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UNZIP(1L)							     UNZIP(1L)

       unzip - list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP	archive

       unzip  [-Z] [-cflptTuvz[abjnoqsCDKLMUVWX$/:^]] file[.zip] [file(s) ...]
       [-x xfile(s) ...] [-d exdir]

       unzip will list,	test, or extract files from a  ZIP  archive,  commonly
       found  on MS-DOS	systems.  The default behavior (with no	options) is to
       extract into the	current	directory (and subdirectories  below  it)  all
       files  from  the	 specified ZIP archive.	 A companion program, zip(1L),
       creates ZIP archives; both programs are compatible with	archives  cre-
       ated  by	 PKWARE's  PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS, but in	many cases the
       program options or default behaviors differ.

	      Path of the ZIP archive(s).  If  the  file  specification	 is  a
	      wildcard,	each matching file is processed	in an order determined
	      by the operating system (or file system).	 Only the filename can
	      be a wildcard; the path itself cannot.  Wildcard expressions are
	      similar to those supported in commonly  used  Unix  shells  (sh,
	      ksh, csh)	and may	contain:

	      *	     matches a sequence	of 0 or	more characters

	      ?	     matches exactly 1 character

	      [...]  matches  any  single character found inside the brackets;
		     ranges are	specified by a beginning character, a  hyphen,
		     and  an  ending  character.  If an	exclamation point or a
		     caret (`!'	or `^')	follows	the  left  bracket,  then  the
		     range  of	characters within the brackets is complemented
		     (that is,	anything  except  the  characters  inside  the
		     brackets  is  considered a	match).	 To specify a verbatim
		     left bracket, the three-character sequence	``[[]''	has to
		     be	used.

	      (Be  sure	 to quote any character	that might otherwise be	inter-
	      preted or	modified by the	operating system,  particularly	 under
	      Unix  and	 VMS.)	 If no matches are found, the specification is
	      assumed to be a literal filename;	and if that  also  fails,  the
	      suffix  .zip  is	appended.  Note	that self-extracting ZIP files
	      are supported, as	with any other ZIP archive; just  specify  the
	      .exe suffix (if any) explicitly.

	      An  optional  list of archive members to be processed, separated
	      by spaces.  (VMS versions	compiled with VMSCLI defined must  de-
	      limit  files  with  commas  instead.   See -v in OPTIONS below.)
	      Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used  to  match  multiple
	      members;	see  above.   Again, be	sure to	quote expressions that
	      would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system.

       [-x xfile(s)]
	      An optional list of archive members to be	excluded from process-
	      ing.   Since  wildcard characters	normally match (`/') directory
	      separators (for exceptions see the option	-W), this  option  may
	      be  used	to  exclude any	files that are in subdirectories.  For
	      example, ``unzip foo *.[ch] -x */*'' would extract all C	source
	      files  in	 the  main  directory, but none	in any subdirectories.
	      Without the -x option, all C source  files  in  all  directories
	      within the zipfile would be extracted.

       [-d exdir]
	      An  optional  directory  to which	to extract files.  By default,
	      all files	and subdirectories are recreated in the	current	direc-
	      tory;  the -d option allows extraction in	an arbitrary directory
	      (always assuming one has permission to write to the  directory).
	      This  option  need not appear at the end of the command line; it
	      is also accepted before the zipfile specification	(with the nor-
	      mal  options),  immediately  after the zipfile specification, or
	      between the file(s) and the -x option.  The option and directory
	      may  be  concatenated  without any white space between them, but
	      note that	this may cause normal shell behavior to	be suppressed.
	      In  particular,  ``-d ~''	 (tilde)  is expanded by Unix C	shells
	      into the name of the  user's  home  directory,  but  ``-d~''  is
	      treated  as  a  literal subdirectory ``~'' of the	current	direc-

       Note that, in order to  support	obsolescent  hardware,	unzip's	 usage
       screen  is limited to 22	or 23 lines and	should therefore be considered
       only a reminder of the basic unzip syntax  rather  than	an  exhaustive
       list of all possible flags.  The	exhaustive list	follows:

       -Z     zipinfo(1L)  mode.   If  the first option	on the command line is
	      -Z, the remaining	options	are taken to be	 zipinfo(1L)  options.
	      See  the	appropriate manual page	for a description of these op-

       -A     [OS/2, Unix DLL] print extended help for the  DLL's  programming
	      interface	(API).

       -c     extract  files to	stdout/screen (``CRT'').  This option is simi-
	      lar to the -p option except  that	 the  name  of	each  file  is
	      printed as it is extracted, the -a option	is allowed, and	ASCII-
	      EBCDIC conversion	is  automatically  performed  if  appropriate.
	      This option is not listed	in the unzip usage screen.

       -f     freshen  existing	files, i.e., extract only those	files that al-
	      ready exist on disk and that are newer than the disk copies.  By
	      default  unzip queries before overwriting, but the -o option may
	      be used to suppress the queries.	Note that under	many operating
	      systems, the TZ (timezone) environment variable must be set cor-
	      rectly in	order for -f and -u to work properly (under  Unix  the
	      variable	is  usually  set automatically).  The reasons for this
	      are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences  between
	      DOS-format  file times (always local time) and Unix-format times
	      (always in GMT/UTC) and the necessity to	compare	 the  two.   A
	      typical  TZ value	is ``PST8PDT'' (US Pacific time	with automatic
	      adjustment for Daylight Savings Time or ``summer time'').

