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WI(4)			 BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual			 WI(4)

     wi	-- WaveLAN/IEEE, PRISM-II and Spectrum24 802.11DS wireless network

     device wi

     The wi driver provides support for	wireless network adapters based	around
     the Lucent	Hermes,	Intersil PRISM-II, Intersil PRISM-2.5, and Symbol
     Spectrum24	chipsets.  All four chipsets provide a similar interface to
     the driver.

     All host/device interaction is via	programmed I/O.	 Supported features
     include 802.11 and	802.3 frames, power management,	BSS, IBSS, WDS and
     old-style Lucent ad-hoc operation modes.  Cards based on the Intersil
     PRISM-II and PRISM-2.5 chips also support a host-based access point mode
     which allows a card to act	as a normal access point (with some assistance
     from the wi driver).  The Lucent Hermes and Symbol	Spectrum24 chipsets do
     not contain this functionality.  PRISM-II and PRISM-2.5 chips do not sup-
     port the WDS functionality.

     The wi driver encapsulates	all IP and ARP traffic as 802.11 frames, how-
     ever it can receive either	802.11 or 802.3	frames.	 Transmit speed	is se-
     lectable between 1Mbps fixed, 2Mbps fixed,	2Mbps with auto	fallback,
     5.5Mbps, 8Mbps, or	11Mbps depending on your hardware.  The	Lucent Wave-
     LAN/IEEE Silver and Gold cards as well as the Intersil and	Symbol cards
     have support for WEP encryption.  The WaveLAN Gold	as well	as newer In-
     tersil and	Symbol cards support 104bit keys, the others only accept 40bit
     keys.  The	Lucent WaveLAN/IEEE Bronze cards do not	support	WEP at all.
     To	enable encryption, use the wicontrol(8)	utility	to set your keys, or
     use ifconfig(8) as	shown below.

     By	default, the wi	driver configures the card for BSS operation (aka in-
     frastructure mode).  This mode requires the use of	an access point	(base

     The wi driver also	supports a point-to-point mode where the ssid is ig-
     nored and stations	can communicate	amongst	themselves without the aid of
     an	access point.  Note that there are two possible	point-to-point modes.
     One mode, referred	to as "ad-hoc demo mode", or "legacy Lucent ad-hoc
     mode", predates the IEEE 802.11 specification and so may not interoperate
     with cards	from different vendors.	 The standardized point-to-point mode
     is	called IBSS (or	confusingly just ad-hoc	mode), but is not supported by
     cards with	very old firmware revisions.  If your cards supports IBSS
     mode, it is recommended that you use it in	preference to the "ad-hoc demo
     mode" in new installations.

     Cards based on the	Intersil PRISM-II and PRISM-2.5	chips also have	a
     host-based	access point mode which	allows the card	to act as an access
     point (base station).  Access points are different	than operating in IBSS
     mode.  They operate in BSS	mode.  They allow for easier roaming and
     bridge all	ethernet traffic such that machines connected via an access
     point appear to be	on the local ethernet segment.

     For more information on configuring this device, see ifconfig(8).

     Cards supported by	the wi driver come in a	variety	of packages, though
     the most common are of the	PCMCIA type.  In many cases, the PCI version
     of	a wireless card	is simply a PCMCIA card	bundled	with a PCI adapter.
     The PCI adapters come in two flavors: true	PCMCIA bridges and dumb	PCMCIA
     bridges.  A true PCMCIA bridge (such as those sold	by Lucent) will	attach
     as	a real PCMCIA controller.  The wireless	card will then attach to the
     PCMCIA bus.  Wireless cards in PCMCIA slots may be	inserted and ejected
     on	the fly.

     A dumb bridge, on the other hand, does not	show up	as a true PCMCIA bus.
     The wireless card will simply appear to the host as a normal PCI device
     and will not require any PCMCIA support.  Cards in	this type of adapter
     should only be removed when the machine is	powered	down.

