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VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

NAME
       ex, vi, view - text editors

SYNOPSIS
       ex [-eFRrSsv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]
       vi [-eFlRrSv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]
       view [-eFRrSv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]

LICENSE
       The vi program is freely redistributable.  You are welcome
       to copy, modify and share it with others under the  condi-
       tions  listed  in  the  LICENSE file.  If any company (not
       individual!) finds vi sufficiently useful that  you  would
       have  purchased  it,  or  if  any company wishes to redis-
       tribute it, contributions to the authors would be appreci-
       ated.

DESCRIPTION
       Vi  is  a  screen oriented text editor.  Ex is a line-ori-
       ented text editor.  Ex and vi are different interfaces  to
       the  same  program,  and it is possible to switch back and
       forth during an edit session.  View is the  equivalent  of
       using the -R (read-only) option of vi.

       This manual page is the one provided with the nex/nvi ver-
       sions of the ex/vi text editors.  Nex/nvi are intended  as
       bug-for-bug   compatible  replacements  for  the  original
       Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution  (4BSD)  ex  and  vi
       programs.   For  the  rest of this manual page, nex/nvi is
       used only when it's necessary to distinguish it  from  the
       historic implementations of ex/vi.

       This  manual  page  is intended for users already familiar
       with ex/vi.  Anyone else should almost  certainly  read  a
       good  tutorial  on the editor before this manual page.  If
       you're in an unfamiliar environment,  and  you  absolutely
       have  to get work done immediately, read the section after
       the options description, entitled ``Fast Startup''.   It's
       probably enough to get you going.

       The following options are available:

       -c     Execute  cmd  immediately  after  starting the edit
              session.  Particularly useful for initial position-
              ing  in  the  file,  although cmd is not limited to
              positioning commands.  This  is  the  POSIX  1003.2
              interface   for   the   historic  ``+cmd''  syntax.
              Nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax.

       -e     Start editing in ex mode, as if  the  command  name
              were ex.

       -F     Don't  copy  the entire file when first starting to
              edit.  (The default is  to  make  a  copy  in  case

                         October 10, 1996                       1

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

              someone  else  modifies  the  file during your edit
              session.)

       -l     Start editing with the lisp and  showmatch  options
              set.

       -R     Start  editing in read-only mode, as if the command
              name was view, or the readonly option was set.

       -r     Recover the specified files, or, if  no  files  are
              specified,  list the files that could be recovered.
              If no  recoverable  files  by  the  specified  name
              exist,  the  file is edited as if the -r option had
              not been specified.

       -S     Run with the secure edit  option  set,  disallowing
              all access to external programs.

       -s     Enter  batch  mode; applicable only to ex edit ses-
              sions.   Batch  mode  is  useful  when  running  ex
              scripts.   Prompts,  informative messages and other
              user oriented  messages  are  turned  off,  and  no
              startup  files or environmental variables are read.
              This is the POSIX 1003.2 interface for the historic
              ``-''  argument.  Nex/nvi supports both the old and
              new syntax.

       -t     Start  editing  at   the   specified   tag.    (See
              ctags(1)).

       -w     Set the initial window size to the specified number
              of lines.

       -v     Start editing in vi mode, as if  the  command  name
              was vi or view.

       Command  input  for ex/vi is read from the standard input.
       In the vi interface, it is an error if standard  input  is
       not a terminal.  In the ex interface, if standard input is
       not a terminal, ex will read commands from it  regardless;
       however, the session will be a batch mode session, exactly
       as if the -s option had been specified.

       Ex/vi exits 0 on success, and greater than 0 if  an  error
       occurs.

FAST STARTUP
       This  section  will  tell  you the minimum amount that you
       need to do simple editing tasks using vi.  If you've never
       used any screen editor before, you're likely to have prob-
       lems even with this simple introduction.  In that case you
       should  find  someone  that already knows vi and have them
       walk you through this section.