       -l     list archive files (short	format).  The names, uncompressed file
	      sizes  and  modification	dates and times	of the specified files
	      are printed, along with totals for all files specified.  If  Un-
	      Zip  was compiled	with OS2_EAS defined, the -l option also lists
	      columns for the sizes of stored OS/2 extended  attributes	 (EAs)
	      and  OS/2	access control lists (ACLs).  In addition, the zipfile
	      comment and individual file comments (if any) are	displayed.  If
	      a	file was archived from a single-case file system (for example,
	      the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the -L option	was given, the
	      filename	is converted to	lowercase and is prefixed with a caret

       -p     extract files to pipe (stdout).  Nothing but the	file  data  is
	      sent  to	stdout,	 and  the files	are always extracted in	binary
	      format, just as they are stored (no conversions).

       -t     test archive files.  This	option extracts	each specified file in
	      memory  and  compares  the  CRC (cyclic redundancy check,	an en-
	      hanced checksum) of the expanded file with the  original	file's
	      stored CRC value.

       -T     [most  OSes]  set	the timestamp on the archive(s)	to that	of the
	      newest file in each one.	This corresponds to zip's  -go	option
	      except  that  it can be used on wildcard zipfiles	(e.g., ``unzip
	      -T \*.zip'') and is much faster.

       -u     update existing files and	create new ones	if needed.   This  op-
	      tion  performs  the  same	 function as the -f option, extracting
	      (with query) files that are newer	than those with	the same  name
	      on disk, and in addition it extracts those files that do not al-
	      ready exist on disk.  See	-f above for  information  on  setting
	      the timezone properly.

       -v     list  archive  files (verbose format) or show diagnostic version
	      info.  This option has evolved and now behaves as	both an	option
	      and  a modifier.	As an option it	has two	purposes:  when	a zip-
	      file is specified	with no	other options, -v lists	archive	 files
	      verbosely,  adding  to the basic -l info the compression method,
	      compressed size, compression ratio and 32-bit CRC.  In  contrast
	      to  most	of the competing utilities, unzip removes the 12 addi-
	      tional header bytes of encrypted	entries	 from  the  compressed
	      size  numbers.  Therefore, compressed size and compression ratio
	      figures are independent of the  entry's  encryption  status  and
	      show the correct compression performance.	 (The complete size of
	      the encrypted compressed data stream for zipfile entries is  re-
	      ported by	the more verbose zipinfo(1L) reports, see the separate
	      manual.)	When no	zipfile	is specified (that  is,	 the  complete
	      command is simply	``unzip	-v''), a diagnostic screen is printed.
	      In addition to the normal	header with release date and  version,
	      unzip  lists the home Info-ZIP ftp site and where	to find	a list
	      of other ftp and non-ftp sites; the target operating system  for
	      which  it	 was  compiled,	 as well as (possibly) the hardware on
	      which it was compiled, the compiler and version  used,  and  the
	      compilation date;	any special compilation	options	that might af-
	      fect the program's operation (see	also  DECRYPTION  below);  and
	      any  options  stored  in environment variables that might	do the
	      same (see	ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below).  As	a modifier it works in
	      conjunction  with	 other options (e.g., -t) to produce more ver-
	      bose or debugging	output;	this is	not yet	fully implemented  but
	      will be in future	releases.

       -z     display only the archive comment.

       -a     convert  text files.  Ordinarily all files are extracted exactly
	      as they are stored (as ``binary''	files).	 The -a	option	causes
	      files  identified	by zip as text files (those with the `t' label
	      in zipinfo listings, rather than `b') to	be  automatically  ex-
	      tracted as such, converting line endings,	end-of-file characters
	      and the character	set itself as necessary.  (For	example,  Unix
	      files  use  line	feeds  (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL) and have no
	      end-of-file (EOF)	marker;	Macintoshes use	carriage returns (CRs)
	      for  EOLs;  and most PC operating	systems	use CR+LF for EOLs and
	      control-Z	for EOF.  In addition, IBM mainframes and the Michigan
	      Terminal	System	use  EBCDIC  rather than the more common ASCII
	      character	set, and NT supports Unicode.)	Note that zip's	 iden-
	      tification  of  text files is by no means	perfect; some ``text''
	      files may	actually be binary and vice  versa.   unzip  therefore
	      prints  ``[text]''  or  ``[binary]''  as a visual	check for each
	      file it extracts when using  the	-a  option.   The  -aa	option
	      forces all files to be extracted as text,	regardless of the sup-
	      posed file type.	On VMS,	see also -S.

       -b     [general]	treat all files	as binary (no text conversions).  This
	      is a shortcut for	---a.

       -b     [Tandem]	force  the creation files with filecode	type 180 ('C')
	      when extracting Zip entries marked as "text". (On	Tandem,	-a  is
	      enabled by default, see above).

       -b     [VMS]  auto-convert binary files (see -a above) to fixed-length,
	      512-byte record format.  Doubling	the option  (-bb)  forces  all
	      files  to	 be extracted in this format. When extracting to stan-
	      dard output (-c or -p option in effect), the default  conversion
	      of  text record delimiters is disabled for binary	(-b) resp. all
	      (-bb) files.

       -B     [when compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined] save a  backup  copy  of
	      each  overwritten	 file. The backup file is gets the name	of the
	      target file with a tilde and optionally a	unique sequence	number
	      (up to 5 digits) appended.  The sequence number is applied when-
	      ever another file	with the original name plus tilde already  ex-
	      ists.   When  used  together with	the "overwrite all" option -o,
	      numbered backup files are	 never	created.  In  this  case,  all
	      backup  files  are  named	 as the	original file with an appended
	      tilde, existing backup files are deleted without	notice.	  This
	      feature  works  similarly	to the default behavior	of emacs(1) in
	      many locations.

	      Example: the old copy of ``foo'' is renamed to ``foo~''.

