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VERIFY(1)			    OpenSSL			     VERIFY(1)

       verify -	Utility	to verify certificates.

       openssl verify [-CApath directory] [-CAfile file] [-purpose purpose]
       [-untrusted file] [-help] [-issuer_checks] [-verbose] [-] [certifi-

       The verify command verifies certificate chains.

       -CApath directory
	   A directory of trusted certificates.	The certificates should	have
	   names of the	form: hash.0 or	have symbolic links to them of this
	   form	("hash"	is the hashed certificate subject name:	see the	-hash
	   option of the x509 utility).	Under Unix the c_rehash	script will
	   automatically create	symbolic links to a directory of certificates.

       -CAfile file
	   A file of trusted certificates. The file should contain multiple
	   certificates	in PEM format concatenated together.

       -untrusted file
	   A file of untrusted certificates. The file should contain multiple

       -purpose	purpose
	   the intended	use for	the certificate. Without this option no	chain
	   verification	will be	done. Currently	accepted uses are sslclient,
	   sslserver, nssslserver, smimesign, smimeencrypt. See	the VERIFY OP-
	   ERATION section for more information.

	   prints out a	usage message.

	   print extra information about the operations	being performed.

	   print out diagnostics relating to searches for the issuer certifi-
	   cate	of the current certificate. This shows why each	candidate is-
	   suer	certificate was	rejected. However the presence of rejection
	   messages does not itself imply that anything	is wrong: during the
	   normal verify process several rejections may	take place.

       -   marks the last option. All arguments	following this are assumed to
	   be certificate files. This is useful	if the first certificate file-
	   name	begins with a -.

	   one or more certificates to verify. If no certificate filenames are
	   included then an attempt is made to read a certificate from stan-
	   dard	input. They should all be in PEM format.

       The verify program uses the same	functions as the internal SSL and
       S/MIME verification, therefore this description applies to these	verify
       operations too.

       There is	one crucial difference between the verify operations performed
       by the verify program: wherever possible	an attempt is made to continue
       after an	error whereas normally the verify operation would halt on the
       first error. This allows	all the	problems with a	certificate chain to
       be determined.

       The verify operation consists of	a number of separate steps.

       Firstly a certificate chain is built up starting	from the supplied cer-
       tificate	and ending in the root CA. It is an error if the whole chain
       cannot be built up. The chain is	built up by looking up the issuers
       certificate of the current certificate. If a certificate	is found which
       is its own issuer it is assumed to be the root CA.

       The process of 'looking up the issuers certificate' itself involves a
       number of steps.	In versions of OpenSSL before 0.9.5a the first cer-
       tificate	whose subject name matched the issuer of the current certifi-
       cate was	assumed	to be the issuers certificate. In OpenSSL 0.9.6	and
       later all certificates whose subject name matches the issuer name of
       the current certificate are subject to further tests. The relevant au-
       thority key identifier components of the	current	certificate (if
       present)	must match the subject key identifier (if present) and issuer
       and serial number of the	candidate issuer, in addition the keyUsage ex-
       tension of the candidate	issuer (if present) must permit	certificate

       The lookup first	looks in the list of untrusted certificates and	if no
       match is	found the remaining lookups are	from the trusted certificates.
       The root	CA is always looked up in the trusted certificate list:	if the
       certificate to verify is	a root certificate then	an exact match must be
       found in	the trusted list.

       The second operation is to check	every untrusted	certificate's exten-
       sions for consistency with the supplied purpose.	If the -purpose	option
       is not included then no checks are done.	The supplied or	"leaf" cer-
       tificate	must have extensions compatible	with the supplied purpose and
       all other certificates must also	be valid CA certificates. The precise
       extensions required are described in more detail	in the CERTIFICATE EX-
       TENSIONS	section	of the x509 utility.

       The third operation is to check the trust settings on the root CA. The
       root CA should be trusted for the supplied purpose. For compatibility
       with previous versions of SSLeay	and OpenSSL a certificate with no
       trust settings is considered to be valid	for all	purposes.

       The final operation is to check the validity of the certificate chain.
       The validity period is checked against the current system time and the
       notBefore and notAfter dates in the certificate.	The certificate	signa-
       tures are also checked at this point.

       If all operations complete successfully then certificate	is considered
       valid. If any operation fails then the certificate is not valid.

       When a verify operation fails the output	messages can be	somewhat cryp-
       tic. The	general	form of	the error message is:

	server.pem: /C=AU/ST=Queensland/O=CryptSoft Pty	Ltd/CN=Test CA (1024 bit)
	error 24 at 1 depth lookup:invalid CA certificate

       The first line contains the name	of the certificate being verified fol-
       lowed by	the subject name of the	certificate. The second	line contains
       the error number	and the	depth. The depth is number of the certificate
       being verified when a problem was detected starting with	zero for the
       certificate being verified itself then 1	for the	CA that	signed the
       certificate and so on. Finally a	text version of	the error number is

       An exhaustive list of the error codes and messages is shown below, this
       also includes the name of the error code	as defined in the header file
       x509_vfy.h Some of the error codes are defined but never	returned:
       these are described as "unused".

       0 X509_V_OK: ok
	   the operation was successful.

       2 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT: unable to get issuer certifi-
	   the issuer certificate could	not be found: this occurs if the is-
	   suer	certificate of an untrusted certificate	cannot be found.

       3 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_CRL unable to	get certificate	CRL
	   the CRL of a	certificate could not be found.	Unused.

