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UNZIP(1L)							     UNZIP(1L)

       unzip - list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP	archive

       unzip   [-Z]   [-cflptuvz[abjnoqsCLMVX$/:]]   file[.zip]	 [file(s) ...]
       [-x xfile(s) ...] [-d exdir]

       unzip will list,	test, or extract files from a  ZIP  archive,  commonly
       found  on MS-DOS	systems.  The default behavior (with no	options) is to
       extract into the	current	directory (and subdirectories  below  it)  all
       files  from  the	 specified ZIP archive.	 A companion program, zip(1L),
       creates ZIP archives; both programs are compatible with	archives  cre-
       ated  by	 PKWARE's  PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS, but in	many cases the
       program options or default behaviors differ.

	      Path of the ZIP archive(s).  If  the  file  specification	 is  a
	      wildcard,	each matching file is processed	in an order determined
	      by the operating system (or file system).	 Only the filename can
	      be a wildcard; the path itself cannot.  Wildcard expressions are
	      similar to those supported in commonly  used  Unix  shells  (sh,
	      ksh, csh)	and may	contain:

	      *	     matches a sequence	of 0 or	more characters

	      ?	     matches exactly 1 character

	      [...]  matches  any  single character found inside the brackets;
		     ranges are	specified by a beginning character, a  hyphen,
		     and  an  ending  character.  If an	exclamation point or a
		     caret (`!'	or `^')	follows	the  left  bracket,  then  the
		     range  of	characters within the brackets is complemented
		     (that is,	anything  except  the  characters  inside  the
		     brackets is considered a match).

	      (Be  sure	 to quote any character	that might otherwise be	inter-
	      preted or	modified by the	operating system,  particularly	 under
	      Unix  and	 VMS.)	 If no matches are found, the specification is
	      assumed to be a literal filename;	and if that  also  fails,  the
	      suffix  .zip  is	appended.  Note	that self-extracting ZIP files
	      are supported, as	with any other ZIP archive; just  specify  the
	      .exe suffix (if any) explicitly.

	      An  optional  list of archive members to be processed, separated
	      by spaces.  (VMS versions	compiled with VMSCLI defined must  de-
	      limit  files  with  commas  instead.   See -v in OPTIONS below.)
	      Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used  to  match  multiple
	      members;	see  above.   Again, be	sure to	quote expressions that
	      would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system.

       [-x xfile(s)]
	      An optional list of archive members to be	excluded from process-
	      ing.   Since  wildcard  characters  match	 directory  separators
	      (`/'), this option may be	used to	exclude	any files that are  in
	      subdirectories.	For example, ``unzip foo *.[ch]	-x */*'' would
	      extract all C source files in the	main directory,	 but  none  in
	      any  subdirectories.   Without the -x option, all	C source files
	      in all directories within	the zipfile would be extracted.

       [-d exdir]
	      An optional directory to which to	extract	 files.	  By  default,
	      all files	and subdirectories are recreated in the	current	direc-
	      tory; the	-d option allows extraction in an arbitrary  directory
	      (always  assuming	one has	permission to write to the directory).
	      This option need not appear at the end of	the command  line;  it
	      is also accepted before the zipfile specification	(with the nor-
	      mal options), immediately	after the  zipfile  specification,  or
	      between the file(s) and the -x option.  The option and directory
	      may be concatenated without any white space  between  them,  but
	      note that	this may cause normal shell behavior to	be suppressed.
	      In particular, ``-d ~'' (tilde) is expanded  by  Unix  C	shells
	      into  the	 name  of  the	user's	home directory,	but ``-d~'' is
	      treated as a literal subdirectory	``~'' of  the  current	direc-

       Note  that,  in	order  to  support obsolescent hardware, unzip's usage
       screen is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should therefore	be  considered
       only  a	reminder  of  the basic	unzip syntax rather than an exhaustive
       list of all possible flags.  The	exhaustive list	follows:

       -Z     zipinfo(1L) mode.	 If the	first option on	the  command  line  is
	      -Z,  the	remaining options are taken to be zipinfo(1L) options.
	      See the appropriate manual page for a description	of  these  op-

       -A     [OS/2,  Unix  DLL] print extended	help for the DLL's programming
	      interface	(API).

       -c     extract files to stdout/screen (``CRT'').	 This option is	 simi-
	      lar  to  the  -p	option	except	that  the name of each file is
	      printed as it is extracted, the -a option	is allowed, and	ASCII-
	      EBCDIC  conversion  is  automatically  performed if appropriate.
	      This option is not listed	in the unzip usage screen.