	      Warning: Users should be aware that the -B option	does not  pre-
	      vent  loss  of existing data under all circumstances.  For exam-
	      ple, when	unzip  is  run	in  overwrite-all  mode,  an  existing
	      ``foo~'' file is deleted before unzip attempts to	rename ``foo''
	      to ``foo~''.  When this rename attempt fails (because of a  file
	      locks,  insufficient  privileges,	 or  ...),  the	 extraction of
	      ``foo~'' gets cancelled, but the	old  backup  file  is  already
	      lost.   A	 similar scenario takes	place when the sequence	number
	      range for	numbered backup	files gets exhausted (99999, or	 65535
	      for  16-bit  systems).   In  this	case, the backup file with the
	      maximum sequence number is  deleted  and	replaced  by  the  new
	      backup version without notice.

       -C     use  case-insensitive  matching for the selection	of archive en-
	      tries from the command-line list of extract selection  patterns.
	      unzip's philosophy is ``you get what you ask for'' (this is also
	      responsible for the -L/-U	change;	see the	relevant  options  be-
	      low).   Because  some file systems are fully case-sensitive (no-
	      tably those under	the Unix operating system)  and	 because  both
	      ZIP archives and unzip itself are	portable across	platforms, un-
	      zip's default behavior is	to match  both	wildcard  and  literal
	      filenames	case-sensitively.  That	is, specifying ``makefile'' on
	      the command line will only match ``makefile''  in	 the  archive,
	      not  ``Makefile''	 or  ``MAKEFILE''  (and	similarly for wildcard
	      specifications).	Since this does	not correspond to the behavior
	      of  many	other  operating/file systems (for example, OS/2 HPFS,
	      which preserves mixed case but is	not sensitive to it),  the  -C
	      option  may be used to force all filename	matches	to be case-in-
	      sensitive.  In the example above,	all  three  files  would  then
	      match  ``makefile''  (or	``make*'', or similar).	 The -C	option
	      affects file specs in both the normal  file  list	 and  the  ex-
	      cluded-file list (xlist).

	      Please  note  that  the -C option	does neither affect the	search
	      for the zipfile(s) nor the matching of archive entries to	exist-
	      ing files	on the extraction path.	 On a case-sensitive file sys-
	      tem, unzip will never try	to overwrite a file ``FOO''  when  ex-
	      tracting an entry	``foo''!

       -D     skip  restoration	 of timestamps for extracted items.  Normally,
	      unzip tries to restore all meta-information for extracted	 items
	      that  are	supplied in the	Zip archive (and do not	require	privi-
	      leges or impose a	security risk).	 By specifying	-D,  unzip  is
	      told  to	suppress restoration of	timestamps for directories ex-
	      plicitly created from Zip	archive	entries.  This option only ap-
	      plies  to	 ports that support setting timestamps for directories
	      (currently ATheOS, BeOS, MacOS,  OS/2,  Unix,  VMS,  Win32,  for
	      other unzip ports, -D has	no effect).  The duplicated option -DD
	      forces suppression of timestamp restoration  for	all  extracted
	      entries (files and directories).	This option results in setting
	      the timestamps for all extracted entries to the current time.

	      On VMS, the default setting for this option is  -D  for  consis-
	      tency  with  the	behaviour  of  BACKUP: file timestamps are re-
	      stored, timestamps of extracted directories are left at the cur-
	      rent  time.   To enable restoration of directory timestamps, the
	      negated option --D should	be specified.  On VMS, the  option  -D
	      disables	timestamp  restoration	for  all extracted Zip archive
	      items.  (Here, a single -D on the	command	line combines with the
	      default -D to do what an explicit	-DD does on other systems.)

       -E     [MacOS  only]  display  contents of MacOS	extra field during re-
	      store operation.

       -F     [Acorn only] suppress removal of	NFS  filetype  extension  from
	      stored filenames.

       -F     [non-Acorn  systems supporting long filenames with embedded com-
	      mas, and only if compiled	with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS  defined]	trans-
	      late  filetype information from ACORN RISC OS extra field	blocks
	      into a NFS filetype extension and	append it to the names of  the
	      extracted	 files.	  (When	the stored filename appears to already
	      have an appended NFS filetype extension, it is replaced  by  the
	      info from	the extra field.)

       -i     [MacOS  only] ignore filenames stored in MacOS extra fields. In-
	      stead, the most compatible filename stored in the	 generic  part
	      of the entry's header is used.

       -j     junk paths.  The archive's directory structure is	not recreated;
	      all files	are deposited in the extraction	directory (by default,
	      the current one).

       -J     [BeOS  only]  junk  file	attributes.   The file's BeOS file at-
	      tributes are not restored, just the file's data.

       -J     [MacOS only] ignore MacOS	extra fields.  All Macintosh  specific
	      info  is	skipped.  Data-fork  and resource-fork are restored as
	      separate files.

       -K     [AtheOS,	BeOS,  Unix  only]  retain  SUID/SGID/Tacky  file  at-
	      tributes.	  Without  this	flag, these attribute bits are cleared
	      for security reasons.

       -L     convert to lowercase any filename	originating on	an  uppercase-
	      only operating system or file system.  (This was unzip's default
	      behavior in releases prior to 5.11; the new default behavior  is
	      identical	 to  the old behavior with the -U option, which	is now
	      obsolete and will	be removed in a	future release.)  Depending on
	      the  archiver,  files  archived  under  single-case file systems
	      (VMS, old	MS-DOS FAT,  etc.)  may	 be  stored  as	 all-uppercase
	      names;  this  can	 be  ugly or inconvenient when extracting to a
	      case-preserving file system such as OS/2 HPFS or	a  case-sensi-
	      tive  one	 such  as  under Unix.	By default unzip lists and ex-
	      tracts such filenames exactly as they're stored (excepting trun-
	      cation, conversion of unsupported	characters, etc.); this	option
	      causes the names of all files from certain systems  to  be  con-
	      verted  to lowercase.  The -LL option forces conversion of every
	      filename to lowercase, regardless	of the originating  file  sys-