     The following cards are among those supported by the wi driver:

     Card				   Chip		 Bus
     3Com AirConnect 3CRWE737A		   Spectrum24	 PCMCIA
     3Com AirConnect 3CRWE777A		   Prism-II	 PCI
     ACTIONTEC HWC01170			   Prism-2.5	 PCMCIA
     Addtron AWP-100			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Adtec Adlink/340C			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Agere Orinoco			   Hermes	 PCMCIA
     Avaya Wireless			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Blue Concentric Circle WL-379F	   PRISM-II	 CF
     BreezeNet Wireless			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Buffalo WLI-PCM-S11		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Buffalo WLI-PCM-L11G		   Hermes	 PCMCIA
     Buffalo WLI-CF-S11G		   Prism-II	 CF
     Cabletron RoamAbout		   Hermes	 PCMCIA
     Compaq Agency NC5004		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Compaq WL100			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Compaq WL110			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Compaq WL200			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Contec FLEXLAN/FX-DS110-PCC	   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Corega PCC-11			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Corega PCCA-11			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Corega PCCB-11			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Corega CGWLPCIA11			   Prism-II	 PCI
     Dell TrueMobile 1150		   Hermes	 PCMCIA
     Dlink DWL520			   Prism-2.5	 PCI
     Dlink DWL650			   Prism-2.5	 PCMCIA
     ELSA XI300				   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     ELSA XI800				   Prism-II	 CF
     EMTAC A2424i			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Ericsson Wireless LAN CARD	C11	   Spectrum24	 PCMCIA
     Farallon Skyline			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Gemtek WL-311			   Prism-2.5	 PCMCIA
     Hawking Technology	WE110P		   Prism-2.5	 PCMCIA
     Home Wireless Networks		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     IBM High Rate Wireless		   Hermes	 PCMCIA
     ICOM SL-1100			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     I-O DATA WN-B11/PCM		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Intel PRO/Wireless	2011		   Spectrum24	 PCMCIA
     Intersil Prism II			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Intersil Mini-PCI			   Prism-2.5	 PCI
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11	   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11 2.5	   Prism-2.5	 PCMCIA
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11 3.0	   Prism-3	 PCMCIA
     Lucent WaveLAN			   Hermes	 PCMCIA
     Melco Airconnect			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     NDC/Sohoware NCP130		   Prism-II	 PCI
     NEC CMZ-RT-WP			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     NEC PK-WL001			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Netgear MA401			   Prism-II/2.5	 PCMCIA
     NTT-ME 11Mbps Wireless LAN		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Planex GeoWave/GW-NS110		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Planex GW-NS11H			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Proxim Harmony			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Proxim RangeLAN-DS			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Samsung MagicLAN SWL-2000N		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     SMC 2602 EZ Connect (3.3V)		   Prism-II	 PCI or	PCMCIA
     SMC 2632 EZ Connect		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Socket Low	Power WLAN-CF		   Prism-II	 CF
     Sony PCWA-C100			   Lucent	 PCMCIA
     Symbol Spectrum24			   Spectrum24	 PCMCIA
     Symbol LA-4100			   Spectrum24	 CF
     TDK LAK-CD011WL			   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     Toshiba Wireless LAN Card		   Prism-II	 PCMCIA
     U.S. Robotics Wireless Card 2410	   Prism-II	 PCMCIA

     Several vendors sell PCI adapters built around the	PLX Technology 9050 or
     9052 chip.	 The following such adapters are supported or expected to

     3Com AirConnect 3CRWE777A (3.3V)
     Belkin F5D6000 (a rebadged	WL11000P)
     Eumitcom WL11000P
     Global Sun	Technology GL24110P (untested)
     Global Sun	Technology GL24110P02
     LinkSys WDT11 (a rebadged GL24110P02)
     Netgear MA301
     US	Robotics 2415 (rebadged	WL11000P)

     The following examples utilize ifconfig(8)	for simplicity,	however,
     wicontrol(8) can also be used to set wireless parameters.