                         October 10, 1996                       2

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

       Vi is a screen editor.  This means that it takes up almost
       the  entire  screen,  displaying  part of the file on each
       screen line, except for the last line of the screen.   The
       last  line  of the screen is used for you to give commands
       to vi, and for vi to give information to you.

       The other fact that you need to understand is that vi is a
       modeful  editor,  i.e. you are either entering text or you
       are executing commands, and you have to be  in  the  right
       mode  to do one or the other.  You will be in command mode
       when you first start editing a file.  There  are  commands
       that  switch  you  into input mode.  There is only one key
       that takes you out of input mode, and that is the <escape>
       key.   (Key names are written using less-than and greater-
       than signs, e.g.  <escape> means the ``escape'' key,  usu-
       ally  labeled  ``esc''  on  your terminal's keyboard.)  If
       you're ever confused as to  which  mode  you're  in,  keep
       entering  the <escape> key until vi beeps at you.  (Gener-
       ally, vi will beep at you if  you  try  and  do  something
       that's not allowed.  It will also display error messages.)

       To  start  editing  a  file,  enter   the   command   ``vi
       file_name<carriage-return>''.    The  command  you  should
       enter as soon as you start editing is ``:set verbose show-
       mode<carriage-return>''.   This  will make the editor give
       you verbose error messages and display the current mode at
       the bottom of the screen.

       The commands to move around the file are:

       h      Move the cursor left one character.

       j      Move the cursor down one line.

       k      Move the cursor up one line.

       l      Move the cursor right one character.

       <cursor-arrows>
              The cursor arrow keys should work, too.

       /text<carriage-return>
              Search  for  the  string  ``text'' in the file, and
              move the cursor to its first character.

       The commands to enter new text are:

       a      Append new text, after the cursor.

       i      Insert new text, before the cursor.

       o      Open a new line below the line the  cursor  is  on,
              and start entering text.

                         October 10, 1996                       3

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

       O      Open  a  new  line above the line the cursor is on,
              and start entering text.

       <escape>
              Once you've entered input mode using one of the  a,
              i,  O  or o commands, use <escape> to quit entering
              text and return to command mode.

       The commands to copy text are:

       yy     Copy the line the cursor is on.

       p      Append the copied line after the line the cursor is
              on.

       The commands to delete text are:

       dd     Delete the line the cursor is on.

       x      Delete the character the cursor is on.

       The commands to write the file are:

       :w<carriage-return>
              Write  the file back to the file with the name that
              you originally used as an argument on the  vi  com-
              mand line.

       :w file_name<carriage-return>
              Write  the  file  back  to  the  file with the name
              ``file_name''.

       The commands to quit editing and exit the editor are:

       :q<carriage-return>
              Quit editing and leave vi (if you've  modified  the
              file, but not saved your changes, vi will refuse to
              quit).

       :q!<carriage-return>
              Quit, discarding any  modifications  that  you  may
              have made.

       One  final  caution:  Unusual  characters can take up more
       than one column on the screen, and long lines can take  up
       more  than  a single screen line.  The above commands work
       on ``physical'' characters and lines, i.e. they affect the
       entire  line  no  matter how many screen lines it takes up
       and the entire character no matter how many screen columns
       it takes up.

VI COMMANDS
       The  following section describes the commands available in
       the command mode of the vi editor.  In each  entry  below,

                         October 10, 1996                       4

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

       the  tag  line is a usage synopsis for the command charac-
       ter.

       [count] <control-A>
              Search forward count times for the current word.

       [count] <control-B>
              Page backwards count screens.

       [count] <control-D>
              Scroll forward count lines.

       [count] <control-E>
              Scroll forward count  lines,  leaving  the  current
              line and column as is, if possible.

       [count] <control-F>
              Page forward count screens.

       <control-G>
              Display the file information.

       <control-H>

       [count] h
              Move  the  cursor back count characters in the cur-
              rent line.

       [count] <control-J>

       [count] <control-N>

       [count] j
              Move the cursor down count lines  without  changing
              the current column.