       -M     pipe  all	 output	 through an internal pager similar to the Unix
	      more(1) command.	At the end of a	 screenful  of	output,	 unzip
	      pauses  with  a  ``--More--''  prompt; the next screenful	may be
	      viewed by	pressing the Enter (Return) key	or the space bar.  un-
	      zip  can	be  terminated	by pressing the	``q'' key and, on some
	      systems, the Enter/Return	key.  Unlike Unix more(1), there is no
	      forward-searching	 or  editing  capability.  Also, unzip doesn't
	      notice if	long lines wrap	at the edge of the screen, effectively
	      resulting	 in  the printing of two or more lines and the likeli-
	      hood that	some text will scroll off the top of the screen	before
	      being  viewed.  On some systems the number of available lines on
	      the screen is not	detected, in  which  case  unzip  assumes  the
	      height is	24 lines.

       -n     never  overwrite existing	files.	If a file already exists, skip
	      the extraction of	that file without prompting.  By default unzip
	      queries before extracting	any file that already exists; the user
	      may choose to overwrite only the	current	 file,	overwrite  all
	      files,  skip  extraction of the current file, skip extraction of
	      all existing files, or rename the	current	file.

       -N     [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes.	 File comments
	      are created with the -c option of	zip(1L), or with the -N	option
	      of the Amiga port	of zip(1L), which  stores  filenotes  as  com-

       -o     overwrite	existing files without prompting.  This	is a dangerous
	      option, so use it	with care.  (It	is often used  with  -f,  how-
	      ever,  and  is  the  only	 way  to overwrite directory EAs under

       -P password
	      use password to decrypt  encrypted  zipfile  entries  (if	 any).
	      THIS  IS	INSECURE!   Many  multi-user operating systems provide
	      ways for any user	to see the current command line	of  any	 other
	      user;  even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of
	      over-the-shoulder	peeking.  Storing the  plaintext  password  as
	      part  of	a  command  line in an automated script	is even	worse.
	      Whenever possible, use the non-echoing,  interactive  prompt  to
	      enter  passwords.	  (And	where security is truly	important, use
	      strong encryption	such as	Pretty Good  Privacy  instead  of  the
	      relatively  weak	encryption provided by standard	zipfile	utili-

       -q     perform operations quietly (-qq =	even quieter).	Ordinarily un-
	      zip  prints  the	names of the files it's	extracting or testing,
	      the extraction methods, any file or zipfile comments that	may be
	      stored in	the archive, and possibly a summary when finished with
	      each archive.  The -q[q] options suppress	the printing  of  some
	      or all of	these messages.

       -s     [OS/2,  NT,  MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames to underscores.
	      Since all	PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames,	 unzip
	      by   default   extracts  filenames  with	spaces	intact	(e.g.,
	      ``EA DATA. SF'').	 This can be awkward, however, since MS-DOS in
	      particular  does	not  gracefully	 support  spaces in filenames.
	      Conversion of spaces to underscores can eliminate	 the  awkward-
	      ness in some cases.

       -S     [VMS] convert text files (-a, -aa) into Stream_LF	record format,
	      instead of the text-file default,	variable-length	record format.
	      (Stream_LF  is the default record	format of VMS unzip. It	is ap-
	      plied unless conversion (-a, -aa and/or -b, -bb) is requested or
	      a	VMS-specific entry is processed.)

       -U     [UNICODE_SUPPORT	only]  modify or disable UTF-8 handling.  When
	      UNICODE_SUPPORT is available, the	option -U forces unzip to  es-
	      cape  all	 non-ASCII  characters	from  UTF-8 coded filenames as
	      ``#Uxxxx'' (for UCS-2 characters,	or  ``#Lxxxxxx''  for  unicode
	      codepoints  needing  3  octets).	This option is mainly provided
	      for debugging purpose when the fairly new	UTF-8 support is  sus-
	      pected to	mangle up extracted filenames.

	      The  option  -UU	allows	to entirely disable the	recognition of
	      UTF-8 encoded  filenames.	  The  handling	 of  filename  codings
	      within unzip falls back to the behaviour of previous versions.

	      [old, obsolete usage] leave filenames uppercase if created under
	      MS-DOS, VMS, etc.	 See -L	above.

       -V     retain (VMS) file	version	numbers.  VMS files can	be stored with
	      a	 version  number,  in  the format file.ext;##.	By default the
	      ``;##'' version numbers are stripped,  but  this	option	allows
	      them  to	be retained.  (On file systems that limit filenames to
	      particularly short lengths, the version numbers may be truncated
	      or stripped regardless of	this option.)

       -W     [only  when  WILD_STOP_AT_DIR compile-time option	enabled] modi-
	      fies the pattern matching	routine	so that	both `?'  (single-char
	      wildcard)	 and `*' (multi-char wildcard) do not match the	direc-
	      tory  separator  character  `/'.	 (The  two-character  sequence
	      ``**'' acts as a multi-char wildcard that	includes the directory
	      separator	in its matched characters.)  Examples:

	   "*.c" matches "foo.c" but not "mydir/foo.c"
	   "**.c" matches both "foo.c" and "mydir/foo.c"
	   "*/*.c" matches "bar/foo.c" but not "baz/bar/foo.c"
	   "??*/*" matches "ab/foo" and	"abc/foo"
		   but not "a/foo" or "a/b/foo"

	      This modified behaviour is equivalent to	the  pattern  matching
	      style used by the	shells of some of UnZip's supported target OSs
	      (one example is Acorn RISC OS).  This option may not  be	avail-
	      able on systems where the	Zip archive's internal directory sepa-
	      rator character `/' is allowed as	regular	 character  in	native
	      operating	 system	 filenames.   (Currently,  UnZip uses the same
	      pattern matching rules for both wildcard zipfile	specifications
	      and zip entry selection patterns in most ports.  For systems al-
	      lowing `/' as regular filename character,	the  -W	 option	 would
	      not work as expected on a	wildcard zipfile specification.)

