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WN(1WN)			    WordNettm User Commands		       WN(1WN)

       wn - command line interface to WordNet lexical database

       wn  [  searchstr	 ]  [ -h] [ -g ] [ -a ]	[ -l ] [ -o ] [	-s ] [ -n# ] [
       search_option...	]

       wn() provides a command line interface to the WordNet database,	allow-
       ing  synsets and	relations to be	displayed as formatted text.  For each
       word, different searches	are provided, based on syntactic category  and
       pointer types.  Although	only base forms	of words are usually stored in
       WordNet,	users may search for inflected forms.  A morphological process
       is  applied  to the search string to generate a form that is present in

       The command line	interface is often useful when writing scripts to  ex-
       tract  information  from	 the WordNet database.	Post-processing	of the
       output with various scripting tools can reformat	 the  results  as  de-

       -h	      Print help text before search results.

       -g	      Display textual glosses associated with synsets.

       -a	      Display lexicographer file information.

       -o	      Display synset offset of each synset.

       -s	      Display each word's sense	numbers	in synsets.

       -l	      Display  the  WordNet  copyright notice, version number,
		      and license.

       -n#	      Perform search on	sense number # only.

       -over	      Display overview of all senses of	searchstr in all  syn-
		      tactic categories.

   Search Options
       Note  that  the last letter of search_option generally denotes the part
       of speech that the search applies to: n for nouns, v for	verbs,	a  for
       adjectives,  and	 r  for	 adverbs.   Multiple  searches may be done for
       searchstr with a	single	command	 by  specifying	 all  the  appropriate
       search options.

       -syns(n | v | a | r)
		      Display synonyms and immediate hypernyms of synsets con-
		      taining searchstr.  Synsets  are	ordered	 by  estimated
		      frequency	 of use.  For adjectives, if searchstr is in a
		      head synset, the cluster's satellite  synsets  are  dis-
		      played in	place of hypernyms.  If	searchstr is in	a sat-
		      ellite synset, its head synset is	also displayed.

       -simsv	      Display verb synonyms and	immediate hypernyms of synsets
		      containing searchstr.  Synsets are grouped by similarity
		      of meaning.

       -ants(n | v | a | r)
		      Display synsets containing antonyms of  searchstr.   For
		      adjectives,  if searchstr	is in a	head synset, searchstr
		      has a direct antonym.  The head synset  for  the	direct
		      antonym  is  displayed  along  with the direct antonym's
		      satellite	synsets.   If  searchstr  is  in  a  satellite
		      synset,  searchstr  has an indirect antonym via the head
		      synset, which is displayed.

       -faml(n | v | a | r)
		      Display familiarity and polysemy information for search-

       -hype(n | v)   Recursively  display  hypernym  (superordinate) tree for
		      searchstr	(searchstr IS A	KIND OF	_____ relation).

       -hypo(n | v)   Display immediate	hyponyms (subordinates)	for  searchstr
		      (_____ IS	A KIND OF searchstr relation).

       -tree(n | v)   Display  hyponym (subordinate) tree for searchstr.  This
		      is a recursive search that finds the  hyponyms  of  each

       -coor(n | v)   Display  the  coordinates	 (sisters) of searchstr.  This
		      search prints the	immediate  hypernym  for  each	synset
		      that contains searchstr and the hypernym's immediate hy-

       -deri(n | v)   Display derivational morphology links between  noun  and
		      verb forms.

       -domn(n | v | a | r)
		      Display domain that searchstr has	been classified	in.

       -domt(n | v | a | r)
		      Display  all  terms classified as	members	of the search-
		      str's domain.

       -subsn	      Display substance	meronyms of searchstr  (HAS  SUBSTANCE

       -partn	      Display part meronyms of searchstr (HAS PART relation).

       -membn	      Display  member  meronyms	of searchstr (HAS MEMBER rela-

       -meron	      Display all meronyms of searchstr	(HAS PART, HAS MEMBER,
		      HAS SUBSTANCE relations).

       -hmern	      Display  meronyms	 for searchstr tree.  This is a	recur-
		      sive search that prints all the  meronyms	 of  searchstr
		      and all of its hypernyms.

