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VERIFY(1)			    OpenSSL			     VERIFY(1)

       verify -	Utility	to verify certificates.

       openssl verify [-CApath directory] [-CAfile file] [-purpose purpose]
       [-policy	arg] [-ignore_critical]	[-crl_check] [-crl_check_all]
       [-policy_check] [-explicit_policy] [-inhibit_any] [-inhibit_map]
       [-x509_strict] [-extended_crl] [-use_deltas] [-policy_print]
       [-untrusted file] [-help] [-issuer_checks] [-verbose] [-]

       The verify command verifies certificate chains.

       -CApath directory
	   A directory of trusted certificates.	The certificates should	have
	   names of the	form: hash.0 or	have symbolic links to them of this
	   form	("hash"	is the hashed certificate subject name:	see the	-hash
	   option of the x509 utility).	Under Unix the c_rehash	script will
	   automatically create	symbolic links to a directory of certificates.

       -CAfile file
	   A file of trusted certificates. The file should contain multiple
	   certificates	in PEM format concatenated together.

       -untrusted file
	   A file of untrusted certificates. The file should contain multiple
	   certificates	in PEM format concatenated together.

       -purpose	purpose
	   The intended	use for	the certificate. If this option	is not
	   specified, verify will not consider certificate purpose during
	   chain verification.	Currently accepted uses	are sslclient,
	   sslserver, nssslserver, smimesign, smimeencrypt. See	the VERIFY
	   OPERATION section for more information.

	   Print out a usage message.

	   Print extra information about the operations	being performed.

	   Print out diagnostics relating to searches for the issuer
	   certificate of the current certificate. This	shows why each
	   candidate issuer certificate	was rejected. The presence of
	   rejection messages does not itself imply that anything is wrong;
	   during the normal verification process, several rejections may take

       -policy arg
	   Enable policy processing and	add arg	to the user-initial-policy-set
	   (see	RFC5280). The policy arg can be	an object name an OID in
	   numeric form.  This argument	can appear more	than once.

	   Enables certificate policy processing.

	   Set policy variable require-explicit-policy (see RFC5280).

	   Set policy variable inhibit-any-policy (see RFC5280).

	   Set policy variable inhibit-policy-mapping (see RFC5280).

	   Print out diagnostics related to policy processing.

	   Checks end entity certificate validity by attempting	to look	up a
	   valid CRL.  If a valid CRL cannot be	found an error occurs.

	   Checks the validity of all certificates in the chain	by attempting
	   to look up valid CRLs.

	   Normally if an unhandled critical extension is present which	is not
	   supported by	OpenSSL	the certificate	is rejected (as	required by
	   RFC5280).  If this option is	set critical extensions	are ignored.

	   For strict X.509 compliance,	disable	non-compliant workarounds for
	   broken certificates.

	   Enable extended CRL features	such as	indirect CRLs and alternate
	   CRL signing keys.

	   Enable support for delta CRLs.

	   Verify the signature	on the self-signed root	CA. This is disabled
	   by default because it doesn't add any security.

       -   Indicates the last option. All arguments following this are assumed
	   to be certificate files. This is useful if the first	certificate
	   filename begins with	a -.

	   One or more certificates to verify. If no certificates are given,
	   verify will attempt to read a certificate from standard input.
	   Certificates	must be	in PEM format.

       The verify program uses the same	functions as the internal SSL and
       S/MIME verification, therefore this description applies to these	verify
       operations too.

       There is	one crucial difference between the verify operations performed
       by the verify program: wherever possible	an attempt is made to continue
       after an	error whereas normally the verify operation would halt on the
       first error. This allows	all the	problems with a	certificate chain to
       be determined.

       The verify operation consists of	a number of separate steps.

       Firstly a certificate chain is built up starting	from the supplied
       certificate and ending in the root CA. It is an error if	the whole
       chain cannot be built up. The chain is built up by looking up the
       issuers certificate of the current certificate. If a certificate	is
       found which is its own issuer it	is assumed to be the root CA.