       -f     freshen existing files, i.e., extract only those files that  al-
	      ready exist on disk and that are newer than the disk copies.  By
	      default unzip queries before overwriting,	but the	-o option  may
	      be used to suppress the queries.	Note that under	many operating
	      systems, the TZ (timezone) environment variable must be set cor-
	      rectly  in  order	for -f and -u to work properly (under Unix the
	      variable is usually set automatically).  The  reasons  for  this
	      are  somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between
	      DOS-format file times (always local time)	and Unix-format	 times
	      (always  in  GMT/UTC)  and  the necessity	to compare the two.  A
	      typical TZ value is ``PST8PDT'' (US Pacific time with  automatic
	      adjustment for Daylight Savings Time or ``summer time'').

       -l     list archive files (short	format).  The names, uncompressed file
	      sizes and	modification dates and times of	 the  specified	 files
	      are  printed, along with totals for all files specified.	If Un-
	      Zip was compiled with OS2_EAS defined, the -l option also	 lists
	      columns  for  the	sizes of stored	OS/2 extended attributes (EAs)
	      and OS/2 access control lists (ACLs).  In	addition, the  zipfile
	      comment and individual file comments (if any) are	displayed.  If
	      a	file was archived from a single-case file system (for example,
	      the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the -L option	was given, the
	      filename is converted to lowercase and is	prefixed with a	 caret

       -p     extract  files  to  pipe (stdout).  Nothing but the file data is
	      sent to stdout, and the files are	 always	 extracted  in	binary
	      format, just as they are stored (no conversions).

       -t     test archive files.  This	option extracts	each specified file in
	      memory and compares the CRC (cyclic  redundancy  check,  an  en-
	      hanced  checksum)	 of the	expanded file with the original	file's
	      stored CRC value.

       -T     [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that  of  the
	      newest  file  in each one.  This corresponds to zip's -go	option
	      except that it can be used on wildcard zipfiles  (e.g.,  ``unzip
	      -T \*.zip'') and is much faster.

       -u     update  existing	files and create new ones if needed.  This op-
	      tion performs the	same function as  the  -f  option,  extracting
	      (with  query) files that are newer than those with the same name
	      on disk, and in addition it extracts those files that do not al-
	      ready  exist  on	disk.  See -f above for	information on setting
	      the timezone properly.

       -v     be verbose or print diagnostic version info.   This  option  has
	      evolved and now behaves as both an option	and a modifier.	 As an
	      option it	has two	purposes:  when	a zipfile is specified with no
	      other  options,  -v lists	archive	files verbosely, adding	to the
	      basic -l info the	compression method, compressed size,  compres-
	      sion  ratio  and 32-bit CRC.  When no zipfile is specified (that
	      is, the complete command is simply ``unzip -v''),	 a  diagnostic
	      screen  is  printed.   In	addition to the	normal header with re-
	      lease date and version, unzip lists the home Info-ZIP  ftp  site
	      and  where  to  find  a list of other ftp	and non-ftp sites; the
	      target operating system for which	it was compiled,  as  well  as
	      (possibly)  the  hardware	on which it was	compiled, the compiler
	      and version used,	and the	compilation date; any special compila-
	      tion options that	might affect the program's operation (see also
	      DECRYPTION below); and any options stored	in  environment	 vari-
	      ables  that  might  do the same (see ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below).
	      As a modifier it works in	conjunction with other options	(e.g.,
	      -t) to produce more verbose or debugging output; this is not yet
	      fully implemented	but will be in future releases.

       -z     display only the archive comment.

       -a     convert text files.  Ordinarily all files	are extracted  exactly
	      as  they are stored (as ``binary'' files).  The -a option	causes
	      files identified by zip as text files (those with	the `t'	 label
	      in  zipinfo  listings,  rather than `b') to be automatically ex-
	      tracted as such, converting line endings,	end-of-file characters
	      and  the	character set itself as	necessary.  (For example, Unix
	      files use	line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line  (EOL)	 and  have  no
	      end-of-file (EOF)	marker;	Macintoshes use	carriage returns (CRs)
	      for EOLs;	and most PC operating systems use CR+LF	for  EOLs  and
	      control-Z	for EOF.  In addition, IBM mainframes and the Michigan
	      Terminal System use EBCDIC rather	than  the  more	 common	 ASCII
	      character	 set, and NT supports Unicode.)	 Note that zip's iden-
	      tification of text files is by no	means perfect;	some  ``text''
	      files  may  actually  be binary and vice versa.  unzip therefore
	      prints ``[text]''	or ``[binary]''	as a  visual  check  for  each
	      file  it	extracts  when	using  the  -a option.	The -aa	option
	      forces all files to be extracted as text,	regardless of the sup-
	      posed file type.