       -sprtn	      Display  part  of	 holonyms  of searchstr	(PART OF rela-

       -smemn	      Display member of	holonyms of searchstr (MEMBER OF rela-

       -ssubn	      Display substance	of holonyms of searchstr (SUBSTANCE OF

       -holon	      Display all holonyms of searchstr	(PART OF,  MEMBER  OF,
		      SUBSTANCE	OF relations).

       -hholn	      Display  holonyms	 for searchstr tree.  This is a	recur-
		      sive search that prints all the  holonyms	 of  searchstr
		      and all of each holonym's	holonyms.

       -entav	      Display entailment relations of searchstr.

       -framv	      Display applicable verb sentence frames for searchstr.

       -causv	      Display cause to relations of searchstr.

	-pert(a	| r)  Display pertainyms of searchstr.

	-attr(n	| a)  Display adjective	values for noun	attribute, or noun at-
		      tributes of adjective values.

       -grep(n | v | a | r)
		      List compound words containing searchstr as a substring.

       The results of a	search are written to the standard output.   For  each
       search,	the output consists a one line description of the search, fol-
       lowed by	the search results.

       All searches other than -over list all senses matching the  search  re-
       sults  in  the  following general format.  Items	enclosed in italicized
       square brackets ([ ... ]) may not be present.

	      One line listing the number of senses matching  the  search  re-

	      Each sense matching the search requested displayed as follows:

		   Sense n
		   [{synset_offset}] [<lex_filename>]  word1[#sense_number][,  word2...]

	      Where n is the sense number of the search	word, synset_offset is
	      the byte offset of the synset in the data.pos file corresponding
	      to the syntactic category, lex_filename is the name of the lexi-
	      cographer	file that the synset comes from, word1	is  the	 first
	      word in the synset (note that this is not	necessarily the	search
	      word) and	sense_number is	the WordNet sense number  assigned  to
	      the preceding word.  synset_offset, lex_filename,	and sense_num-
	      ber are generated	when the -o, -a, and -s	options, respectively,
	      are specified.

	      The synsets matching the search requested	are printed below each
	      sense's synset output described above.  Each line	of  output  is
	      preceded	by  a marker (usually =>), then	a synset, formatted as
	      described	above.	If a search traverses more one	level  of  the
	      tree, then successive lines are indented by spaces corresponding
	      to its level in the hierarchy.  When the -g option is specified,
	      synset  glosses  are displayed in	parentheses at the end of each
	      synset.  Each synset is printed on one line.

	      Senses are generally ordered from	most to	least frequently used,
	      with  the	most common sense numbered 1.  Frequency of use	is de-
	      termined by the number of	times a	sense is tagged	in the various
	      semantic	concordance  texts.   Senses that are not semantically
	      tagged follow the	ordered	senses.	 Note that  this  ordering  is
	      only an estimate based on	usage in a small corpus.

	      Verb senses can be grouped by similarity of meaning, rather than
	      ordered by frequency of  use.   The  -simsv  search  prints  all
	      senses that are close in meaning together, with a	line of	dashes
	      indicating the end of a group.  See wngroups(7WN)	for a  discus-
	      sion of how senses are grouped.

	      The  -over  search displays an overview of all the senses	of the
	      search word in all syntactic categories.	The  results  of  this
	      search  are  similar  to the -syns search, however no additional
	      (ex. hypernym) synsets are displayed, and	synset glosses are al-
	      ways printed.  The senses	are grouped by syntactic category, and
	      each synset is annotated as described above with	synset_offset,
	      lex_filename, and	sense_number as	dictated by the	-o, -a,	and -s
	      options.	The overview search also indicates  how	 many  of  the
	      senses  in each syntactic	category are represented in the	tagged
	      texts.  This is a	way  for  the  user  to	 determine  whether  a
	      sense's  sense  number is	based on semantic tagging data,	or was
	      arbitrarily assigned.   For each sense that has appeared in such
	      texts,  the  number of semantic tags to that sense are indicated
	      in parentheses after the sense number.