       <control-L>

       <control-R>
              Repaint the screen.

       [count] <control-M>

       [count] +
              Move  the cursor down count lines to the first non-
              blank character of that line.

       [count] <control-P>

       [count] k
              Move the cursor up count  lines,  without  changing
              the current column.

                         October 10, 1996                       5

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

       <control-T>
              Return to the most recent tag context.

       [count] <control-U>
              Scroll backwards count lines.

       <control-W>
              Switch  to  the next lower screen in the window, or
              to the first screen if there are no  lower  screens
              in the window.

       [count] <control-Y>
              Scroll  backwards  count lines, leaving the current
              line and column as is, if possible.

       <control-Z>
              Suspend the current editor session.

       <escape>
              Execute ex commands or cancel partial commands.

       <control-]>
              Push a tag reference onto the tag stack.

       <control-^>
              Switch to the most recently edited file.

       [count] <space>

       [count] l
              Move the cursor forward  count  characters  without
              changing the current line.

       [count] ! motion shell-argument(s)
              Replace text with results from a shell command.

       [count] # #|+|-
              Increment or decrement the cursor number.

       [count] $
              Move the cursor to the end of a line.

       %      Move to the matching character.

       &      Repeat  the  previous  substitution  command on the
              current line.

       '<character>

       `<character>
              Return to a context marked by the character  _char-
              acter_.

                         October 10, 1996                       6

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

       [count] (
              Back up count sentences.

       [count] )
              Move forward count sentences.

       [count] ,
              Reverse find character count times.

       [count] -
              Move  to first nonblank of the previous line, count
              times.

       [count] .
              Repeat the last vi command that modified text.

       /RE<carriage-return>

       /RE/ [offset]<carriage-return>

       ?RE<carriage-return>

       ?RE? [offset]<carriage-return>

       N

       n      Search forward or backward for  a  regular  expres-
              sion.

       0      Move to the first character in the current line.

       :      Execute an ex command.

       [count] ;
              Repeat the last character find count times.

       [count] < motion

       [count] > motion
              Shift lines left or right.

       @ buffer
              Execute a named buffer.

       [count] A
              Enter  input mode, appending the text after the end
              of the line.

       [count] B
              Move backwards count bigwords.

       [buffer] [count] C
              Change text from the current position to  the  end-
              of-line.

                         October 10, 1996                       7

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

       [buffer] D
              Delete  text  from the current position to the end-
              of-line.

       [count] E
              Move forward count end-of-bigwords.

       [count] F <character>
              Search count times  backward  through  the  current
              line for _character_.

       [count] G
              Move to line count, or the last line of the file if
              count is not specified.

       [count] H
              Move to the screen line count - 1 lines  below  the
              top of the screen.

       [count] I
              Enter  input mode, inserting the text at the begin-
              ning of the line.

       [count] J
              Join lines.

       [count] L
              Move to the screen line count - 1 lines  above  the
              bottom of the screen.

        M     Move  to  the  screen  line  in  the  middle of the
              screen.

       [count] O
              Enter input mode, appending  text  in  a  new  line
              above the current line.

       [buffer] P
              Insert text from a buffer.

       Q      Exit vi (or visual) mode and switch to ex mode.

       [count] R
              Enter  input  mode, replacing the characters in the
              current line.

       [buffer] [count] S
              Substitute count lines.

       [count] T <character>
              Search backwards, count times, through the  current
              line for the character after the specified _charac-
              ter_.

                         October 10, 1996                       8

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

       U      Restore the current line to its  state  before  the
              cursor last moved to it.

       [count] W
              Move forward count bigwords.

       [buffer] [count] X
              Delete count characters before the cursor.

       [buffer] [count] Y
              Copy  (or  ``yank'') count lines into the specified
              buffer.

       ZZ     Write the file and exit vi.

       [count] [[
              Back up count section boundaries.

       [count] ]]
              Move forward count section boundaries.

       ^      Move to first nonblank  character  on  the  current
              line.