       -b     [general]	treat all files	as binary (no text conversions).  This
	      is a shortcut for	---a.

       -b     [Tandem] force the creation files	with filecode type  180	 ('C')
	      when  extracting Zip entries marked as "text". (On Tandem, -a is
	      enabled by default, see above).

       -b     [VMS] auto-convert binary	files (see -a above) to	 fixed-length,
	      512-byte	record	format.	  Doubling the option (-bb) forces all
	      files to be extracted in this format. When extracting  to	 stan-
	      dard  output (-c or -p option in effect),	the default conversion
	      of text record delimiters	is disabled for	binary (-b) resp.  all
	      (-bb) files.

       -B     [Unix only, and only if compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined]	save a
	      backup copy of each  overwritten	file  with  a  tilde  appended
	      (e.g., the old copy of ``foo'' is	renamed	to ``foo~'').  This is
	      similar to the default behavior of emacs(1) in many locations.

       -C     match filenames case-insensitively.  unzip's philosophy is ``you
	      get  what	 you ask for'' (this is	also responsible for the -L/-U
	      change; see the relevant options below).	Because	some file sys-
	      tems  are	fully case-sensitive (notably those under the Unix op-
	      erating system) and because both ZIP archives and	 unzip	itself
	      are  portable  across  platforms,	unzip's	default	behavior is to
	      match both  wildcard  and	 literal  filenames  case-sensitively.
	      That  is,	 specifying ``makefile'' on the	command	line will only
	      match ``makefile'' in the	archive, not ``Makefile''  or  ``MAKE-
	      FILE''  (and similarly for wildcard specifications).  Since this
	      does not correspond to the behavior of many other	operating/file
	      systems  (for example, OS/2 HPFS,	which preserves	mixed case but
	      is not sensitive to it), the -C option may be used to force  all
	      filename	matches	to be case-insensitive.	 In the	example	above,
	      all three	files would then match ``makefile'' (or	``make*'',  or
	      similar).	  The  -C option affects files in both the normal file
	      list and the excluded-file list (xlist).

       -E     [MacOS only] display contents of MacOS extra  field  during  re-
	      store operation.

       -F     [Acorn  only]  suppress  removal	of NFS filetype	extension from
	      stored filenames.

       -F     [non-Acorn systems supporting long filenames with	embedded  com-
	      mas,  and	 only if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS defined]	trans-
	      late filetype information	from ACORN RISC	OS extra field	blocks
	      into  a NFS filetype extension and append	it to the names	of the
	      extracted	files.	(When the stored filename appears  to  already
	      have  an	appended NFS filetype extension, it is replaced	by the
	      info from	the extra field.)

       -i     [MacOS only] ignore filenames stored in MacOS extra fields.  In-
	      stead,  the  most	compatible filename stored in the generic part
	      of the entry's header is used.

       -j     junk paths.  The archive's directory structure is	not recreated;
	      all files	are deposited in the extraction	directory (by default,
	      the current one).

       -J     [BeOS only] junk file attributes.	  The  file's  BeOS  file  at-
	      tributes are not restored, just the file's data.

       -J     [MacOS  only] ignore MacOS extra fields.	All Macintosh specific
	      info is skipped. Data-fork and  resource-fork  are  restored  as
	      separate files.

       -L     convert  to  lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-
	      only operating system or file system.  (This was unzip's default
	      behavior	in releases prior to 5.11; the new default behavior is
	      identical	to the old behavior with the -U	option,	which  is  now
	      obsolete and will	be removed in a	future release.)  Depending on
	      the archiver, files  archived  under  single-case	 file  systems
	      (VMS,  old  MS-DOS  FAT,	etc.)  may  be stored as all-uppercase
	      names; this can be ugly or inconvenient  when  extracting	 to  a
	      case-preserving  file  system such as OS/2 HPFS or a case-sensi-
	      tive one such as under Unix.  By default	unzip  lists  and  ex-
	      tracts such filenames exactly as they're stored (excepting trun-
	      cation, conversion of unsupported	characters, etc.); this	option
	      causes  the  names  of all files from certain systems to be con-
	      verted to	lowercase.  The	-LL option forces conversion of	 every
	      filename	to  lowercase, regardless of the originating file sys-

