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WI(4)		       FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual			 WI(4)

NAME
     wi	-- WaveLAN/IEEE, PRISM 2-3, and	Spectrum24 IEEE	802.11b	wireless net-
     work device

SYNOPSIS
     # all architectures
     wi* at pci?
     wi* at pcmcia? function ?
     wi* at uhub? port ?

     # macppc extra attachment
     wi* at macobio?

DESCRIPTION
     The wi driver provides support for	wireless network adapters based	around
     the Lucent	Hermes,	Intersil PRISM-2, Intersil PRISM-2.5, Intersil
     PRISM-3, and Symbol Spectrum24 chipsets.  All five	chipsets provide a
     similar interface to the driver.

     The wi driver encapsulates	all IP and ARP traffic as 802.11 frames,
     though it can receive either 802.11 or 802.3 frames.  Transmit speed is
     selectable	between	1Mbps fixed, 2Mbps fixed, 2Mbps	with auto fallback,
     5.5Mbps, 8Mbps, or	11Mbps,	depending on hardware.

     These are the modes the wi	driver can operate in:

     BSS mode	    Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when asso-
		    ciating with an access point, through which	all traffic
		    passes.  This mode is the default.

     IBSS mode	    Also known as IEEE ad-hoc mode or peer-to-peer mode.  This
		    is the standardized	method of operating without an access
		    point.  Stations associate with a service set.  However,
		    actual connections between stations	are peer-to-peer as in
		    ad-hoc mode.  Cards	with very old firmware revisions do
		    not	support	this mode.

     IBSS master    Also know as Host IBSS mode.  In this mode the station
		    takes on part of the role of an access point, though traf-
		    fic	does not pass through it to reach the other stations.
		    When a group of stations are operating in IBSS mode, one
		    of them must be the	master,	specifying the network name of
		    the	service	set.

     Host AP	    In this mode the driver acts as an access point (base sta-
		    tion) for other cards.  Only cards based on	the Intersil
		    chipsets support this mode.	 Furthermore, this mode	is not
		    supported on USB devices.

     ad-hoc mode    More accurately known as ad-hoc demo mode.	This mode does
		    not	require	an access point; the adapter communicates with
		    other ad-hoc stations within range on a peer-to-peer ba-
		    sis.  This mode is not specified by	the IEEE 802.11	stan-
		    dard and there may be problems interoperating with
		    adapters manufactured by different vendors.

     The wi driver can be configured to	use both software and hardware Wired
     Equivalent	Privacy	(WEP).	It is strongly recommended that	WEP not	be
     used as the sole mechanism	to secure wireless communication, due to seri-
     ous weaknesses in it.

     The Lucent	WaveLAN/IEEE Silver and	Gold cards as well as the Intersil and
     Symbol cards have support for WEP encryption.  The	WaveLAN	Gold as	well
     as	newer Intersil and Symbol cards	support	104-bit	keys, the others only
     accept 40-bit keys.  The Lucent WaveLAN/IEEE Bronze cards do not support
     WEP at all.  See also CAVEATS below.

     The wi driver can be configured at	runtime	with ifconfig(8) or on boot
     with hostname.if(5).

HARDWARE
     Cards supported by	the wi driver come in a	variety	of packages, though
     the most common are of the	PCMCIA type.  In many cases, the PCI version
     of	a wireless card	is simply a PCMCIA card	bundled	with a PCI adapter.
     The PCI adapters come in two flavors: true	PCMCIA bridges and dumb	PCMCIA
     bridges.  A true PCMCIA bridge (such as those sold	by Lucent) will	attach
     as	a real PCMCIA controller.  The wireless	card will then attach to the
     PCMCIA bus.  Wireless cards in PCMCIA slots may be	inserted and ejected
     on	the fly.  A dumb bridge, on the	other hand, does not show up as	a true
     PCMCIA bus.  The wireless card will simply	appear to the host as a	normal
     PCI device	and will not require any PCMCIA	support.  Cards	in this	type
     of	adapter	should only be removed when the	machine	is powered down.