       [count] _
              Move  down  count  - 1 lines, to the first nonblank
              character.

       [count] a
              Enter input mode, appending the text after the cur-
              sor.

       [count] b
              Move backwards count words.

       [buffer] [count] c motion
              Change a region of text.

       [buffer] [count] d motion
              Delete a region of text.

       [count] e
              Move forward count end-of-words.

       [count] f<character>
              Search  forward,  count  times, through the rest of
              the current line for _character_.

       [count] i
              Enter input mode, inserting  the  text  before  the
              cursor.

       m <character>
              Save  the  current  context  (line  and  column) as

                         October 10, 1996                       9

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

              _character_.

       [count] o
              Enter input mode, appending  text  in  a  new  line
              under the current line.

       [buffer] p
              Append text from a buffer.

       [count] r <character>
              Replace count characters.

       [buffer] [count] s
              Substitute  count  characters  in  the current line
              starting with the current character.

       [count] t <character>
              Search forward, count times,  through  the  current
              line  for the character immediately before _charac-
              ter_.

       u      Undo the last change made to the file.

       [count] w
              Move forward count words.

       [buffer] [count] x
              Delete count characters.

       [buffer] [count] y motion
              Copy (or ``yank'') a text region specified  by  the
              count and motion into a buffer.

       [count1] z [count2] -|.|+|^|<carriage-return>
              Redraw,  optionally  repositioning and resizing the
              screen.

       [count] {
              Move backward count paragraphs.

       [count] |
              Move to a specific column position on  the  current
              line.

       [count] }
              Move forward count paragraphs.

       [count] ~
              Reverse the case of the next count character(s).

       [count] ~ motion
              Reverse the case of the characters in a text region
              specified by the count and motion.

                         October 10, 1996                      10

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

       <interrupt>
              Interrupt the current operation.

VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS
       The following section describes the commands available  in
       the text input mode of the vi editor.

       <nul>  Replay the previous input.

       <control-D>
              Erase to the previous shiftwidth column boundary.

       ^<control-D>
              Erase  all  of the autoindent characters, and reset
              the autoindent level.

       0<control-D>
              Erase all of the autoindent characters.

       <control-T>
              Insert sufficient _tab_ and _space_  characters  to
              move  forward  to the next shiftwidth column bound-
              ary.

       <erase>

       <control-H>
              Erase the last character.

       <literal next>
              Quote the next character.

       <escape>
              Resolve all text input into the file, and return to
              command mode.

       <line erase>
              Erase the current line.

       <control-W>

       <word erase>
              Erase  the  last  word.   The definition of word is
              dependent on the altwerase and ttywerase options.

       <control-X>[0-9A-Fa-f]+
              Insert a character with the  specified  hexadecimal
              value into the text.

       <interrupt>
              Interrupt  text  input  mode,  returning to command
              mode.

                         October 10, 1996                      11

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

EX COMMANDS
       The following section describes the commands available  in
       the  ex  editor.   In  each entry below, the tag line is a
       usage synopsis for the command.

       <end-of-file>
              Scroll the screen.

       ! argument(s)

       [range]! argument(s)
              Execute a shell command, or filter lines through  a
              shell command.

       "      A comment.

       [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags]

       [range] # [count] [flags]
              Display  the selected lines, each preceded with its
              line number.

       @ buffer

       * buffer
              Execute a buffer.

       [line] a[ppend][!]
              The input text  is  appended  after  the  specified
              line.

       [range] c[hange][!] [count]
              The input text replaces the specified range.

       cs[cope] add | find | help | kill | reset
              Execute a Cscope command.

       [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags]
              Delete the lines from the file.

       di[splay] b[uffers] | c[onnections] | s[creens] | t[ags]
              Display  buffers,  Cscope  connections,  screens or
              tags.

       [Ee][dit][!] [+cmd] [file]

       [Ee]x[!] [+cmd] [file]
              Edit a different file.

       exu[sage] [command]
              Display usage for an ex command.

