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URTWN(4)	       FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual		      URTWN(4)

     urtwn -- Realtek RTL8188CU/RTL8188EU/RTL8192CU/RTL8192EU USB IEEE
     802.11b/g/n wireless network device

     urtwn* at uhub? port ?

     The urtwn driver supports USB 2.0 wireless	network	devices	based on Real-
     tek RTL8188CU, RTL8188CE-VAU, RTL8188EU, RTL8188RU, RTL8192CU and
     RTL8192EU chipsets.

     The RTL8188CU and RTL8188EU are highly integrated 802.11n adapters	that
     combine a MAC, a 1T1R capable baseband and	an RF in a single chip.	 They
     operate in	the 2GHz spectrum only.	 The RTL8188RU is a high-power variant
     of	the RTL8188CU.	The RTL8188CE-VAU is a PCI Express Mini	Card adapter
     that attaches to the USB interface.

     The RTL8192CU and RTL8192EU are highly integrated multiple-in, multiple-
     out (MIMO)	802.11n	adapters that combine a	MAC, a 2T2R capable baseband
     and an RF in a single chip.  They operate in the 2GHz spectrum only.

     These are the modes the urtwn driver can operate in:

     BSS mode	    Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when asso-
		    ciating with an access point, through which	all traffic
		    passes.  This mode is the default.

     monitor mode   In this mode the driver is able to receive packets without
		    associating	with an	access point.  This disables the in-
		    ternal receive filter and enables the card to capture
		    packets from networks which	it wouldn't normally have ac-
		    cess to, or	to scan	for access points.

     The urtwn driver can be configured	to use Wired Equivalent	Privacy	(WEP)
     or	Wi-Fi Protected	Access (WPA1 and WPA2).	 WPA2 is the current encryp-
     tion standard for wireless	networks.  It is strongly recommended that
     neither WEP nor WPA1 are used as the sole mechanism to secure wireless
     communication, due	to serious weaknesses.	WPA1 is	disabled by default
     and may be	enabled	using the option "wpaprotos wpa1,wpa2".	 For standard
     WPA networks which	use pre-shared keys (PSK), keys	are configured using
     the "wpakey" option.  WPA-Enterprise networks require use of the wpa_sup-
     plicant package.

     The urtwn driver can be configured	at runtime with	ifconfig(8) or on boot
     with hostname.if(5).

     The driver	needs at least version 1.1p0 of	the following firmware files,
     which are loaded when an interface	is attached:


     A prepackaged version of the firmware can be installed using

     The following adapters should work:

	   Airlink101 AWLL5088
	   Alfa	AWUS036NHR
	   Approx APPUSB300NANO	V1
	   Aus.	Linx AL-9604R1S
	   B-Link BL-LW05-5R
	   Belkin F7D1102 Surf Wireless	Micro
	   D-Link DWA-121
	   D-Link DWA-123 rev D1
	   D-Link DWA-125 rev D1
	   D-Link DWA-131 rev B, E1
	   D-Link DWA-133
	   D-Link DWA-135
	   Digitus DN-7042
	   Edimax EW-7811Un
	   Edimax EW-7811Un v2
	   EDUP	EP-N8508
	   Elecom WDC-150SU2M
	   Full	River FR-W100NUL
	   Hercules Wireless N USB Pico	HWNUp-150
	   ISY IWL4000 USB Wireless Micro Adapter
	   Netgear WNA1000A
	   Netgear WNA1000M
	   Netgear WNA1000Mv2
	   On Networks N300MA
	   Patriot PCUSBW1150
	   Planex GW-USEco300
	   Planex GW-USNano2
	   Planex GW-USValue-EZ
	   Planex GW-USWExtreme
	   Prolink WN2201
	   Sitecom WL-365
	   Sitecom WLA-2100 v2
	   Solwise NET-WL-UMD-606N
	   TP-LINK TL-WN722N v2
	   TP-LINK TL-WN723N v3
	   TP-LINK TL-WN725N v2
	   TP-LINK TL-WN821N v4
	   TP-LINK TL-WN821N v5
	   TP-LINK TL-WN822N v4
	   TP-LINK TL-WN822N v5
	   TRENDnet TEW-648UBM

     The following example scans for available networks:

	   # ifconfig urtwn0 scan

     The following hostname.if(5) example configures urtwn0 to join network
     "mynwid", using WPA key "mywpakey", obtaining an IP address using DHCP:

	   nwid	mynwid wpakey mywpakey

     urtwn0: error N, could not	read firmware ...  For some reason, the	driver
     was unable	to read	the microcode file from	the filesystem.	 The file
     might be missing or corrupted.

     urtwn0: device timeout  A frame dispatched	to the hardware	for transmis-
     sion did not complete in time.  The driver	will reset the hardware.  This
     should not	happen.

     arp(4), ifmedia(4), intro(4), netintro(4),	usb(4),	hostname.if(5),

     The urtwn driver first appeared in	OpenBSD	4.9.

     The urtwn driver was written by Damien Bergamini

     The urtwn driver does not support any of the 802.11n capabilities offered
     by	the adapters.  Additional work is required in ieee80211(9) before
     those features can	be supported.

     This driver does not support powersave mode.

FreeBSD	13.0		       November	15, 2020		  FreeBSD 13.0


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