       -M     pipe all output through an internal pager	similar	 to  the  Unix
	      more(1)  command.	  At  the  end of a screenful of output, unzip
	      pauses with a ``--More--'' prompt; the  next  screenful  may  be
	      viewed by	pressing the Enter (Return) key	or the space bar.  un-
	      zip can be terminated by pressing	the ``q''  key	and,  on  some
	      systems, the Enter/Return	key.  Unlike Unix more(1), there is no
	      forward-searching	or editing capability.	 Also,	unzip  doesn't
	      notice if	long lines wrap	at the edge of the screen, effectively
	      resulting	in the printing	of two or more lines and  the  likeli-
	      hood that	some text will scroll off the top of the screen	before
	      being viewed.  On	some systems the number	of available lines  on
	      the  screen  is  not  detected,  in which	case unzip assumes the
	      height is	24 lines.

       -n     never overwrite existing files.  If a file already exists,  skip
	      the extraction of	that file without prompting.  By default unzip
	      queries before extracting	any file that already exists; the user
	      may  choose  to  overwrite  only the current file, overwrite all
	      files, skip extraction of	the current file, skip	extraction  of
	      all existing files, or rename the	current	file.

       -N     [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes.	 File comments
	      are created with the -c option of	zip(1L), or with the -N	option
	      of  the  Amiga  port  of zip(1L),	which stores filenotes as com-

       -o     overwrite	existing files without prompting.  This	is a dangerous
	      option,  so  use	it with	care.  (It is often used with -f, how-
	      ever, and	is the only  way  to  overwrite	 directory  EAs	 under

       -P password
	      use  password  to	 decrypt  encrypted  zipfile entries (if any).
	      THIS IS INSECURE!	 Many  multi-user  operating  systems  provide
	      ways  for	 any user to see the current command line of any other
	      user; even on stand-alone	systems	there is always	the threat  of
	      over-the-shoulder	 peeking.   Storing  the plaintext password as
	      part of a	command	line in	an automated  script  is  even	worse.
	      Whenever	possible,  use	the non-echoing, interactive prompt to
	      enter passwords.	(And where security is	truly  important,  use
	      strong  encryption  such	as  Pretty Good	Privacy	instead	of the
	      relatively weak encryption provided by standard  zipfile	utili-

       -q     perform operations quietly (-qq =	even quieter).	Ordinarily un-
	      zip prints the names of the files	it's  extracting  or  testing,
	      the extraction methods, any file or zipfile comments that	may be
	      stored in	the archive, and possibly a summary when finished with
	      each  archive.   The -q[q] options suppress the printing of some
	      or all of	these messages.

       -s     [OS/2, NT, MS-DOS] convert spaces	in filenames  to  underscores.
	      Since  all PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames, unzip
	      by  default  extracts  filenames	with  spaces   intact	(e.g.,
	      ``EA DATA. SF'').	 This can be awkward, however, since MS-DOS in
	      particular does not  gracefully  support	spaces	in  filenames.
	      Conversion  of  spaces to	underscores can	eliminate the awkward-
	      ness in some cases.

       -U     (obsolete; to be removed in a future  release)  leave  filenames
	      uppercase	if created under MS-DOS, VMS, etc.  See	-L above.

       -V     retain (VMS) file	version	numbers.  VMS files can	be stored with
	      a	version	number,	in the format  file.ext;##.   By  default  the
	      ``;##''  version	numbers	 are  stripped,	but this option	allows
	      them to be retained.  (On	file systems that limit	 filenames  to
	      particularly short lengths, the version numbers may be truncated
	      or stripped regardless of	this option.)

       -X     [VMS, Unix, OS/2,	NT] restore owner/protection info (UICs) under
	      VMS, or user and group info (UID/GID) under Unix,	or access con-
	      trol lists (ACLs)	under certain network-enabled versions of OS/2
	      (Warp Server with	IBM LAN	Server/Requester 3.0 to	5.0; Warp Con-
	      nect with	IBM Peer 1.0), or security ACLs	under Windows NT.   In
	      most cases this will require special system privileges, and dou-
	      bling the	option (-XX) under NT instructs	unzip  to  use	privi-
	      leges  for  extraction;  but under Unix, for example, a user who
	      belongs to several groups	can restore  files  owned  by  any  of
	      those  groups,  as  long	as  the	user IDs match his or her own.
	      Note that	ordinary file attributes are always restored--this op-
	      tion applies only	to optional, extra ownership info available on
	      some operating systems.  [NT's access control lists do  not  ap-
	      pear  to	be especially compatible with OS/2's, so no attempt is
	      made at cross-platform portability of access privileges.	It  is
	      not  clear  under	what conditions	this would ever	be useful any-

       -$     [MS-DOS, OS/2, NT] restore the volume label  if  the  extraction
	      medium  is  removable  (e.g.,  a diskette).  Doubling the	option
	      (-$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be  labelled  as	 well.
	      By default, volume labels	are ignored.