     Join an existing BSS network (ie: connect to an access point):

	   ifconfig wi0	inet netmask 0xffffff00

     Join a specific BSS network with network name "my_net":

	   ifconfig wi0	inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net

     Join a specific BSS network with WEP encryption:

	   ifconfig wi0	inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
		   wepmode on wepkey 0x8736639624

     Join a Lucent legacy demo ad-hoc network with network name	"my_net":

	   ifconfig wi0	inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
		   mediaopt adhoc

     Create an IBSS network with network name "my_net":

	   ifconfig wi0	inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
		   mediaopt ibss-master

     Note: The infrastructure for mediaopt ibss-master has not been committed

     Join an IBSS network with network name "my_net":

	   ifconfig wi0	inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
		   mediaopt ibss

     Note: The infrastructure for mediaopt ibss	has not	been committed yet.

     Create a host-based access	point (Prism only):

	   ifconfig wi0	inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_ap	\
		   mediaopt hostap

     Create a host-based access	point with WEP enabled (Prism only):

	   ifconfig wi0	inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_ap	\
		   wepmode on wepkey 0x1234567890 mediaopt hostap

     Create a host-based wireless bridge to fxp0 (Prism	only):

	   Add BRIDGE to the kernel config.
	   ifconfig wi0	inet up	ssid my_ap mediaopt hostap
	   sysctl"wi0 fxp0"
	   sysctl net.inet.ip.check_interface=0

     This will give you	approximately the same functionality as	an access

     wi%d: init	failed	The WaveLAN card failed	to become ready	after an ini-
     tialization command was issued.

     wi%d: failed to allocate %d bytes on NIC  The driver was unable to	allo-
     cate memory for transmit frames in	the NIC's on-board RAM.

     wi%d: device timeout  The WaveLAN card failed to generate an interrupt to
     acknowledge a transmit command.

     an(4), arp(4), netintro(4), ifconfig(8), wicontrol(8)

     HCF Light programming specification,

     The wi device driver first	appeared in FreeBSD 3.0.

     The wi driver was written by Bill Paul <>.  This
     man page comes from OpenBSD.

     Different regulatory domains have different default channels for adhoc
     mode.  See	ifconfig(8) for	information on how to change the channel.  See
     wicontrol(8) for information on different regulatory domains.

     The Intersil Prism	family of chips' host-based access point mode has bugs
     for station firmware versions prior to 0.8.3.  The	driver currently pre-
     cludes hostap functionality older station firmware.  The best version of
     the station firmware for the Prism	family of chips	seems to be 1.4.9.
     Some users	of Prism-II and	2.5 based cards	report that station firmware
     version 1.3.4 works better	for them in hostap than	1.4.9.	Older versions
     of	the Prism station firmware have	a number of issues with	hostap mode.
     The IBSS/adhoc mode appears to work well on station firmware 1.3.1	and
     later.  The IBSS/adhoc mode appears to have problems for some people with
     older versions of station firmware.

     Lucent cards prior	to firmware version 6.0.4 do not support IBSS mode.
     These cards support only the pre-802.11 mode known	as "demo ad-hoc	mode"
     which does	not interoperate with stations in IBSS mode.

     Not all the new messages are documented here, and many of them are	indi-
     cations of	transient errors that are not indications of serious problems.

     WL200 PCI wireless	cards are based	on a Cirrus Logic CL-PD6729 bridge
     chips glued to an intersil	prism-II pcmcia	chipset	w/o the	PC Card	form
     factor being present.  These chips	are special and	require	special	care
     to	use properly.  One must	set hw.pcic.pd6729_intr_path="2" in
     /boot/loader.conf.	 This tells the	pccard system to use PCI interrupts
     for this odd beast.  It is	not possible to	know automatically which kind
     of	interrupts to use.  OLDCARD devices (pcic and card) support this de-

BSD				  May 2, 2002				   BSD


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