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VALE(4)		       FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual		       VALE(4)

NAME
     vale -- a very fast Virtual Local Ethernet	using the netmap API

SYNOPSIS
     device netmap

DESCRIPTION
     vale is a feature of the netmap(4)	module that implements multiple	Vir-
     tual switches that	can be used to interconnect netmap clients, including
     traffic sources and sinks,	packet forwarders, userspace firewalls,	and so
     on.

     vale is implemented completely in software, and is	extremely fast.	 On a
     modern machine it can move	almost 20 Million packets per second (Mpps)
     per core with small frames, and about 70 Gbit/s with 1500 byte frames.

OPERATION
     vale dynamically creates switches and ports as clients connect to it
     using the netmap(4) API.

     vale ports	are named vale[bdg:][port] where vale is the prefix indicating
     a VALE switch rather than a standard interface, bdg indicates a specific
     switch (the colon is a separator),	and port indicates a port within the
     switch.  Bridge and port names are	arbitrary strings, the only constraint
     being that	the full name must fit within 16 characters.

     See netmap(4) for details on the API.

   LIMITS
     vale currently supports up	to 4 switches, 16 ports	per switch, with 1024
     buffers per port.	These hard limits will be changed to sysctl variables
     in	future releases.

SYSCTL VARIABLES
     vale uses the following sysctl variables to control operation:

     dev.netmap.bridge	 The maximum number of packets processed internally in
			 each iteration.  Defaults to 1024, use	lower values
			 to trade latency with throughput.

     dev.netmap.verbose	 Set to	non-zero values	to enable in-kernel diagnos-
			 tics.

EXAMPLES
     Create one	switch,	with a traffic generator connected to one port,	and a
     netmap-enabled tcpdump instance on	another	port:

	   tcpdump -ni vale-a:1	&
	   pkt-gen  -i vale-a:0	-f tx &

     Create two	switches, each connected to two	qemu machines on different
     ports.

	   qemu	-net nic -net netmap,ifname=vale-1:a ... &
	   qemu	-net nic -net netmap,ifname=vale-1:b ... &
	   qemu	-net nic -net netmap,ifname=vale-2:c ... &
	   qemu	-net nic -net netmap,ifname=vale-2:d ... &

SEE ALSO
     netmap(4)

     http://info.iet.unipi.it/~luigi/vale/

     Luigi Rizzo, Giuseppe Lettieri: VALE, a switched ethernet for virtual
     machines, June 2012, http://info.iet.unipi.it/~luigi/vale/

AUTHORS
     The vale switch was designed and implemented in 2012 by Luigi Rizzo and
     Giuseppe Lettieri at the Universita` di Pisa.

     vale was funded by	the European Commission	within FP7 Projects CHANGE
     (257422) and OPENLAB (287581).

FreeBSD	11.1			 July 27, 2012			  FreeBSD 11.1

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPERATION | SYSCTL VARIABLES | EXAMPLES | SEE ALSO | AUTHORS

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