                         October 10, 1996                      12

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

       f[ile] [file]
              Display and optionally change the file name.

       [Ff]g [name]
              Vi mode only.  Foreground the specified screen.

       [range] g[lobal] /pattern/ [commands]

       [range] v /pattern/ [commands]
              Apply commands to lines matching (or not  matching)
              a pattern.

       he[lp] Display a help message.

       [line] i[nsert][!]
              The  input  text  is  inserted before the specified
              line.

       [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags]
              Join lines of text together.

       [range] l[ist] [count] [flags]
              Display the lines unambiguously.

       map[!] [lhs rhs]
              Define or display maps (for vi only).

       [line] ma[rk] <character>

       [line] k <character>
              Mark the line with the mark _character_.

       [range] m[ove] line
              Move the specified lines after the target line.

       mk[exrc][!] file
              Write the abbreviations, editor options and maps to
              the specified file.

       [Nn][ext][!] [file ...]
              Edit the next file from the argument list.

       [line] o[pen] /pattern/ [flags]
              Enter open mode.

       pre[serve]
              Save the file in a form that can later be recovered
              using the ex -r option.

       [Pp]rev[ious][!]
              Edit the previous file from the argument list.

       [range] p[rint] [count] [flags]
              Display the specified lines.

                         October 10, 1996                      13

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

       [line] pu[t] [buffer]
              Append buffer contents to the current line.

       q[uit][!]
              End the editing session.

       [line] r[ead][!] [file]
              Read a file.

       rec[over] file
              Recover file if it was previously saved.

       res[ize] [+|-]size
              Vi mode only.  Grow or shrink the current screen.

       rew[ind][!]
              Rewind the argument list.

       se[t] [option[=[value]] ...] [nooption ...] [option? ...]
       [all]
              Display or set editor options.

       sh[ell]
              Run a shell program.

       so[urce] file
              Read and execute ex commands from a file.

       [range]   s[ubstitute]   [/pattern/replace/]   [options]
       [count] [flags]

       [range] & [options] [count] [flags]

       [range] ~ [options] [count] [flags]
              Make substitutions.

       su[spend][!]

       st[op][!]

       <suspend>
              Suspend the edit session.

       [Tt]a[g][!] tagstring
              Edit the file containing the specified tag.

       tagn[ext][!]
              Edit  the  file containing the next context for the
              current tag.

       tagp[op][!] [file | number]
              Pop to the specified tag in the tags stack.

                         October 10, 1996                      14

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

       tagp[rev][!]
              Edit the file containing the previous  context  for
              the current tag.

       unm[ap][!] lhs
              Unmap a mapped string.

       ve[rsion]
              Display the version of the ex/vi editor.

       [line] vi[sual] [type] [count] [flags]
              Ex mode only.  Enter vi.

       [Vi]i[sual][!] [+cmd] [file]
              Vi mode only.  Edit a new file.

       viu[sage] [command]
              Display usage for a vi command.

       [range] w[rite][!] [>>] [file]

       [range] w[rite] [!] [file]

       [range] wn[!] [>>] [file]

       [range] wq[!] [>>] [file]
              Write the file.

       [range] x[it][!] [file]
              Write the file if it has been modified.

       [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count]
              Copy the specified lines to a buffer.

       [line] z [type] [count] [flags]
              Adjust the window.

SET OPTIONS
       There  are  a  large number of options that may be set (or
       unset) to change  the  editor's  behavior.   This  section
       describes  the  options,  their  abbreviations  and  their
       default values.

       In each entry below, the first part of the tag line is the
       full name of the option, followed by any equivalent abbre-
       viations.  The part in  square  brackets  is  the  default
       value  of  the  option.   Most of the options are boolean,
       i.e. they are either on or off, and do not have an associ-
       ated value.

       Options  apply  to  both ex and vi modes, unless otherwise
       specified.