     The following cards are among those supported by the wi driver:

     Card				   Chip		Bus
     3Com AirConnect 3CRWE737A		   Spectrum24	PCMCIA
     3Com AirConnect 3CRWE777A		   Prism-2	PCI
     Acer Warplink USB-400		   Prism-3	USB
     Actiontec HWC01170			   Prism-2.5	PCMCIA
     Actiontec HWU01170			   Prism-3	USB
     Adaptec AWN-8030			   Prism-2.5	PCMCIA
     Addtron AWA-100			   Prism-2	PCI
     Addtron AWP-100			   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Agere ORiNOCO			   Hermes	PCMCIA
     AirVast WM168b			   Prism-3	USB
     AmbiCom WL1100C-CF			   Prism-3	CF
     Ambit WLAN				   Prism-3	USB
     Apacer Wireless Steno MB112	   Prism-3	USB
     Apple Airport			   Hermes	macobio
     ARtem Onair			   Hermes	PCMCIA
     ASUS SpaceLink WL-100		   Prism-2.5	PCMCIA
     ASUS SpaceLink WL-110		   Prism-2.5	CF
     ASUS WL-140			   Prism-3	USB
     Belkin F5D6020 (version 1 only)	   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Belkin F5D6001 (version 1 only)	   Prism-2	PCI
     Belkin F5D6060 (version 1 only)	   Prism-2.5	CF
     Buffalo AirStation			   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Buffalo AirStation			   Prism-2	CF
     Cabletron RoamAbout		   Hermes	PCMCIA
     Compaq Agency NC5004		   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Compaq W100			   Prism-3	USB
     Contec FLEXLAN/FX-DS110-PCC	   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Corega PCC-11			   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Corega PCCA-11			   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Corega PCCB-11			   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Corega CGWLPCIA11			   Prism-2	PCI
     Corega WLUSB-11			   Prism-3	USB
     Corega WLUSB-11 Key		   Prism-3	USB
     D-Link DCF-660W			   Prism-2	CF
     D-Link DWL-120 (rev F)		   Prism-3	USB
     D-Link DWL-122			   Prism-3	USB
     D-Link DWL-520 (rev A and B only)	   Prism-2.5	PCI
     D-Link DWL-650 (rev A1-J3 only)	   Prism-2.5	PCMCIA
     ELSA XI300				   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     ELSA XI325				   Prism-2.5	PCMCIA
     ELSA XI325H			   Prism-2.5	PCMCIA
     ELSA XI800				   Prism-2	CF
     EMTAC A2424i			   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Ericsson Wireless LAN CARD	C11	   Spectrum24	PCMCIA
     Gemtek WL-311			   Prism-2.5	PCMCIA
     Hawking Technology	WE110P		   Prism-2.5	PCMCIA
     I-O DATA WN-B11/PCM		   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     I-O DATA WN-B11/USB		   Prism-3	USB
     Intel PRO/Wireless	2011		   Spectrum24	PCMCIA
     Intel PRO/Wireless	2011B		   Prism-3	USB
     Intersil Prism II			   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Intersil Mini PCI			   Prism-2.5	PCI
     Intersil ISL3872			   Prism-3	PCI
     Intersil Prism 2X			   Prism-3	USB
     JVC MP-XP7250			   Prism-3	USB
     Linksys WCF12			   Prism-3	CF
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11	   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11 2.5	   Prism-2.5	PCMCIA
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11 3.0	   Prism-3	PCMCIA
     Linksys WUSB11 v3.0		   Prism-3	USB
     Linksys WUSB12			   Prism-3	USB
     Longshine 8301			   Prism-2	PCI
     Lucent WaveLAN			   Hermes	PCMCIA
     Melco WLI-USB-KB11			   Prism-3	USB
     Melco WLI-USB-KS11G		   Prism-3	USB
     Melco WLI-USB-S11			   Prism-3	USB
     Microsoft MN510			   Prism-3	USB
     Microsoft MN520			   Prism-2.5	PCMCIA
     NANOSPEED ROOT-RZ2000		   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     NDC/Sohoware NCP130		   Prism-2	PCI
     NEC CMZ-RT-WP			   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Netgear MA111 (version 1 only)	   Prism-3	USB
     Netgear MA311			   Prism-2.5	PCI
     Netgear MA401			   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Netgear MA401RA			   Prism-2.5	PCMCIA
     Netgear MA701			   Prism-2.5	CF
     Nokia C020	Wireless LAN		   Prism-I	PCMCIA
     Nokia C110/C111 Wireless LAN	   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Nortel E-mobility 211818-A		   Spectrum24	PCI
     NTT-ME 11Mbps Wireless LAN		   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Pheenet WL-503IA			   Prism-3	USB
     Planex GW-NS11H			   Prism-3	PCMCIA
     Planex GW-US11H			   Prism-3	USB
     Pretec Compact WLAN OC-WLBXX-A	   Prism-2.5	CF
     Proxim Harmony			   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Proxim RangeLAN-DS			   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Samsung MagicLAN SWL-2000N		   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Samsung MagicLAN SWL-2210P		   Prism-2	PCI
     Senao NL-2511CF			   Prism-3	CF
     Senao NL-2511MP			   Prism-2.5	PCI
     Siemens SpeedStream SS1021		   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Siemens SpeedStream SS1022		   Prism-3	USB
     Sitecom WL-022			   Prism-3	USB
     SMC 2632 EZ Connect		   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     Symbol Spectrum24			   Spectrum24	PCMCIA
     Symbol LA4123			   Spectrum24	PCI
     Syntax USB-400			   Prism-3	USB
     TDK LAK-CD011WL			   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     US	Robotics 1120			   Prism-3	USB
     US	Robotics 2410			   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     US	Robotics 2445			   Prism-2	PCMCIA
     ViewSonic Airsync			   Prism-2.5	USB
     Z-Com XI-725/726			   Prism-2.5	USB
     Z-Com XI-735			   Prism-3	USB
     ZyXEL ZyAIR B-200			   Prism-3	USB