       -X     [VMS,  Unix,  OS/2,  NT,	Tandem]	 restore owner/protection info
	      (UICs and	ACL  entries)  under  VMS,  or	user  and  group  info
	      (UID/GID)	 under Unix, or	access control lists (ACLs) under cer-
	      tain network-enabled versions of OS/2 (Warp Server with IBM  LAN
	      Server/Requester 3.0 to 5.0; Warp	Connect	with IBM Peer 1.0), or
	      security ACLs under Windows NT.  In most cases this will require
	      special  system  privileges, and doubling	the option (-XX) under
	      NT instructs unzip to use	privileges for extraction;  but	 under
	      Unix,  for example, a user who belongs to	several	groups can re-
	      store files owned	by any of those	groups,	as long	 as  the  user
	      IDs  match  his  or her own.  Note that ordinary file attributes
	      are always restored--this	option applies only to optional, extra
	      ownership	 info  available on some operating systems.  [NT's ac-
	      cess control lists do not	appear	to  be	especially  compatible
	      with OS/2's, so no attempt is made at cross-platform portability
	      of access	privileges.  It	is not	clear  under  what  conditions
	      this would ever be useful	anyway.]

       -Y     [VMS]  treat  archived  file  name  endings  of  ``.nnn''	(where
	      ``nnn'' is a decimal  number) as if they were VMS	 version  num-
	      bers  (``;nnn'').	 (The default is to treat them as file types.)
		   "a.b.3" -> "a.b;3".

       -$     [MS-DOS, OS/2, NT] restore the volume label  if  the  extraction
	      medium  is  removable  (e.g.,  a diskette).  Doubling the	option
	      (-$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be  labelled  as	 well.
	      By default, volume labels	are ignored.

       -/ extensions
	      [Acorn  only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext
	      environment variable.  During  extraction,  filename  extensions
	      that  match  one of the items in this extension list are swapped
	      in front of the base name	of the extracted file.

       -:     [all but Acorn, VM/CMS, MVS, Tandem] allows to  extract  archive
	      members into locations outside of	the current `` extraction root
	      folder''.	For security reasons, unzip normally removes  ``parent
	      dir''  path  components  (``../'')  from	the names of extracted
	      file.  This safety feature (new for version 5.50)	prevents unzip
	      from  accidentally  writing files	to ``sensitive'' areas outside
	      the active extraction folder tree	head.  The -: option lets  un-
	      zip  switch back to its previous,	more liberal behaviour,	to al-
	      low exact	extraction of (older) archives that used ``../''  com-
	      ponents  to  create multiple directory trees at the level	of the
	      current extraction folder.  This option does not enable  writing
	      explicitly  to  the root directory (``/'').  To achieve this, it
	      is necessary to set the extraction target	folder to  root	 (e.g.
	      -d  /  ).	 However, when the -: option is	specified, it is still
	      possible to implicitly write to the root directory by specifying
	      enough ``../'' path components within the	zip archive.  Use this
	      option with extreme caution.

       -^     [Unix only] allow	control	characters in names of	extracted  ZIP
	      archive  entries.	  On Unix, a file name may contain any (8-bit)
	      character	code with the two exception '/'	(directory  delimiter)
	      and  NUL	(0x00, the C string termination	indicator), unless the
	      specific file system has more restrictive	 conventions.	Gener-
	      ally, this allows	to embed ASCII control characters (or even so-
	      phisticated control sequences) in	file names, at least  on  'na-
	      tive'  Unix  file	systems.  However, it may be highly suspicious
	      to make use of this Unix "feature".  Embedded control characters
	      in  file	names  might have nasty	side effects when displayed on
	      screen by	some listing code without sufficient filtering.	  And,
	      for  ordinary  users,  it	 may  be difficult to handle such file
	      names (e.g. when trying to specify it for	open, copy,  move,  or
	      delete  operations).   Therefore,	 unzip applies a filter	by de-
	      fault that removes potentially dangerous control characters from
	      the  extracted file names. The -^	option allows to override this
	      filter in	the rare case that embedded filename  control  charac-
	      ters are to be intentionally restored.

       -2     [VMS]   force   unconditionally  conversion  of  file  names  to
	      ODS2-compatible names.  The default is to	exploit	 the  destina-
	      tion file	system,	preserving case	and extended file name charac-
	      ters on an  ODS5	destination  file  system;  and	 applying  the
	      ODS2-compatibility  file	name  filtering	on an ODS2 destination
	      file system.

       unzip's default behavior	may be modified	via options placed in an envi-
       ronment variable.  This can be done with	any option, but	it is probably
       most useful with	the -a,	-L, -C,	-q, -o,	or -n modifiers:   make	 unzip
       auto-convert  text files	by default, make it convert filenames from up-
       percase systems to lowercase, make it match  names  case-insensitively,
       make  it	 quieter, or make it always overwrite or never overwrite files
       as it extracts them.  For example, to make unzip	act as quietly as pos-
       sible,  only  reporting errors, one would use one of the	following com-

	 Unix Bourne shell:
	      UNZIP=-qq; export	UNZIP

	 Unix C	shell:
	      setenv UNZIP -qq

	 OS/2 or MS-DOS:
	      set UNZIP=-qq

	 VMS (quotes for lowercase):
	      define UNZIP_OPTS	"-qq"

       Environment options are,	in effect, considered  to  be  just  like  any
       other  command-line options, except that	they are effectively the first
       options on the command line.  To	override an  environment  option,  one
       may use the ``minus operator'' to remove	it.  For instance, to override
       one of the quiet-flags in the example above, use	the command

       unzip --q[other options]	zipfile

       The first hyphen	is the normal switch character,	and the	 second	 is  a
       minus  sign, acting on the q option.  Thus the effect here is to	cancel
       one quantum of quietness.  To cancel both quiet flags,  two  (or	 more)
       minuses may be used:

       unzip -t--q zipfile
       unzip ---qt zipfile

       (the  two  are equivalent).  This may seem awkward or confusing,	but it
       is reasonably intuitive:	 just ignore the  first	 hyphen	 and  go  from
       there.  It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1).

