an Index data structure.	Passed the byte	offset
       and syntactic category, it reads	the index entry	at the	desired	 loca-
       tion in the corresponding file.	If passed line,	line contains an index
       file entry and the database index file is not consulted.	 However, off-
       set  and	 dbase should still be passed so the information can be	stored
       in the Index structure.

       getindex() is a "smart" search for searchstr in the index  file	corre-
       sponding	 to  pos.   It applies to searchstr an algorithm that replaces
       underscores with	hyphens, hyphens with underscores, removes hyphens and
       underscores,  and  removes  periods in an attempt to find a form	of the
       string that is an exact match for an entry in  the  index  file	corre-
       sponding	 to  pos.  index_lookup() is called on each transformed	string
       until a match is	found or all the different strings  have  been	tried.
       It  returns a pointer to	the parsed Index data structure	for searchstr,
       or NULL if a match is not found.

       read_synset() is	used to	read a synset from a byte  offset  in  a  data
       file.  It performs an fseek(3) to synset_offset in the data file	corre-
       sponding	to pos,	and calls parse_synset() to read and parse the synset.
       A  pointer to the Synset	data structure containing the parsed synset is
       returned.

       parse_synset() reads the	synset at the current offset in	the file indi-
       cated  by  fp.	pos  is	 the syntactic category, and searchstr,	if not
       NULL, indicates the word	in the synset that the	caller	is  interested
       in.   An	 attempt is made to match searchstr to one of the words	in the
       synset.	If an exact match is found, the	whichword field	in the	Synset
       structure  is  set  to  that  word's number in the synset (beginning to
       count from 1).

       free_syns() is used to free a linked list of  Synset  structures	 allo-
       cated by	findtheinfo_ds().  synptr is a pointer to the list to free.

       free_synset() frees the Synset structure	pointed	to by synptr.

       free_index() frees the Index structure pointed to by idx.

       traceptrs_ds()  is  a  recursive	 search	algorithm that traces pointers
       matching	ptr_type starting with the synset pointed to by	synptr.	  Set-
       ting  depth  to	1  when	traceptrs_ds() is called indicates a recursive
       search; 0 indicates a non-recursive call.  synptr points	 to  the  data
       structure  representing	the  synset  to	 search	 for a pointer of type
       ptr_type.  When a pointer type match is found, the synset pointed to is
       read  is	linked onto the	nextss chain.  Levels of the tree generated by
       a recursive search are linked via the  ptrlist  field  structure	 until
       NULL  is	found, indicating the top (or bottom) of the tree.  This func-
       tion is usually called from findtheinfo_ds()  for  each	sense  of  the
       word.   See  Synset Navigation ,	below, for detailed information	on the
       linked lists returned.

       do_trace() performs the search indicated	by ptr_type on	synset	synptr
       in  syntactic category pos.  depth is defined as	above.	do_trace() re-
       turns the search	results	formatted in a text buffer.

   Synset Navigation
       Since the Synset	structure is used to represent the  synsets  for  both
       word  senses and	pointers, the ptrlist and nextss fields	have different
       meanings	depending on whether the structure is a	word sense or pointer.
       This can	make navigation	through	the lists returned by findtheinfo_ds()
       confusing.

       Navigation through the returned list involves the following:

       Following the nextss chain from the synset returned moves  through  the
       various	senses	of searchstr.  NULL indicates that end of the chain of
       senses.

       Following the ptrlist chain from	 a  Synset  structure  representing  a
       sense  traces the hierarchy of the search results for that sense.  Sub-
       sequent links in	the ptrlist chain indicate the next level (up or down,
       depending  on  the search) in the hierarchy.  NULL indicates the	end of
       the chain of search result synsets.

       If a synset pointed to by ptrlist has a value in	the nextss  field,  it
       represents  another pointer of the same type at that level in the hier-
       archy.  For example, some noun synsets have two	hypernyms.   Following
       this  nextss pointer, and then the ptrlist chain	from the Synset	struc-
       ture pointed to,	traces another,	parallel, hierarchy, until the end  is
       indicated  by  NULL on that ptrlist chain.  So, a synset	representing a
       pointer (versus a sense of searchstr) having a non-NULL value in	nextss
       has another chain of search results linked through the ptrlist chain of
       the synset pointed to by	nextss.

       If searchstr contains more than one base	form in	 WordNet  (as  in  the
       noun axes, which	has base forms axe and axis), synsets representing the
       search results for each base  form  are	linked	through	 the  nextform
       pointer of the Synset structure.

   WordNet Searches
       There  is  no  extensive	description of what each search	type is	or the
       results returned.  Using	the WordNet interface,	examining  the	source
       code,  and  reading  wndb(5WN)  are  the	best ways to see what types of
       searches	are available and the data returned for	each.

       Listed below are	the valid searches that	can be passed as  ptr_type  to
       findtheinfo().  Passing a negative value	(when applicable) causes a re-
       cursive,	hierarchical search by setting depth to	1 when traceptrs()  is
       called.