       The process of 'looking up the issuers certificate' itself involves a
       number of steps.	In versions of OpenSSL before 0.9.5a the first
       certificate whose subject name matched the issuer of the	current
       certificate was assumed to be the issuers certificate. In OpenSSL 0.9.6
       and later all certificates whose	subject	name matches the issuer	name
       of the current certificate are subject to further tests.	The relevant
       authority key identifier	components of the current certificate (if
       present)	must match the subject key identifier (if present) and issuer
       and serial number of the	candidate issuer, in addition the keyUsage
       extension of the	candidate issuer (if present) must permit certificate

       The lookup first	looks in the list of untrusted certificates and	if no
       match is	found the remaining lookups are	from the trusted certificates.
       The root	CA is always looked up in the trusted certificate list:	if the
       certificate to verify is	a root certificate then	an exact match must be
       found in	the trusted list.

       The second operation is to check	every untrusted	certificate's
       extensions for consistency with the supplied purpose. If	the -purpose
       option is not included then no checks are done. The supplied or "leaf"
       certificate must	have extensions	compatible with	the supplied purpose
       and all other certificates must also be valid CA	certificates. The
       precise extensions required are described in more detail	in the
       CERTIFICATE EXTENSIONS section of the x509 utility.

       The third operation is to check the trust settings on the root CA. The
       root CA should be trusted for the supplied purpose. For compatibility
       with previous versions of SSLeay	and OpenSSL a certificate with no
       trust settings is considered to be valid	for all	purposes.

       The final operation is to check the validity of the certificate chain.
       The validity period is checked against the current system time and the
       notBefore and notAfter dates in the certificate.	The certificate
       signatures are also checked at this point.

       If all operations complete successfully then certificate	is considered
       valid. If any operation fails then the certificate is not valid.

       When a verify operation fails the output	messages can be	somewhat
       cryptic.	The general form of the	error message is:

	server.pem: /C=AU/ST=Queensland/O=CryptSoft Pty	Ltd/CN=Test CA (1024 bit)
	error 24 at 1 depth lookup:invalid CA certificate

       The first line contains the name	of the certificate being verified
       followed	by the subject name of the certificate.	The second line
       contains	the error number and the depth.	The depth is number of the
       certificate being verified when a problem was detected starting with
       zero for	the certificate	being verified itself then 1 for the CA	that
       signed the certificate and so on. Finally a text	version	of the error
       number is presented.

       An exhaustive list of the error codes and messages is shown below, this
       also includes the name of the error code	as defined in the header file
       x509_vfy.h Some of the error codes are defined but never	returned:
       these are described as "unused".

       0 X509_V_OK: ok
	   the operation was successful.

       2 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT: unable to get issuer
	   the issuer certificate of a looked up certificate could not be
	   found. This normally	means the list of trusted certificates is not

       3 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_CRL: unable to get certificate CRL
	   the CRL of a	certificate could not be found.

       4 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CERT_SIGNATURE: unable to	decrypt
       certificate's signature
	   the certificate signature could not be decrypted. This means	that
	   the actual signature	value could not	be determined rather than it
	   not matching	the expected value, this is only meaningful for	RSA

       5 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CRL_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt CRL's
	   the CRL signature could not be decrypted: this means	that the
	   actual signature value could	not be determined rather than it not
	   matching the	expected value.	Unused.

       6 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECODE_ISSUER_PUBLIC_KEY:	unable to decode
       issuer public key
	   the public key in the certificate SubjectPublicKeyInfo could	not be

       7 X509_V_ERR_CERT_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: certificate	signature failure
	   the signature of the	certificate is invalid.

       8 X509_V_ERR_CRL_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: CRL signature failure
	   the signature of the	certificate is invalid.

       9 X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID:	certificate is not yet valid
	   the certificate is not yet valid: the notBefore date	is after the
	   current time.

       10 X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED: certificate has expired
	   the certificate has expired:	that is	the notAfter date is before
	   the current time.

       11 X509_V_ERR_CRL_NOT_YET_VALID:	CRL is not yet valid
	   the CRL is not yet valid.

       12 X509_V_ERR_CRL_HAS_EXPIRED: CRL has expired
	   the CRL has expired.

       13 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_BEFORE_FIELD: format error in
       certificate's notBefore field
	   the certificate notBefore field contains an invalid time.