       As  suggested by	the examples above, the	default	variable names are UN-
       ZIP_OPTS	for VMS	(where the symbol used to install unzip	as  a  foreign
       command would otherwise be confused with	the environment	variable), and
       UNZIP for all other operating systems.  For compatibility with zip(1L),
       UNZIPOPT	 is also accepted (don't ask).	If both	UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are
       defined,	however, UNZIP takes precedence.   unzip's  diagnostic	option
       (-v  with  no zipfile name) can be used to check	the values of all four
       possible	unzip and zipinfo environment variables.

       The timezone variable (TZ) should be set	according to the  local	 time-
       zone in order for the -f	and -u to operate correctly.  See the descrip-
       tion of -f above	for details.  This variable may	also be	 necessary  to
       get  timestamps	of  extracted  files  to  be set correctly.  The WIN32
       (Win9x/ME/NT4/2K/XP/2K3)	port of	unzip gets the timezone	 configuration
       from  the  registry, assuming it	is correctly set in the	Control	Panel.
       The TZ variable is ignored for this port.

       Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software, but	due to
       United States export restrictions, de-/encryption support might be dis-
       abled in	your compiled binary.  However,	since spring 2000,  US	export
       restrictions  have  been	 liberated, and	our source archives do now in-
       clude full crypt	code.  In case	you  need  binary  distributions  with
       crypt support enabled, see the file ``WHERE'' in	any Info-ZIP source or
       binary distribution for locations both inside and outside the US.

       Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption.  To check a
       version	for  crypt  support,  either attempt to	test or	extract	an en-
       crypted archive,	or else	check unzip's diagnostic screen	 (see  the  -v
       option  above)  for  ``[decryption]'' as	one of the special compilation

       As noted	above, the -P option may be used to supply a password  on  the
       command	line,  but  at	a  cost	in security.  The preferred decryption
       method is simply	to extract normally; if	a zipfile member is encrypted,
       unzip  will prompt for the password without echoing what	is typed.  un-
       zip continues to	use the	same password as long  as  it  appears	to  be
       valid,  by testing a 12-byte header on each file.  The correct password
       will always check out against the  header,  but	there  is  a  1-in-256
       chance  that  an	 incorrect password will as well.  (This is a security
       feature of the PKWARE zipfile format; it	helps prevent brute-force  at-
       tacks that might	otherwise gain a large speed advantage by testing only
       the header.)  In	the case that an incorrect password is	given  but  it
       passes  the  header test	anyway,	either an incorrect CRC	will be	gener-
       ated for	the extracted data or else unzip will fail during the  extrac-
       tion  because  the  ``decrypted''  bytes	do not constitute a valid com-
       pressed data stream.

       If the first password fails the header check on some file,  unzip  will
       prompt  for  another password, and so on	until all files	are extracted.
       If a password is	not known, entering a null password (that is,  just  a
       carriage	 return	or ``Enter'') is taken as a signal to skip all further
       prompting.  Only	unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be
       extracted.   (In	fact, that's not quite true; older versions of zip(1L)
       and zipcloak(1L)	allowed	null passwords,	so unzip checks	each encrypted
       file  to	 see  if  the null password works.  This may result in ``false
       positives'' and extraction errors, as noted above.)

       Archives	encrypted with 8-bit passwords (for  example,  passwords  with
       accented	European characters) may not be	portable across	systems	and/or
       other archivers.	 This problem stems from the use of multiple  encoding
       methods	for  such  characters,	including Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) and OEM
       code page 850.  DOS PKZIP 2.04g uses the	OEM code page;	Windows	 PKZIP
       2.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible	with DOS PKZIP); Info-
       ZIP uses	the OEM	code page on DOS, OS/2 and Win3.x ports	but ISO	coding
       (Latin-1	 etc.) everywhere else;	and Nico Mak's WinZip 6.x does not al-
       low 8-bit passwords at all.  UnZip 5.3 (or newer) attempts to  use  the
       default	character set first (e.g., Latin-1), followed by the alternate
       one (e.g., OEM code page) to test passwords.   On  EBCDIC  systems,  if
       both  of	 these	fail, EBCDIC encoding will be tested as	a last resort.
       (EBCDIC is not tested on	non-EBCDIC systems, because there are no known
       archivers that encrypt using EBCDIC encoding.)  ISO character encodings
       other than Latin-1 are not supported.  The new addition of  (partially)
       Unicode (resp.  UTF-8) support in UnZip 6.0 has not yet been adapted to
       the encryption password handling	in unzip.  On systems that  use	 UTF-8
       as  native  character  encoding,	unzip simply tries decryption with the
       native UTF-8 encoded password; the built-in attempts to check the pass-
       word in translated encoding have	not yet	been adapted for UTF-8 support
       and will	consequently fail.