	      If a search cannot be performed on some senses of	searchstr, the
	      search results are headed	by a string of the form:
		   X of	Y senses of searchstr

	      The output of the	-deri search shows word	forms that are morpho-
	      logically	related	to searchstr. Each word	form pointed  to  from
	      searchstr	is displayed, preceded by RELATED TO-> and the syntac-
	      tic category of the link,	followed, on the  next	line,  by  its
	      synset.  Printed after the word form is #n where n indicates the
	      WordNet sense number of the term pointed to.

	      The -domn	and -domt searches show	the domain that	a  synset  has
	      been  classified	in and,	conversely, all	of the terms that have
	      been assigned to a specific domain.  A domain is either a	TOPIC,
	      REGION  or USAGE,	as reflected in	the specific pointer character
	      stored in	the database, and displayed in the  output.   A	 -domn
	      search on	a term shows the domain, if any, that each synset con-
	      taining searchstr	has been classified in.	  The  output  display
	      shows  the domain	type (TOPIC, REGION or USAGE), followed	by the
	      syntactic	category of the	domain synset and  the	terms  in  the
	      synset.  Each term is followed by	#n where n indicates the Word-
	      Net sense	number of the term.  The converse search, -domt, shows
	      all of the synsets that have been	placed into the	domain search-
	      str, with	analogous markers.

	      When -framv is  specified,  sample  illustrative	sentences  and
	      generic  sentence	frames are displayed.  If a sample sentence is
	      found, the base form of search is	substituted into the sentence,
	      and  it  is  printed  below  the	synset,	 preceded with the EX:
	      marker.  When no sample sentences	are found,  the	 generic  sen-
	      tence frames are displayed.  Sentence frames that	are acceptable
	      for all words in a synset	are preceded by	the marker *>.	 If  a
	      frame  is	acceptable for the search word only, it	is preceded by
	      the marker =>.

	      Search results for adjectives are	slightly different from	 those
	      for  other  parts	 of speech.  When an adjective is printed, its
	      direct antonym, if it has	one, is	also printed  in  parentheses.
	      When  searchstr  is  in  a head synset, all of the head synset's
	      satellites are also displayed.  The position of an adjective  in
	      relation	to the noun may	be restricted to the prenominal, post-
	      nominal or predicative position.	Where present, these  restric-
	      tions are	noted in parentheses.

	      When  an	adjective  is a	participle of a	verb, the output indi-
	      cates the	verb and displays its synset.

	      When an adverb is	derived	from an	adjective, the specific	adjec-
	      tival sense on which it is based is indicated.

	      The  morphological  transformations performed by the search code
	      may result in more than one word to search for.	WordNet	 auto-
	      matically	 performs  the	requested search on all	of the strings
	      and returns the results grouped by word.	For example, the  verb
	      saw  is both the present tense of	saw and	the past tense of see.
	      When passed searchstr saw, WordNet performs the  desired	search
	      first  on	 saw and next on see, returning	the list of saw	senses
	      and search results, followed by those for	see.

       wn() normally exits with	the number of senses displayed.	 If searchword
       is not found in WordNet,	it exits with 0.

       If  the	WordNet	 database  cannot be opened, an	error messages is dis-
       played and wn() exits with -1.

       WNHOME		   Base	directory for WordNet.	 Default  is  /usr/lo-

       WNSEARCHDIR	   Directory  in  which	 the WordNet database has been
			   installed.  Default is WNHOME/dict.

			   Base	directory for  WordNet.	  Default  is  C:\Pro-
			   gram	Files\WordNet\3.0.

       index.pos	   database index files

       data.pos		   database data files

       *.vrb		   files of sentences illustrating the use of verbs

       pos.exc		   morphology exception	lists

       wnintro(1WN),   wnb(1WN),  wnintro(3WN),	 lexnames(5WN),	 senseidx(5WN)
       wndb(5WN), wninput(5WN),	morphy(7WN), wngloss(7WN), wngroups(7WN).

       Please report bugs to

WordNet	3.0			   Dec 2006			       WN(1WN)


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