                         October 10, 1996                      15

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

       altwerase [off]
              Vi only.  Select an alternate word erase algorithm.

       autoindent, ai [off]
              Automatically indent new lines.

       autoprint, ap [off]
              Ex only.  Display the current line automatically.

       autowrite, aw [off]
              Write  modified  files  automatically when changing
              files.

       backup [""]
              Backup files before they are overwritten.

       beautify, bf [off]
              Discard control characters.

       cdpath [environment variable CDPATH, or current directory]
              The  directory  paths used as path prefixes for the
              cd command.

       cedit [no default]
              Set the character to edit  the  colon  command-line
              history.

       columns, co [80]
              Set the number of columns in the screen.

       comment [off]
              Vi only.  Skip leading comments in shell, C and C++
              language files.

       directory, dir [environment variable TMPDIR, or /tmp]
              The directory where temporary files are created.

       edcompatible, ed [off]
              Remember the values of the ``c'' and ``g'' suffixes
              to the substitute commands, instead of initializing
              them as unset for each new command.

       errorbells, eb [off]
              Ex only.  Announce error messages with a bell.

       exrc, ex [off]
              Read the startup files in the local directory.

       extended [off]
              Regular    expressions    are    extended     (i.e.
              egrep(1)-style) expressions.

       filec [no default]
              Set  the  character to perform file path completion

                         October 10, 1996                      16

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

              on the colon command line.

       flash [on]
              Flash the screen instead of beeping the keyboard on
              error.

       hardtabs, ht [8]
              Set the spacing between hardware tab settings.

       iclower [off]
              Makes  all Regular Expressions case-insensitive, as
              long as an upper-case letter does not appear in the
              search string.

       ignorecase, ic [off]
              Ignore case differences in regular expressions.

       keytime [6]
              The 10th's of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent
              key to complete a key mapping.

       leftright [off]
              Vi only.  Do left-right scrolling.

       lines, li [24]
              Vi only.  Set the number of lines in the screen.

       lisp [off]
              Vi  only.   Modify  various  search  commands   and
              options  to work with Lisp.  This option is not yet
              implemented.

       list [off]
              Display lines in an unambiguous fashion.

       lock [on]
              Attempt to get an exclusive lock on any file  being
              edited, read or written.

       magic [on]
              Treat   certain  characters  specially  in  regular
              expressions.

       matchtime [7]
              Vi only.  The 10th's of a second  ex/vi  pauses  on
              the matching character when the showmatch option is
              set.

       mesg [on]
              Permit messages from other users.

       modelines, modeline [off]
              Read the first and last few lines of each file  for
              ex   commands.    This   option   will   never   be

                         October 10, 1996                      17

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

              implemented.

       noprint [""]
              Characters that  are  never  handled  as  printable
              characters.

       number, nu [off]
              Precede  each  line displayed with its current line
              number.

       octal [off]
              Display  unknown  characters  as   octal   numbers,
              instead of the default hexadecimal.

       open [on]
              Ex  only.   If this option is not set, the open and
              visual commands are disallowed.

       optimize, opt [on]
              Vi only.  Optimize text throughput to  dumb  termi-
              nals.  This option is not yet implemented.

       paragraphs, para [IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp]
              Vi  only.   Define  additional paragraph boundaries
              for the { and } commands.

       path []
              Define additional directories to search  for  files
              being edited.

       print [""]
              Characters  that  are  always  handled as printable
              characters.

       prompt [on]
              Ex only.  Display a command prompt.

       readonly, ro [off]
              Mark the file and session as read-only.

       recdir [/var/tmp/vi.recover]
              The directory where recovery files are stored.

       redraw, re [off]
              Vi only.  Simulate an  intelligent  terminal  on  a
              dumb one.  This option is not yet implemented.

       remap [on]
              Remap keys until resolved.

       report [5]
              Set  the  number  of  lines  about which the editor
              reports changes or yanks.