       To use unzip to extract all members of the archive into the
       current directory and subdirectories below it, creating any subdirecto-
       ries as necessary:

       unzip letters

       To extract all members of into the current directory	only:

       unzip -j	letters

       To test, printing only a summary message indicating whether
       the archive is OK or not:

       unzip -tq letters

       To  test	 all zipfiles in the current directory,	printing only the sum-

       unzip -tq \*.zip

       (The backslash before the asterisk is only required if  the  shell  ex-
       pands  wildcards,  as  in  Unix;	double quotes could have been used in-
       stead, as in the	source examples	below.)	 To extract to standard	output
       all  members of whose names end in .tex, auto-converting to
       the local end-of-line convention	and piping the output into more(1):

       unzip -ca letters \*.tex	| more

       To extract the binary file paper1.dvi to	standard output	and pipe it to
       a printing program:

       unzip -p	articles paper1.dvi | dvips

       To  extract  all	 FORTRAN  and C	source files--*.f, *.c,	*.h, and Make-
       file--into the /tmp directory:

       unzip	"*.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp

       (the double quotes are necessary	only in	Unix and only if  globbing  is
       turned  on).   To extract all FORTRAN and C source files, regardless of
       case (e.g., both	*.c and	*.C, and any makefile, Makefile,  MAKEFILE  or

       unzip -C "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names
       to lowercase and	convert	the line-endings of all	of the	files  to  the
       local standard (without respect to any files that might be marked ``bi-

       unzip -aaCL "*.[fch]"	makefile -d /tmp

       To extract only newer versions of the files already in the current  di-
       rectory,	 without querying (NOTE:  be careful of	unzipping in one time-
       zone a zipfile created in another--ZIP archives other than  those  cre-
       ated  by	 Zip  2.1  or  later  contain  no  timezone information, and a
       ``newer'' file from an eastern timezone may, in fact, be	older):

       unzip -fo sources

       To extract newer	versions of the	files already in the current directory
       and  to create any files	not already there (same	caveat as previous ex-

       unzip -uo sources

       To display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo  options
       are  stored  in	environment  variables,	whether	decryption support was
       compiled	in, the	compiler with which unzip was compiled,	etc.:

       unzip -v

       In the last five	examples, assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS  is  set  to
       -q.  To do a singly quiet listing:

       unzip -l

       To do a doubly quiet listing:

       unzip -ql

       (Note  that the ``.zip''	is generally not necessary.)  To do a standard

       unzip --ql
       unzip -l-q
       unzip -l--q
       (Extra minuses in options don't hurt.)

       The current maintainer, being a lazy sort, finds	it very	useful to  de-
       fine  a	pair of	aliases:  tt for ``unzip -tq'' and ii for ``unzip -Z''
       (or ``zipinfo'').  One may then simply type ``tt	zipfile'' to  test  an
       archive,	 something  that  is worth making a habit of doing.  With luck
       unzip will report ``No errors  detected	in  compressed	data  of  zip-,'' after which one may breathe a sigh of relief.

       The  maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment vari-
       able to ``-aL'' and is tempted to add  ``-C''  as  well.	  His  ZIPINFO
       variable	is set to ``-z''.

       The exit	status (or error level)	approximates the exit codes defined by
       PKWARE and takes	on the following values, except	under VMS:

	      0	     normal; no	errors or warnings detected.

	      1	     one or more warning errors	were encountered, but process-
		     ing  completed  successfully  anyway.  This includes zip-
		     files where one or	more files was skipped due  to	unsup-
		     ported  compression  method or encryption with an unknown

	      2	     a generic error in	the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
		     cessing may have completed	successfully anyway; some bro-
		     ken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-

	      3	     a	severe error in	the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
		     cessing probably failed immediately.

	      4	     unzip was unable to allocate memory for one or more  buf-
		     fers during program initialization.

	      5	     unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a
		     tty to read the decryption	password(s).

	      6	     unzip was unable to allocate memory during	 decompression
		     to	disk.

	      7	     unzip  was	unable to allocate memory during in-memory de-

	      8	     [currently	not used]

	      9	     the specified zipfiles were not found.

	      10     invalid options were specified on the command line.

	      11     no	matching files were found.

	      50     the disk is (or was) full during extraction.

	      51     the end of	the ZIP	archive	was encountered	prematurely.

	      80     the user aborted unzip  prematurely  with	control-C  (or

	      81     testing  or extraction of one or more files failed	due to
		     unsupported compression methods  or  unsupported  decryp-

	      82     no	 files	were  found due	to bad decryption password(s).
		     (If even one file is successfully processed, however, the
		     exit status is 1.)

       VMS  interprets	standard Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-
       looking things, so unzip	instead	maps them into VMS-style status	codes.
       The  current  mapping  is  as  follows:	  1 (success) for normal exit,
       0x7fff0001  for	warning	 errors,  and  (0x7fff000?   +	 16*normal_un-
       zip_exit_status)	 for  all other	errors,	where the `?' is 2 (error) for
       unzip values 2, 9-11 and	80-82, and 4 (fatal error) for	the  remaining
       ones  (3-8, 50, 51).  In	addition, there	is a compilation option	to ex-
       pand upon this behavior:	 defining RETURN_CODES	results	 in  a	human-
       readable	explanation of what the	error status means.

       Multi-part  archives  are not yet supported, except in conjunction with
       zip.  (All parts	must be	concatenated together in order,	and then ``zip
       -F''  (for  zip	2.x) or	``zip -FF'' (for zip 3.x) must be performed on
       the concatenated	archive	in order to ``fix'' it.	  Also,	 zip  3.0  and
       later  can  combine multi-part (split) archives into a combined single-
       file archive using ``zip	-s- inarchive -O outarchive''.	See the	zip  3
       manual  page  for more information.)  This will definitely be corrected
       in the next major release.

