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WNGLOSS(7WN)			   WordNettm			  WNGLOSS(7WN)

       wngloss - glossary of terms used	in WordNet system

       The  WordNet  Reference	Manual consists	of Unix-style manual pages di-
       vided into sections as follows:

		 |Section |		  Description		    |
		 |   1	  | WordNet User Commands		    |
		 |   3	  | WordNet Library Functions		    |
		 |   5	  | WordNet File Formats		    |
		 |   7	  | Miscellaneous Information about WordNet |

   System Description
       The WordNet system consists of lexicographer  files,  code  to  convert
       these  files  into  a database, and search routines and interfaces that
       display information from	the database.  The lexicographer  files	 orga-
       nize  nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs into groups of synonyms, and
       describe	relations between synonym  groups.   grind(1WN)	 converts  the
       lexicographer  files into a database that encodes the relations between
       the synonym groups.  The	different interfaces to	the  WordNet  database
       utilize a common	library	of search routines to display these relations.
       Note that the lexicographer files and grind(1WN)	program	are not	gener-
       ally distributed.

   Database Organization
       Information  in	WordNet	 is  organized around logical groupings	called
       synsets.	 Each synset consists of a list	of synonymous words or	collo-
       cations (eg. "fountain pen", "take in"),	and pointers that describe the
       relations between this synset and other synsets.	 A word	or collocation
       may  appear  in	more  than  one	 synset,  and in more than one part of
       speech.	The words in a synset are grouped such that  they  are	inter-
       changeable in some context.

       Two  kinds of relations are represented by pointers: lexical and	seman-
       tic.  Lexical relations hold between semantically related  word	forms;
       semantic	relations hold between word meanings.  These relations include
       (but are	not  limited  to)  hypernymy/hyponymy  (superordinate/subordi-
       nate), antonymy,	entailment, and	meronymy/holonymy.

       Nouns  and  verbs  are  organized  into hierarchies based on the	hyper-
       nymy/hyponymy relation between synsets.	 Additional  pointers  are  be
       used to indicate	other relations.

       Adjectives  are arranged	in clusters containing head synsets and	satel-
       lite synsets.  Each cluster is organized	around antonymous  pairs  (and
       occasionally  antonymous	triplets).  The	antonymous pairs (or triplets)
       are indicated in	the head synsets of a cluster.	Most head synsets have
       one  or more satellite synsets, each of which represents	a concept that
       is similar in meaning to	the concept represented	by  the	 head  synset.
       One  way	to think of the	adjective cluster organization is to visualize
       a wheel,	with a head synset as the hub and  satellite  synsets  as  the
       spokes.	Two or more wheels are logically connected via antonymy, which
       can be thought of as an axle between the	wheels.

       Pertainyms are relational adjectives and	do not	follow	the  structure
       just described.	Pertainyms do not have antonyms; the synset for	a per-
       tainym most often contains only one word	or collocation and  a  lexical
       pointer to the noun that	the adjective is "pertaining to".  Participial
       adjectives have lexical pointers	to the verbs  that  they  are  derived

       Adverbs are often derived from adjectives, and sometimes	have antonyms;
       therefore the synset for	an adverb usually contains a  lexical  pointer
       to the adjective	from which it is derived.

       See  wndb(5WN) for a detailed description of the	database files and how
       the data	are represented.

       Many terms used in the WordNet Reference	Manual are unique to the Word-
       Net  system.   Other  general terms have	specific meanings when used in
       the WordNet documentation.  Definitions for many	 of  these  terms  are
       given  to  help with the	interpretation and understanding of the	refer-
       ence manual, and	in the use of the WordNet system.

       In following definitions	word is	used in	place of word or collocation.

       adjective cluster	A group	of adjective synsets  that  are	 orga-
				nized around antonymous	pairs or triplets.  An
				adjective cluster contains two	or  more  head
				synsets	 which	represent antonymous concepts.
				Each head synset has  one  or  more  satellite

       attribute		A  noun	 for  which adjectives express values.
				The noun weight	is an attribute, for which the
				adjectives light and heavy express values.

       base form		The  base form of a word or collocation	is the
				form to	which inflections are added.

       basic synset		Syntactically, same as synset.	Term  is  used
				in wninput(5WN)	to help	explain	differences in
				entering synsets in lexicographer files.

       collocation		A collocation in WordNet is a string of	two or
				more  words,  connected	 by spaces or hyphens.
				Examples are:  man-eating shark,  blue-collar,
				depend on,  line of products.  In the database
				files spaces are represented as	underscore (_)

       coordinate		Coordinate  terms are nouns or verbs that have
				the same hypernym.

       cross-cluster pointer	A semantic pointer from	one adjective  cluster
				to another.

       derivationally related forms
				Terms  in  different syntactic categories that
				have the same root form	and  are  semantically

       direct antonyms		A  pair	of words between which there is	an as-
				sociative bond resulting from  their  frequent
				co-occurrence.	 In adjective clusters,	direct
				antonyms appears only in head synsets.