       4 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CERT_SIGNATURE: unable to	decrypt	cer-
       tificate's signature
	   the certificate signature could not be decrypted. This means	that
	   the actual signature	value could not	be determined rather than it
	   not matching	the expected value, this is only meaningful for	RSA

       5 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CRL_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt CRL's
	   the CRL signature could not be decrypted: this means	that the ac-
	   tual	signature value	could not be determined	rather than it not
	   matching the	expected value.	Unused.

       6 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECODE_ISSUER_PUBLIC_KEY:	unable to decode is-
       suer public key
	   the public key in the certificate SubjectPublicKeyInfo could	not be

       7 X509_V_ERR_CERT_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: certificate	signature failure
	   the signature of the	certificate is invalid.

       8 X509_V_ERR_CRL_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: CRL signature failure
	   the signature of the	certificate is invalid.	Unused.

       9 X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID:	certificate is not yet valid
	   the certificate is not yet valid: the notBefore date	is after the
	   current time.

       10 X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED: certificate has expired
	   the certificate has expired:	that is	the notAfter date is before
	   the current time.

       11 X509_V_ERR_CRL_NOT_YET_VALID:	CRL is not yet valid
	   the CRL is not yet valid. Unused.

       12 X509_V_ERR_CRL_HAS_EXPIRED: CRL has expired
	   the CRL has expired.	Unused.

       13 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_BEFORE_FIELD: format error in certifi-
       cate's notBefore	field
	   the certificate notBefore field contains an invalid time.

       14 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_AFTER_FIELD: format error in certifi-
       cate's notAfter field
	   the certificate notAfter field contains an invalid time.

       15 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_LAST_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's
       lastUpdate field
	   the CRL lastUpdate field contains an	invalid	time. Unused.

       16 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_NEXT_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's
       nextUpdate field
	   the CRL nextUpdate field contains an	invalid	time. Unused.

       17 X509_V_ERR_OUT_OF_MEM: out of	memory
	   an error occurred trying to allocate	memory.	This should never hap-

       18 X509_V_ERR_DEPTH_ZERO_SELF_SIGNED_CERT: self signed certificate
	   the passed certificate is self signed and the same certificate can-
	   not be found	in the list of trusted certificates.

       19 X509_V_ERR_SELF_SIGNED_CERT_IN_CHAIN:	self signed certificate	in
       certificate chain
	   the certificate chain could be built	up using the untrusted cer-
	   tificates but the root could	not be found locally.

       20 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY:	unable to get local
       issuer certificate
	   the issuer certificate of a locally looked up certificate could not
	   be found. This normally means the list of trusted certificates is
	   not complete.

       21 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_VERIFY_LEAF_SIGNATURE: unable to	verify the
       first certificate
	   no signatures could be verified because the chain contains only one
	   certificate and it is not self signed.

       22 X509_V_ERR_CERT_CHAIN_TOO_LONG: certificate chain too	long
	   the certificate chain length	is greater than	the supplied maximum
	   depth. Unused.

       23 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED: certificate revoked
	   the certificate has been revoked. Unused.

       24 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_CA: invalid CA certificate
	   a CA	certificate is invalid.	Either it is not a CA or its exten-
	   sions are not consistent with the supplied purpose.

       25 X509_V_ERR_PATH_LENGTH_EXCEEDED: path	length constraint exceeded
	   the basicConstraints	pathlength parameter has been exceeded.

       26 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_PURPOSE: unsupported certificate purpose
	   the supplied	certificate cannot be used for the specified purpose.

       27 X509_V_ERR_CERT_UNTRUSTED: certificate not trusted
	   the root CA is not marked as	trusted	for the	specified purpose.

       28 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REJECTED: certificate	rejected
	   the root CA is marked to reject the specified purpose.

       29 X509_V_ERR_SUBJECT_ISSUER_MISMATCH: subject issuer mismatch
	   the current candidate issuer	certificate was	rejected because its
	   subject name	did not	match the issuer name of the current certifi-
	   cate. Only displayed	when the -issuer_checks	option is set.

       30 X509_V_ERR_AKID_SKID_MISMATCH: authority and subject key identifier
	   the current candidate issuer	certificate was	rejected because its
	   subject key identifier was present and did not match	the authority
	   key identifier current certificate. Only displayed when the -is-
	   suer_checks option is set.

       31 X509_V_ERR_AKID_ISSUER_SERIAL_MISMATCH: authority and	issuer serial
       number mismatch
	   the current candidate issuer	certificate was	rejected because its
	   issuer name and serial number was present and did not match the au-
	   thority key identifier of the current certificate. Only displayed
	   when	the -issuer_checks option is set.

       32 X509_V_ERR_KEYUSAGE_NO_CERTSIGN:key usage does not include certifi-
       cate signing
	   the current candidate issuer	certificate was	rejected because its
	   keyUsage extension does not permit certificate signing.

       50 X509_V_ERR_APPLICATION_VERIFICATION: application verification	fail-
	   an application specific error. Unused.

       Although	the issuer checks are a	considerably improvement over the old
       technique they still suffer from	limitations in the underlying
       X509_LOOKUP API.	One consequence	of this	is that	trusted	certificates
       with matching subject name must either appear in	a file (as specified
       by the -CAfile option) or a directory (as specified by -CApath. If they
       occur in	both then only the certificates	in the file will be recog-

       Previous	versions of OpenSSL assume certificates	with matching subject
       name are	identical and mishandled them.


0.9.7d				  2005-02-25			     VERIFY(1)


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