     Note that some of the PRISM-II adapters only work at 3.3V,	hence
     cardbus(4)	support	is required for	those cards to set VCC correctly, even
     though they are really 16-bit cards.

     USB support is still experimental and the device may stop functioning
     during normal use.	 Resetting the device by configuring the interface
     down and back up again will normally reactivate it.

     Several vendors sell PCI adapters built around the	PLX Technology 9050 or
     9052 chip.	 The following such adapters are supported or expected to
     work:

	   3Com	AirConnect 3CRWE777A (3.3V)
	   Addtron AWA-100
	   Belkin F5D6000 (a rebadged WL11000P)
	   Eumitcom WL11000P
	   Global Sun Technology GL24110P (untested)
	   Global Sun Technology GL24110P02
	   Linksys WDT11 (a rebadged GL24110P02)
	   Longshine 8031
	   Netgear MA301
	   Siemens/Efficient Networks SpeedStream 1023
	   US Robotics 2415 (rebadged WL11000P)

EXAMPLES
     The following example scans for available networks:

	   # ifconfig wi0 scan

     The following hostname.if(5) example configures wi0 to join network
     "mynwid", using WEP key "mywepkey", obtaining an IP address using DHCP:

	   nwid	mynwid nwkey mywepkey
	   dhcp

     The following hostname.if(5) example creates a host-based access point on
     boot:

	   inet	192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
	   mediaopt hostap
	   nwid	mynwid nwkey mywepkey

DIAGNOSTICS
     wi0: init failed  The WaveLAN card	failed to come ready after an initial-
     ization command was issued.

     wi0: failed to allocate N bytes on	NIC  The driver	was unable to allocate
     memory for	transmit frames	in the NIC's on-board RAM.

     wi0: device timeout  The WaveLAN failed to	generate an interrupt to ac-
     knowledge a transmit command.

SEE ALSO
     arp(4), ifmedia(4), intro(4), netintro(4),	pci(4),	pcmcia(4), usb(4),
     hostname.if(5), ifconfig(8)

     HCF Light programming specification.

HISTORY
     The wi device driver first	appeared in FreeBSD 3.0.  OpenBSD support was
     added in OpenBSD 2.6.

AUTHORS
     The wi driver was written by Bill Paul <wpaul@ctr.columbia.edu> and
     ported to OpenBSD by Niklas Hallqvist <niklas@appli.se>.

CAVEATS
     The original Lucent WaveLAN cards usually default to channel 3; newer
     cards use channel 10 by default.  Non-Lucent cards	vary, for instance the
     Addtron cards use channel 11 by default.  See ifconfig(8) for information
     on	how to change the channel.

     Not all 3.3V wi PCMCIA cards work.

     IBSS creation does	not currently work with	Symbol cards.

     The host-based access point mode on the Intersil PRISM cards has bugs
     when used with firmware versions prior to 0.8.3 and is completely unus-
     able with firmware	versions prior to 0.8.0	and 1.4.0-1.4.2.

     Software WEP is currently only supported in Host AP and BSS modes.	 Fur-
     thermore, software	WEP is currently incapable of decrypting fragmented
     frames.  Lucent-based cards using firmware	8.10 and above fragment	en-
     crypted frames sent at 11Mbps.  To	work around this, Lucent clients with
     this firmware revision connecting to a Host AP server should use a	2Mbps
     connection	or upgrade their firmware to version 8.72.

     Host AP mode doesn't support WDS.

     Support for USB devices is	buggy.	Host AP	mode and AP scanning are not
     currently supported with USB devices.

     This driver does not support powersave mode.

FreeBSD	13.0			March 30, 2019			  FreeBSD 13.0

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | HARDWARE | EXAMPLES | DIAGNOSTICS | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | AUTHORS | CAVEATS

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