                         October 10, 1996                      18

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

       ruler [off]
              Vi only.  Display a row/column ruler on  the  colon
              command line.

       scroll, scr [window / 2]
              Set the number of lines scrolled.

       searchincr [off]
              Makes the / and ?  commands incremental.

       sections, sect [NHSHH HUnhsh]
              Vi  only.  Define additional section boundaries for
              the [[ and ]] commands.

       secure [off]
              Turns off all access to external programs.

       shell, sh [environment variable SHELL, or /bin/sh]
              Select the shell used by the editor.

       shellmeta [~{[*?$`'"\]
              Set the meta characters  checked  to  determine  if
              file name expansion is necessary.

       shiftwidth, sw [8]
              Set  the  autoindent  and shift command indentation
              width.

       showmatch, sm [off]
              Vi only.  Note matching ``{'' and ``(''  for  ``}''
              and ``)'' characters.

       showmode, smd [off]
              Vi  only.   Display  the  current editor mode and a
              ``modified'' flag.

       sidescroll [16]
              Vi only.  Set the amount a left-right  scroll  will
              shift.

       slowopen, slow [off]
              Delay  display  updating  during  text input.  This
              option is not yet implemented.

       sourceany [off]
              Read startup files not owned by the  current  user.
              This option will never be implemented.

       tabstop, ts [8]
              This option sets tab widths for the editor display.

       taglength, tl [0]
              Set the number of  significant  characters  in  tag
              names.

                         October 10, 1996                      19

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

       tags, tag [tags /var/db/libc.tags /sys/kern/tags]
              Set the list of tags files.

       term, ttytype, tty [environment variable TERM]
              Set the terminal type.

       terse [off]
              This  option  has historically made editor messages
              less verbose.  It has no effect in this implementa-
              tion.

       tildeop [off]
              Modify  the ~ command to take an associated motion.

       timeout, to [on]
              Time out on keys which may be mapped.

       ttywerase [off]
              Vi only.  Select an alternate erase algorithm.

       verbose [off]
              Vi only.  Display an error message for every error.

       w300 [no default]
              Vi  only.   Set the window size if the baud rate is
              less than 1200 baud.

       w1200 [no default]
              Vi only.  Set the window size if the baud  rate  is
              equal to 1200 baud.

       w9600 [no default]
              Vi  only.   Set the window size if the baud rate is
              greater than 1200 baud.

       warn [on]
              Ex only.  This option causes a warning  message  to
              be  printed  on  the  terminal if the file has been
              modified since it was  last  written,  before  a  !
              command.

       window, w, wi [environment variable LINES]
              Set the window size for the screen.

       windowname [off]
              Change  the  icon/window  name  to the current file
              name even if it can't be restored on editor exit.

       wraplen, wl [0]
              Vi only.  Break lines automatically, the  specified
              number  of  columns  from the left-hand margin.  If
              both the wraplen and wrapmargin  edit  options  are
              set, the wrapmargin value is used.

                         October 10, 1996                      20

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

       wrapmargin, wm [0]
              Vi  only.  Break lines automatically, the specified
              number of columns from the right-hand  margin.   If
              both  the  wraplen  and wrapmargin edit options are
              set, the wrapmargin value is used.

       wrapscan, ws [on]
              Set searches to wrap around the end or beginning of
              the file.

       writeany, wa [off]
              Turn off file-overwriting checks.

ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES
       COLUMNS
              The  number  of  columns on the screen.  This value
              overrides any system or terminal  specific  values.
              If  the  COLUMNS  environmental variable is not set
              when ex/vi runs, or the columns option  is  explic-
              itly reset by the user, ex/vi enters the value into
              the environment.

       EXINIT A list of ex startup commands, read if the variable
              NEXINIT is not set.

       HOME   The  user's  home  directory,  used  as the initial
              directory path for the startup ``$HOME/.nexrc'' and
              ``$HOME/.exrc''  files.  This value is also used as
              the default directory for the vi cd command.

       LINES  The number of rows on the screen.  This value over-
              rides  any  system or terminal specific values.  If
              the LINES environmental variable is  not  set  when
              ex/vi runs, or the lines option is explicitly reset
              by the user, ex/vi enters the value into the  envi-
              ronment.