       -/ extensions
	      [Acorn  only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext
	      environment variable.  During  extraction,  filename  extensions
	      that  match  one of the items in this extension list are swapped
	      in front of the base name	of the extracted file.

       -:     [all but Acorn, VM/CMS, MVS, Tandem] allows to  extract  archive
	      members into locations outside of	the current `` extraction root
	      folder''.	For security reasons, unzip normally removes  ``parent
	      dir''  path  components  (``../'')  from	the names of extracted
	      file.  This safety feature (new for version 5.50)	prevents unzip
	      from  accidentally  writing files	to ``sensitive'' areas outside
	      the active extraction folder tree	head.  The -: option lets  un-
	      zip  switch back to its previous,	more liberal behaviour,	to al-
	      low exact	extraction of (older) archives that used ``../''  com-
	      ponents  to  create multiple directory trees at the level	of the
	      current extraction folder.

       unzip's default behavior	may be modified	via options placed in an envi-
       ronment variable.  This can be done with	any option, but	it is probably
       most useful with	the -a,	-L, -C,	-q, -o,	or -n modifiers:   make	 unzip
       auto-convert  text files	by default, make it convert filenames from up-
       percase systems to lowercase, make it match  names  case-insensitively,
       make  it	 quieter, or make it always overwrite or never overwrite files
       as it extracts them.  For example, to make unzip	act as quietly as pos-
       sible,  only  reporting errors, one would use one of the	following com-

	 Unix Bourne shell:
	      UNZIP=-qq; export	UNZIP

	 Unix C	shell:
	      setenv UNZIP -qq

	 OS/2 or MS-DOS:
	      set UNZIP=-qq

	 VMS (quotes for lowercase):
	      define UNZIP_OPTS	""-qq""

       Environment options are,	in effect, considered  to  be  just  like  any
       other  command-line options, except that	they are effectively the first
       options on the command line.  To	override an  environment  option,  one
       may use the ``minus operator'' to remove	it.  For instance, to override
       one of the quiet-flags in the example above, use	the command

       unzip --q[other options]	zipfile

       The first hyphen	is the normal switch character,	and the	 second	 is  a
       minus  sign, acting on the q option.  Thus the effect here is to	cancel
       one quantum of quietness.  To cancel both quiet flags,  two  (or	 more)
       minuses may be used:

       unzip -t--q zipfile
       unzip ---qt zipfile

       (the  two  are equivalent).  This may seem awkward or confusing,	but it
       is reasonably intuitive:	 just ignore the  first	 hyphen	 and  go  from
       there.  It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1).

       As  suggested by	the examples above, the	default	variable names are UN-
       ZIP_OPTS	for VMS	(where the symbol used to install unzip	as  a  foreign
       command would otherwise be confused with	the environment	variable), and
       UNZIP for all other operating systems.  For compatibility with zip(1L),
       UNZIPOPT	 is also accepted (don't ask).	If both	UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are
       defined,	however, UNZIP takes precedence.   unzip's  diagnostic	option
       (-v  with  no zipfile name) can be used to check	the values of all four
       possible	unzip and zipinfo environment variables.

       The timezone variable (TZ) should be set	according to the  local	 time-
       zone in order for the -f	and -u to operate correctly.  See the descrip-
       tion of -f above	for details.  This variable may	also be	 necessary  in
       order  for  timestamps  on  extracted files to be set correctly.	 Under
       Windows 95/NT unzip should know the correct timezone even if TZ is  un-
       set, assuming the timezone is correctly set in the Control Panel.

       Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software, but	due to
       United States export restrictions, de-/encryption support might be dis-
       abled  in  your compiled	binary.	 However, since	spring 2000, US	export
       restrictions have been liberated, and our source	archives  do  now  in-
       clude  full  crypt  code.   In  case you	need binary distributions with
       crypt support enabled, see the file ``WHERE'' in	any Info-ZIP source or
       binary distribution for locations both inside and outside the US.

       Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption.  To check a
       version for crypt support, either attempt to test  or  extract  an  en-
       crypted	archive,  or  else check unzip's diagnostic screen (see	the -v
       option above) for ``[decryption]'' as one of  the  special  compilation

       As  noted  above, the -P	option may be used to supply a password	on the
       command line, but at a cost  in	security.   The	 preferred  decryption
       method is simply	to extract normally; if	a zipfile member is encrypted,
       unzip will prompt for the password without echoing what is typed.   un-
       zip  continues  to  use	the  same password as long as it appears to be
       valid, by testing a 12-byte header on each file.	 The correct  password
       will  always  check  out	 against  the  header, but there is a 1-in-256
       chance that an incorrect	password will as well.	(This  is  a  security
       feature	of the PKWARE zipfile format; it helps prevent brute-force at-
       tacks that might	otherwise gain a large speed advantage by testing only
       the  header.)   In  the case that an incorrect password is given	but it
       passes the header test anyway, either an	incorrect CRC will  be	gener-
       ated  for the extracted data or else unzip will fail during the extrac-
       tion because the	``decrypted'' bytes do not  constitute	a  valid  com-
       pressed data stream.

       If  the	first password fails the header	check on some file, unzip will
       prompt for another password, and	so on until all	files  are  extracted.
       If  a  password is not known, entering a	null password (that is,	just a
       carriage	return or ``Enter'') is	taken as a signal to skip all  further
       prompting.  Only	unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be
       extracted.  (In fact, that's not	quite true; older versions of  zip(1L)
       and zipcloak(1L)	allowed	null passwords,	so unzip checks	each encrypted
       file to see if the null password	works.	This  may  result  in  ``false
       positives'' and extraction errors, as noted above.)

       Archives	 encrypted  with  8-bit	passwords (for example,	passwords with
       accented	European characters) may not be	portable across	systems	and/or
       other  archivers.  This problem stems from the use of multiple encoding
       methods for such	characters, including Latin-1  (ISO  8859-1)  and  OEM
       code  page  850.	 DOS PKZIP 2.04g uses the OEM code page; Windows PKZIP
       2.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible	with DOS PKZIP); Info-
       ZIP  uses  the  OEM code	page on	DOS, OS/2 and Win3.x ports but Latin-1
       everywhere else;	and Nico Mak's WinZip 6.x does not allow  8-bit	 pass-
       words at	all.  UnZip 5.3	(or newer) attempts to use the default charac-
       ter set first (e.g., Latin-1), followed by the alternate	one (e.g., OEM
       code  page)  to	test  passwords.   On EBCDIC systems, if both of these
       fail, EBCDIC encoding will be tested as a last resort.  (EBCDIC is  not
       tested on non-EBCDIC systems, because there are no known	archivers that
       encrypt using EBCDIC encoding.)	ISO  character	encodings  other  than
       Latin-1 are not supported.

       To use unzip to extract all members of the archive into the
       current directory and subdirectories below it, creating any subdirecto-
       ries as necessary:

       unzip letters

       To extract all members of into the current directory	only:

       unzip -j	letters

       To test, printing only a summary message indicating whether
       the archive is OK or not:

       unzip -tq letters

       To test all zipfiles in the current directory, printing only  the  sum-

       unzip -tq \*.zip

       (The  backslash	before	the asterisk is	only required if the shell ex-
       pands wildcards,	as in Unix; double quotes could	 have  been  used  in-
       stead, as in the	source examples	below.)	 To extract to standard	output
       all members of whose	names end in .tex, auto-converting  to
       the local end-of-line convention	and piping the output into more(1):

       unzip -ca letters \*.tex	| more

       To extract the binary file paper1.dvi to	standard output	and pipe it to
       a printing program:

       unzip -p	articles paper1.dvi | dvips

       To extract all FORTRAN and C source files--*.f,	*.c,  *.h,  and	 Make-
       file--into the /tmp directory:

       unzip	"*.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp

       (the  double  quotes are	necessary only in Unix and only	if globbing is
       turned on).  To extract all FORTRAN and C source	files,	regardless  of
       case  (e.g.,  both *.c and *.C, and any makefile, Makefile, MAKEFILE or

       unzip -C "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names
       to  lowercase  and  convert the line-endings of all of the files	to the
       local standard (without respect to any files that might be marked ``bi-

       unzip -aaCL "*.[fch]"	makefile -d /tmp

       To  extract only	newer versions of the files already in the current di-
       rectory,	without	querying (NOTE:	 be careful of unzipping in one	 time-
       zone  a	zipfile	created	in another--ZIP	archives other than those cre-
       ated by Zip 2.1	or  later  contain  no	timezone  information,	and  a
       ``newer'' file from an eastern timezone may, in fact, be	older):

       unzip -fo sources

       To extract newer	versions of the	files already in the current directory
       and to create any files not already there (same caveat as previous  ex-

       unzip -uo sources

       To  display a diagnostic	screen showing which unzip and zipinfo options
       are stored in environment variables,  whether  decryption  support  was
       compiled	in, the	compiler with which unzip was compiled,	etc.:

       unzip -v

       In  the	last  five examples, assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS is	set to
       -q.  To do a singly quiet listing:

       unzip -l

       To do a doubly quiet listing:

       unzip -ql

       (Note that the ``.zip'' is generally not	necessary.)  To	do a  standard

       unzip --ql
       unzip -l-q
       unzip -l--q
       (Extra minuses in options don't hurt.)