       14 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_AFTER_FIELD: format error in
       certificate's notAfter field
	   the certificate notAfter field contains an invalid time.

       15 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_LAST_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's
       lastUpdate field
	   the CRL lastUpdate field contains an	invalid	time.

       16 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_NEXT_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's
       nextUpdate field
	   the CRL nextUpdate field contains an	invalid	time.

       17 X509_V_ERR_OUT_OF_MEM: out of	memory
	   an error occurred trying to allocate	memory.	This should never

       18 X509_V_ERR_DEPTH_ZERO_SELF_SIGNED_CERT: self signed certificate
	   the passed certificate is self signed and the same certificate
	   cannot be found in the list of trusted certificates.

       19 X509_V_ERR_SELF_SIGNED_CERT_IN_CHAIN:	self signed certificate	in
       certificate chain
	   the certificate chain could be built	up using the untrusted
	   certificates	but the	root could not be found	locally.

       20 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY:	unable to get local
       issuer certificate
	   the issuer certificate could	not be found: this occurs if the
	   issuer certificate of an untrusted certificate cannot be found.

       21 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_VERIFY_LEAF_SIGNATURE: unable to	verify the
       first certificate
	   no signatures could be verified because the chain contains only one
	   certificate and it is not self signed.

       22 X509_V_ERR_CERT_CHAIN_TOO_LONG: certificate chain too	long
	   the certificate chain length	is greater than	the supplied maximum
	   depth. Unused.

       23 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED: certificate revoked
	   the certificate has been revoked.

       24 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_CA: invalid CA certificate
	   a CA	certificate is invalid.	Either it is not a CA or its
	   extensions are not consistent with the supplied purpose.

       25 X509_V_ERR_PATH_LENGTH_EXCEEDED: path	length constraint exceeded
	   the basicConstraints	pathlength parameter has been exceeded.

       26 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_PURPOSE: unsupported certificate purpose
	   the supplied	certificate cannot be used for the specified purpose.

       27 X509_V_ERR_CERT_UNTRUSTED: certificate not trusted
	   the root CA is not marked as	trusted	for the	specified purpose.

       28 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REJECTED: certificate	rejected
	   the root CA is marked to reject the specified purpose.

       29 X509_V_ERR_SUBJECT_ISSUER_MISMATCH: subject issuer mismatch
	   the current candidate issuer	certificate was	rejected because its
	   subject name	did not	match the issuer name of the current
	   certificate.	Only displayed when the	-issuer_checks option is set.

       30 X509_V_ERR_AKID_SKID_MISMATCH: authority and subject key identifier
	   the current candidate issuer	certificate was	rejected because its
	   subject key identifier was present and did not match	the authority
	   key identifier current certificate. Only displayed when the
	   -issuer_checks option is set.

       31 X509_V_ERR_AKID_ISSUER_SERIAL_MISMATCH: authority and	issuer serial
       number mismatch
	   the current candidate issuer	certificate was	rejected because its
	   issuer name and serial number was present and did not match the
	   authority key identifier of the current certificate.	Only displayed
	   when	the -issuer_checks option is set.

       32 X509_V_ERR_KEYUSAGE_NO_CERTSIGN:key usage does not include
       certificate signing
	   the current candidate issuer	certificate was	rejected because its
	   keyUsage extension does not permit certificate signing.

       50 X509_V_ERR_APPLICATION_VERIFICATION: application verification
	   an application specific error. Unused.

       Although	the issuer checks are a	considerably improvement over the old
       technique they still suffer from	limitations in the underlying
       X509_LOOKUP API.	One consequence	of this	is that	trusted	certificates
       with matching subject name must either appear in	a file (as specified
       by the -CAfile option) or a directory (as specified by -CApath. If they
       occur in	both then only the certificates	in the file will be

       Previous	versions of OpenSSL assume certificates	with matching subject
       name are	identical and mishandled them.

       Previous	versions of this documentation swapped the meaning of the


1.0.1e				  2013-02-11			     VERIFY(1)


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