       Archives	read from standard input are not yet  supported,  except  with
       funzip  (and  then  only	 the  first  member  of	the archive can	be ex-

       Archives	encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e.g., passwords	with  accented
       European	 characters)  may  not be portable across systems and/or other
       archivers.  See the discussion in DECRYPTION above.

       unzip's -M (``more'') option tries to take into account automatic wrap-
       ping  of	 long  lines. However, the code	may fail to detect the correct
       wrapping	locations. First, TAB  characters  (and	 similar  control  se-
       quences)	 are  not  taken  into	account,  they are handled as ordinary
       printable characters.  Second, depending	on  the	 actual	 system	 /  OS
       port,  unzip may	not detect the true screen geometry but	rather rely on
       "commonly used" default dimensions.  The	correct	handling of tabs would
       require the implementation of a query for the actual tabulator setup on
       the output console.

       Dates, times and	permissions of stored directories are not restored ex-
       cept  under Unix. (On Windows NT	and successors,	timestamps are now re-

       [MS-DOS]	When extracting	or testing files from an archive on  a	defec-
       tive  floppy  diskette,	if  the	 ``Fail''  option is chosen from DOS's
       ``Abort,	Retry, Fail?'' message,	older versions of unzip	may  hang  the
       system, requiring a reboot.  This problem appears to be fixed, but con-
       trol-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate	unzip.

       Under DEC Ultrix, unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC,
       not always reproducible).  This was apparently due either to a hardware
       bug (cache memory) or an	operating system  bug  (improper  handling  of
       page  faults?).	 Since	Ultrix	has been abandoned in favor of Digital
       Unix (OSF/1), this may not be an	issue anymore.

       [Unix] Unix special files such as FIFO buffers (named pipes), block de-
       vices  and  character devices are not restored even if they are somehow
       represented in the zipfile, nor are hard-linked files relinked.	 Basi-
       cally the only file types restored by unzip are regular files, directo-
       ries and	symbolic (soft)	links.

       [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if
       the  -o	(``overwrite  all'') option is given.  This is a limitation of
       the operating system; because directories only have a creation time as-
       sociated	 with  them,  unzip has	no way to determine whether the	stored
       attributes are newer or older than those	on disk.  In practice this may
       mean  a	two-pass  approach is required:	 first unpack the archive nor-
       mally (with or without freshening/updating existing files), then	 over-
       write just the directory	entries	(e.g., ``unzip -o foo */'').

       [VMS]  When  extracting to another directory, only the [.foo] syntax is
       accepted	for the	-d option; the simple Unix foo syntax is silently  ig-
       nored (as is the	less common VMS	foo.dir	syntax).

       [VMS]  When the file being extracted already exists, unzip's query only
       allows skipping,	overwriting or renaming; there should additionally  be
       a  choice for creating a	new version of the file.  In fact, the ``over-
       write'' choice does create a new	version; the old version is not	 over-
       written or deleted.

       funzip(1L),   zip(1L),  zipcloak(1L),  zipgrep(1L),  zipinfo(1L),  zip-
       note(1L), zipsplit(1L)

       The Info-ZIP home page is currently at
       or .

       The primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of  the  Zip-
       Bugs workgroup) are:  Ed	Gordon (Zip, general maintenance, shared code,
       Zip64, Win32, Unix, Unicode); Christian Spieler (UnZip maintenance  co-
       ordination,  VMS, MS-DOS, Win32,	shared code, general Zip and UnZip in-
       tegration and optimization); Onno van  der  Linden  (Zip);  Mike	 White
       (Win32,	Windows	 GUI,  Windows	DLLs);	Kai  Uwe Rommel	(OS/2, Win32);
       Steven M. Schweda (VMS, Unix, support of	new  features);	 Paul  Kienitz
       (Amiga,	Win32,	Unicode);  Chris Herborth (BeOS, QNX, Atari); Jonathan
       Hudson (SMS/QDOS); Sergio Monesi	(Acorn RISC OS); Harald	Denker (Atari,
       MVS);  John  Bush  (Solaris, Amiga); Hunter Goatley (VMS, Info-ZIP Site
       maintenance); Steve Salisbury (Win32); Steve Miller (Windows  CE	 GUI),
       Johnny Lee (MS-DOS, Win32, Zip64); and Dave Smith (Tandem NSK).

       The  following  people  were former members of the Info-ZIP development
       group and provided major	contributions to  key  parts  of  the  current
       code: Greg ``Cave Newt''	Roelofs	(UnZip,	unshrink decompression); Jean-
       loup Gailly (deflate compression); Mark Adler  (inflate	decompression,

       The  author  of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP's was based
       is Samuel H. Smith; Carl	Mascott	did the	first Unix port; and David  P.
       Kirschbaum  organized and led Info-ZIP in its early days	with Keith Pe-
       tersen hosting the original mailing list	at  WSMR-SimTel20.   The  full
       list  of	 contributors  to UnZip	has grown quite	large; please refer to
       the CONTRIBS file in the	UnZip source  distribution  for	 a  relatively
       complete	version.

       v1.2   15 Mar 89	  Samuel H. Smith
       v2.0    9 Sep 89	  Samuel H. Smith
       v2.x   fall 1989	  many Usenet contributors
       v3.0    1 May 90	  Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v3.1   15 Aug 90	  Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v4.0    1 Dec 90	  Info-ZIP (GRR, maintainer)
       v4.1   12 May 91	  Info-ZIP
       v4.2   20 Mar 92	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.0   21 Aug 92	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.01  15 Jan 93	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.1    7 Feb 94	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.11   2 Aug 94	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.12  28 Aug 94	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.2   30 Apr 96	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.3   22 Apr 97	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.31  31 May 97	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.32   3 Nov 97	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.4   28 Nov 98	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.41  16 Apr 00	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.42  14 Jan 01	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.5   17 Feb 02	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.51  22 May 04	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.52  28 Feb 05	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v6.0   20 Apr 09	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)

Info-ZIP		     20	April 2009 (v6.0)		     UNZIP(1L)


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