       NEXINIT
              A list of ex startup commands.

       SHELL  The  user's  shell  of  choice  (see also the shell
              option).

       TERM   The user's terminal type.  The default is the  type
              ``unknown''.  If the TERM environmental variable is
              not set when ex/vi runs,  or  the  term  option  is
              explicitly  reset  by  the  user,  ex/vi enters the
              value into the environment.

       TMPDIR The location used to stored  temporary  files  (see
              also the directory edit option).

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS

                         October 10, 1996                      21

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

       SIGALRM
              Vi/ex uses this signal for periodic backups of file
              modifications and to display ``busy'' messages when
              operations are likely to take a long time.

       SIGHUP

       SIGTERM
              If the current buffer has changed since it was last
              written in its entirety,  the  editor  attempts  to
              save  the  modified  file so it can be later recov-
              ered.  See the vi/ex Reference manual section enti-
              tled ``Recovery'' for more information.

       SIGINT When  an interrupt occurs, the current operation is
              halted, and  the  editor  returns  to  the  command
              level.   If interrupted during text input, the text
              already input is resolved into the file as  if  the
              text input had been normally terminated.

       SIGWINCH
              The  screen  is  resized.   See the vi/ex Reference
              manual section entitled ``Sizing the  Screen''  for
              more information.

       SIGCONT

       SIGTSTP
              Vi/ex ignores these signals.

FILES
       /bin/sh
              The default user shell.

       /etc/vi.exrc
              System-wide vi startup file.

       /tmp   Temporary file directory.

       /var/tmp/vi.recover
              The default recovery file directory.

       $HOME/.nexrc
              1st  choice for user's home directory startup file.

       $HOME/.exrc
              2nd choice for user's home directory startup  file.

       .nexrc 1st choice for local directory startup file.

       .exrc  2nd choice for local directory startup file.

SEE ALSO
       ctags(1), more(1), curses(3), dbopen(3)

                         October 10, 1996                      22

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

       The ``Vi Quick Reference'' card.

       ``An  Introduction  to Display Editing with Vi'', found in
       the ``UNIX User's Manual Supplementary Documents'' section
       of  both the 4.3BSD and 4.4BSD manual sets.  This document
       is the closest thing available to an introduction  to  the
       vi screen editor.

       ``Ex Reference Manual (Version 3.7)'', found in the ``UNIX
       User's Manual Supplementary Documents''  section  of  both
       the  4.3BSD  and 4.4BSD manual sets.  This document is the
       final reference for the ex editor, as distributed in  most
       historic 4BSD and System V systems.

       ``Edit:  A  tutorial'',  found in the ``UNIX User's Manual
       Supplementary Documents'' section  of  the  4.3BSD  manual
       set.  This document is an introduction to a simple version
       of the ex screen editor.

       ``Ex/Vi Reference Manual'', found  in  the  ``UNIX  User's
       Manual  Supplementary  Documents''  section  of the 4.4BSD
       manual set.  This document is the final reference for  the
       nex/nvi text editors, as distributed in 4.4BSD and 4.4BSD-
       Lite.

       Roff source for all of these documents is distributed with
       nex/nvi in the nvi/USD.doc directory of the nex/nvi source
       code.

       The  files  ``autowrite'',  ``input'',   ``quoting''   and
       ``structures''  found  in the nvi/docs/internals directory
       of the nex/nvi source code.

HISTORY
       The  nex/nvi  replacements  for  the  ex/vi  editor  first
       appeared in 4.4BSD.

STANDARDS
       Nex/nvi is close to IEEE Std1003.2 (``POSIX'').  That doc-
       ument differs from historical ex/vi  practice  in  several
       places; there are changes to be made on both sides.

                         October 10, 1996                      23


NAME | SYNOPSIS | LICENSE | DESCRIPTION | FAST STARTUP | VI COMMANDS | VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS | EX COMMANDS | SET OPTIONS | ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES | ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS | FILES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | STANDARDS

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