  +-----------------+-------+---------+--------------------------------------------+
  |ptr_type	    | Value | Pointer |	Search					   |
  |		    |	    | Symbol  |						   |
  +-----------------+-------+---------+--------------------------------------------+
  |ANTPTR	    |	1   |	 !    |	Antonyms				   |
  |HYPERPTR	    |	2   |	 @    |	Hypernyms				   |
  |HYPOPTR	    |	3   |	 ~    |	Hyponyms				   |
  |ENTAILPTR	    |	4   |	 *    |	Entailment				   |
  |SIMPTR	    |	5   |	 &    |	Similar					   |
  |ISMEMBERPTR	    |	6   |	#m    |	Member meronym				   |
  |ISSTUFFPTR	    |	7   |	#s    |	Substance meronym			   |
  |ISPARTPTR	    |	8   |	#p    |	Part meronym				   |
  |HASMEMBERPTR	    |	9   |	%m    |	Member holonym				   |
  |HASSTUFFPTR	    |  10   |	%s    |	Substance holonym			   |
  |HASPARTPTR	    |  11   |	%p    |	Part holonym				   |
  |MERONYM	    |  12   |	 %    |	All meronyms				   |
  |HOLONYM	    |  13   |	 #    |	All holonyms				   |
  |CAUSETO	    |  14   |	 >    |	Cause					   |
  |PPLPTR	    |  15   |	 <    |	Participle of verb			   |
  |SEEALSOPTR	    |  16   |	 ^    |	Also see				   |
  |PERTPTR	    |  17   |	 \    |	Pertains to noun or derived from adjective |
  |ATTRIBUTE	    |  18   |	\=    |	Attribute				   |
  |VERBGROUP	    |  19   |	 $    |	Verb group				   |
  |DERIVATION	    |  20   |	 +    |	Derivationally related form		   |
  |CLASSIFICATION   |  21   |	 ;    |	Domain of synset			   |
  |CLASS	    |  22   |	 -    |	Member of this domain			   |
  |SYNS		    |  23   |	n/a   |	Find synonyms				   |
  |FREQ		    |  24   |	n/a   |	Polysemy				   |
  |FRAMES	    |  25   |	n/a   |	Verb example sentences and generic frames  |
  |COORDS	    |  26   |	n/a   |	Noun coordinates			   |
  |RELATIVES	    |  27   |	n/a   |	Group related senses			   |
  |HMERONYM	    |  28   |	n/a   |	Hierarchical meronym search		   |
  |HHOLONYM	    |  29   |	n/a   |	Hierarchical holonym search		   |
  |WNGREP	    |  30   |	n/a   |	Find keywords by substring		   |
  |OVERVIEW	    |  31   |	n/a   |	Show all synsets for word		   |
  |CLASSIF_CATEGORY |  32   |	;c    |	Show domain topic			   |
  |CLASSIF_USAGE    |  33   |	;u    |	Show domain usage			   |
  |CLASSIF_REGIONAL |  34   |	;r    |	Show domain region			   |
  |CLASS_CATEGORY   |  35   |	-c    |	Show domain terms for topic		   |
  |CLASS_USAGE	    |  36   |	-u    |	Show domain terms for usage		   |
  |CLASS_REGIONAL   |  37   |	-r    |	Show domain terms for region		   |
  |INSTANCE	    |  38   |	@i    |	Instance of				   |
  |INSTANCES	    |  39   |	~i    |	Show instances				   |
  +-----------------+-------+---------+--------------------------------------------+
       findtheinfo_ds()	cannot perform the following searches:

	      SEEALSOPTR
	      PERTPTR
	      VERBGROUP
	      FREQ
	      FRAMES
	      RELATIVES
	      WNGREP
	      OVERVIEW

NOTES
       Applications  that  use WordNet and/or the morphological	functions must
       call wninit() at	the start of the program.  See	wnutil(3WN)  for  more
       information.

       In  all function	calls, searchstr may be	either a word or a collocation
       formed by joining individual words with underscore characters (_).

       The SearchResults structure defines  fields  in	the  wnresults	global
       variable	 that  are set by the various search functions.	 This is a way
       to get additional information, such as the number of  senses  the  word
       has,  from the search functions.	 The searchds field is set by findthe-
       info_ds().

       The pos passed to traceptrs_ds()	is not used.

SEE ALSO
       wn(1WN),	wnb(1WN), wnintro(3WN),	binsrch(3WN),  malloc(3),  morph(3WN),
       wnutil(3WN), wnintro(5WN).

WARNINGS
       parse_synset()  must  find  an exact match between the searchstr	passed
       and a word in the synset	to set	whichword.   No	 attempt  is  made  to
       translate hyphens and underscores, as is	done in	getindex().

       The  WordNet  database  and  exception  list  files must	be opened with
       wninit prior to using any of the	searching functions.

       A large search may cause	findtheinfo() to run out of buffer space.  The
       maximum	buffer size is determined by computer platform.	 If the	buffer
       size is exceeded	the following message is printed in the	output buffer:
       "Search too large.  Narrow search and try again...".

       Passing an invalid pos will probably result in a	core dump.

WordNet	3.0			   Dec 2006			 WNSEARCH(3WN)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | NOTES | SEE ALSO | WARNINGS

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