       domain			A topical classification to which a synset has
				been  linked  with a CATEGORY, REGION or USAGE

       domain term		A synset belonging to a	topical	class.	A  do-
				main  term  is	further	 identified as being a

       entailment		A verb X entails Y if X	cannot be done	unless
				Y is, or has been, done.

       exception list		Morphological  transformations	for words that
				are not	regular	and therefore cannot  be  pro-
				cessed in an algorithmic manner.

       group			Verb  senses  that similar in meaning and have
				been manually grouped together.

       gloss			Each synset contains  gloss  consisting	 of  a
				definition and optionally example sentences.

       head synset		Synset	in  an adjective cluster containing at
				least one word that has	a direct antonym.

       holonym			The name of the	whole  of  which  the  meronym
				names  a  part.	 Y is a	holonym	of X if	X is a
				part of	Y.

       hypernym			The generic term used  to  designate  a	 whole
				class  of specific instances.  Y is a hypernym
				of X if	X is a (kind of) Y.

       hyponym			The specific term used to designate  a	member
				of  a  class.	X  is a	hyponym	of Y if	X is a
				(kind of) Y.

       indirect	antonym		An adjective in	a satellite synset  that  does
				not  have  a  direct  antonym  has an indirect
				antonyms via the direct	antonym	 of  the  head

       instance			A  proper  noun	 that  refers to a particular,
				unique referent	(as distinguished  from	 nouns
				that  refer  to	 classes).  This is a specific
				form of	hyponym.

       lemma			Lower case ASCII text of word as found in  the
				WordNet	 database  index  files.   Usually the
				base form for a	word or	collocation.

       lexical pointer		A lexical pointer indicates a relation between
				words in synsets (word forms).

       lexicographer file	Files  containing  the	raw  data  for WordNet
				synsets, edited	by  lexicographers,  that  are
				input to the grind program to generate a Word-
				Net database.

       lexicographer id	(lex id)
				A decimal integer  that,  when	appended  onto
				lemma,	uniquely  identifies  a	sense within a
				lexicographer file.

       monosemous		Having only one	sense in a syntactic category.

       meronym			The name of a constituent part	of,  the  sub-
				stance	of,  or	a member of something.	X is a
				meronym	of Y if	X is a part of Y.

       part of speech		WordNet	defines	"part  of  speech"  as	either
				noun,  verb,  adjective,  or  adverb.  Same as
				syntactic category.

       participial adjective	An adjective that is derived from a verb.

       pertainym		A relational adjective.	 Adjectives  that  are
				pertainyms are usually defined by such phrases
				as "of or  pertaining  to"  and	 do  not  have
				antonyms.   A pertainym	can point to a noun or
				another	pertainym.

       polysemous		Having more than one sense in a	syntactic cat-

       polysemy	count		Number of senses of a word in a	syntactic cat-
				egory, in WordNet.

       postnominal		A postnominal adjective	 occurs	 only  immedi-
				ately following	the noun that it modifies.

       predicative		An  adjective  that can	be used	only in	predi-
				cate positions.	 If X is  a  predicate	adjec-
				tive,  it  can only be used in such phrases as
				"it is X" and never prenominally.

       prenominal		An adjective that can occur  only  before  the
				noun that it modifies: it cannot be used pred-

       satellite synset		Synset in an adjective cluster representing  a
				concept	that is	similar	in meaning to the con-
				cept represented by its	head synset.

       semantic	concordance	A textual corpus (e.g. the Brown Corpus) and a
				lexicon	 (e.g. WordNet)	so combined that every
				substantive word in the	text is	linked to  its
				appropriate  sense in the lexicon via a	seman-
				tic tag.

       semantic	tag		A pointer from a word in a text	file to	a spe-
				cific  sense of	that word in the WordNet data-
				base.  A semantic tag in  a  semantic  concor-
				dance is represented by	a sense	key.

       semantic	pointer		A  semantic  pointer  indicates	a relation be-
				tween synsets (concepts).

       sense			A meaning of a word in WordNet.	 Each sense of
				a word is in a different synset.

       sense key		Information  necessary	to find	a sense	in the
				WordNet	database.   A  sense  key  combines  a
				lemma  field  and  codes  for the synset type,
				lexicographer id, lexicographer	 file  number,
				and   information  about  a  satellite's  head
				synset,	if required.  See senseidx(5WN)	for  a
				description of the format of a sense key.

       subordinate		Same as	hyponym.

       superordinate		Same as	hypernym.

       synset			A  synonym set;	a set of words that are	inter-
				changeable in some  context  without  changing
				the  truth  value  of the preposition in which
				they are embedded.

       troponym			A verb expressing a specific  manner  elabora-
				tion of	another	verb.  X is a troponym of Y if
				to X is	to Y in	some manner.

       unique beginner		A noun synset with no superordinate.

WordNet	3.0			   Dec 2006			  WNGLOSS(7WN)


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