       The  current maintainer,	being a	lazy sort, finds it very useful	to de-
       fine a pair of aliases:	tt for ``unzip -tq'' and ii for	 ``unzip  -Z''
       (or  ``zipinfo'').   One	may then simply	type ``tt zipfile'' to test an
       archive,	something that is worth	making a habit of  doing.   With  luck
       unzip  will  report  ``No  errors  detected  in compressed data of zip-,'' after which one may breathe a sigh of relief.

       The maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment	 vari-
       able  to	 ``-aL''  and  is  tempted to add ``-C'' as well.  His ZIPINFO
       variable	is set to ``-z''.

       The exit	status (or error level)	approximates the exit codes defined by
       PKWARE and takes	on the following values, except	under VMS:

	      0	     normal; no	errors or warnings detected.

	      1	     one or more warning errors	were encountered, but process-
		     ing completed successfully	anyway.	  This	includes  zip-
		     files  where  one or more files was skipped due to	unsup-
		     ported compression	method or encryption with  an  unknown

	      2	     a generic error in	the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
		     cessing may have completed	successfully anyway; some bro-
		     ken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-

	      3	     a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.	  Pro-
		     cessing probably failed immediately.

	      4	     unzip  was	unable to allocate memory for one or more buf-
		     fers during program initialization.

	      5	     unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a
		     tty to read the decryption	password(s).

	      6	     unzip  was	unable to allocate memory during decompression
		     to	disk.

	      7	     unzip was unable to allocate memory during	in-memory  de-

	      8	     [currently	not used]

	      9	     the specified zipfiles were not found.

	      10     invalid options were specified on the command line.

	      11     no	matching files were found.

	      50     the disk is (or was) full during extraction.

	      51     the end of	the ZIP	archive	was encountered	prematurely.

	      80     the  user	aborted	 unzip	prematurely with control-C (or

	      81     testing or	extraction of one or more files	failed due  to
		     unsupported  compression  methods	or unsupported decryp-

	      82     no	files were found due to	 bad  decryption  password(s).
		     (If even one file is successfully processed, however, the
		     exit status is 1.)

       VMS interprets standard Unix (or	PC) return values as  other,  scarier-
       looking things, so unzip	instead	maps them into VMS-style status	codes.
       The current mapping is as  follows:    1	 (success)  for	 normal	 exit,
       0x7fff0001   for	  warning  errors,  and	 (0x7fff000?  +	 16*normal_un-
       zip_exit_status)	for all	other errors, where the	`?' is 2  (error)  for
       unzip  values  2, 9-11 and 80-82, and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining
       ones (3-8, 50, 51).  In addition, there is a compilation	option to  ex-
       pand  upon  this	 behavior:   defining RETURN_CODES results in a	human-
       readable	explanation of what the	error status means.

       Multi-part archives are not yet supported, except in  conjunction  with
       zip.  (All parts	must be	concatenated together in order,	and then ``zip
       -F'' must be performed on the concatenated archive in order to  ``fix''
       it.)  This will definitely be corrected in the next major release.

       Archives	 read  from  standard input are	not yet	supported, except with
       funzip (and then	only the first	member	of  the	 archive  can  be  ex-

       Archives	 encrypted with	8-bit passwords	(e.g., passwords with accented
       European	characters) may	not be portable	across	systems	 and/or	 other
       archivers.  See the discussion in DECRYPTION above.

       unzip's	-M  (``more'')	option is overly simplistic in its handling of
       screen output; as noted above, it fails to detect the wrapping of  long
       lines  and  may	thereby	 cause	lines  at  the top of the screen to be
       scrolled	off before being read.	unzip should detect and	treat each oc-
       currence	 of  line-wrap	as one additional line printed.	 This requires
       knowledge of the	screen's width as well as its  height.	 In  addition,
       unzip should detect the true screen geometry on all systems.

       Dates, times and	permissions of stored directories are not restored ex-
       cept under Unix.

       [MS-DOS]	When extracting	or testing files from an archive on  a	defec-
       tive  floppy  diskette,	if  the	 ``Fail''  option is chosen from DOS's
       ``Abort,	Retry, Fail?'' message,	older versions of unzip	may  hang  the
       system, requiring a reboot.  This problem appears to be fixed, but con-
       trol-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate	unzip.

       Under DEC Ultrix, unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC,
       not always reproducible).  This was apparently due either to a hardware
       bug (cache memory) or an	operating system  bug  (improper  handling  of
       page  faults?).	 Since	Ultrix	has been abandoned in favor of Digital
       Unix (OSF/1), this may not be an	issue anymore.

       [Unix] Unix special files such as FIFO buffers (named pipes), block de-
       vices  and  character devices are not restored even if they are somehow
       represented in the zipfile, nor are hard-linked files relinked.	 Basi-
       cally the only file types restored by unzip are regular files, directo-
       ries and	symbolic (soft)	links.

       [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if
       the  -o	(``overwrite  all'') option is given.  This is a limitation of
       the operating system; because directories only have a creation time as-
       sociated	 with  them,  unzip has	no way to determine whether the	stored
       attributes are newer or older than those	on disk.  In practice this may
       mean  a	two-pass  approach is required:	 first unpack the archive nor-
       mally (with or without freshening/updating existing files), then	 over-
       write just the directory	entries	(e.g., ``unzip -o foo */'').

       [VMS]  When  extracting to another directory, only the [.foo] syntax is
       accepted	for the	-d option; the simple Unix foo syntax is silently  ig-
       nored (as is the	less common VMS	foo.dir	syntax).

       [VMS]  When the file being extracted already exists, unzip's query only
       allows skipping,	overwriting or renaming; there should additionally  be
       a  choice for creating a	new version of the file.  In fact, the ``over-
       write'' choice does create a new	version; the old version is not	 over-
       written or deleted.

       funzip(1L),   zip(1L),  zipcloak(1L),  zipgrep(1L),  zipinfo(1L),  zip-
       note(1L), zipsplit(1L)

       The Info-ZIP home page is currently at
       or .

       The primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of  the  Zip-
       Bugs  workgroup)	are:  Greg ``Cave Newt'' Roelofs (UnZip); Onno van der
       Linden (Zip); Jean-loup Gailly (compression);  Mark  Adler  (decompres-
       sion,  fUnZip);	Christian  Spieler (UnZip maintance coordination, VMS,
       MS-DOS, Windows 95, NT, shared code, general Zip	and UnZip  integration
       and optimization); Mike White (Windows GUI, Windows DLLs); Kai Uwe Rom-
       mel (OS/2); Paul	Kienitz	(Amiga,	Windows	 95);  Chris  Herborth	(BeOS,
       QNX, Atari); Jonathan Hudson (SMS/QDOS);	Sergio Monesi (Acorn RISC OS);
       Harald Denker (Atari, MVS); John	Bush (Solaris, Amiga); Hunter  Goatley
       (VMS); Steve Salisbury (Windows 95, NT);	Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI),
       Johnny Lee (MS-DOS, Windows 95, NT); and	Dave Smith (Tandem NSK).   The
       author  of  the	original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP's was based is
       Samuel H. Smith;	Carl Mascott did the first Unix	 port;	and  David  P.
       Kirschbaum  organized and led Info-ZIP in its early days	with Keith Pe-
       tersen hosting the original mailing list	at  WSMR-SimTel20.   The  full
       list  of	 contributors  to UnZip	has grown quite	large; please refer to
       the CONTRIBS file in the	UnZip source  distribution  for	 a  relatively
       complete	version.

       v1.2   15 Mar 89	  Samuel H. Smith
       v2.0    9 Sep 89	  Samuel H. Smith
       v2.x   fall 1989	  many Usenet contributors
       v3.0    1 May 90	  Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v3.1   15 Aug 90	  Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v4.0    1 Dec 90	  Info-ZIP (GRR, maintainer)
       v4.1   12 May 91	  Info-ZIP
       v4.2   20 Mar 92	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.0   21 Aug 92	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.01  15 Jan 93	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.1    7 Feb 94	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.11   2 Aug 94	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.12  28 Aug 94	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.2   30 Apr 96	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.3   22 Apr 97	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.31  31 May 97	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.32   3 Nov 97	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.4   28 Nov 98	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.41  16 Apr 00	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.42  14 Jan 01	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.5   17 Feb 02	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)

Info-ZIP		    17 February	2002 (v5.5)		     UNZIP(1L)


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