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UNZIP(1L)							     UNZIP(1L)

       unzip - list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP	archive

       unzip   [-Z]   [-cflptuvz[abjnoqsCLMVX$/:]]   file[.zip]	 [file(s) ...]
       [-x xfile(s) ...] [-d exdir]

       unzip will list,	test, or extract files from a  ZIP  archive,  commonly
       found  on MS-DOS	systems.  The default behavior (with no	options) is to
       extract into the	current	directory (and subdirectories  below  it)  all
       files  from  the	 specified ZIP archive.	 A companion program, zip(1L),
       creates ZIP archives; both programs are compatible with	archives  cre-
       ated  by	 PKWARE's  PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS, but in	many cases the
       program options or default behaviors differ.

	      Path of the ZIP archive(s).  If  the  file  specification	 is  a
	      wildcard,	each matching file is processed	in an order determined
	      by the operating system (or file system).	 Only the filename can
	      be a wildcard; the path itself cannot.  Wildcard expressions are
	      similar to those supported in commonly  used  Unix  shells  (sh,
	      ksh, csh)	and may	contain:

	      *	     matches a sequence	of 0 or	more characters

	      ?	     matches exactly 1 character

	      [...]  matches  any  single character found inside the brackets;
		     ranges are	specified by a beginning character, a  hyphen,
		     and  an  ending  character.  If an	exclamation point or a
		     caret (`!'	or `^')	follows	the  left  bracket,  then  the
		     range  of	characters within the brackets is complemented
		     (that is,	anything  except  the  characters  inside  the
		     brackets is considered a match).

	      (Be  sure	 to quote any character	that might otherwise be	inter-
	      preted or	modified by the	operating system,  particularly	 under
	      Unix  and	 VMS.)	 If no matches are found, the specification is
	      assumed to be a literal filename;	and if that  also  fails,  the
	      suffix  .zip  is	appended.  Note	that self-extracting ZIP files
	      are supported, as	with any other ZIP archive; just  specify  the
	      .exe suffix (if any) explicitly.

	      An  optional  list of archive members to be processed, separated
	      by spaces.  (VMS versions	 compiled  with	 VMSCLI	 defined  must
	      delimit  files  with  commas instead.  See -v in OPTIONS below.)
	      Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used  to  match  multiple
	      members;	see  above.   Again, be	sure to	quote expressions that
	      would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system.

       [-x xfile(s)]
	      An optional list of archive members to be	excluded from process-
	      ing.   Since  wildcard  characters  match	 directory  separators
	      (`/'),  this option may be used to exclude any files that	are in
	      subdirectories.  For example, ``unzip foo	*.[ch] -x */*''	 would
	      extract  all  C  source files in the main	directory, but none in
	      any subdirectories.  Without the -x option, all C	 source	 files
	      in all directories within	the zipfile would be extracted.

       [-d exdir]
	      An  optional  directory  to which	to extract files.  By default,
	      all files	and subdirectories are recreated in the	current	direc-
	      tory;  the -d option allows extraction in	an arbitrary directory
	      (always assuming one has permission to write to the  directory).
	      This  option  need not appear at the end of the command line; it
	      is also accepted before the zipfile specification	(with the nor-
	      mal  options),  immediately  after the zipfile specification, or
	      between the file(s) and the -x option.  The option and directory
	      may  be  concatenated  without any white space between them, but
	      note that	this may cause normal shell behavior to	be suppressed.
	      In  particular,  ``-d ~''	 (tilde)  is expanded by Unix C	shells
	      into the name of the  user's  home  directory,  but  ``-d~''  is
	      treated  as  a  literal subdirectory ``~'' of the	current	direc-

       Note that, in order to  support	obsolescent  hardware,	unzip's	 usage
       screen  is limited to 22	or 23 lines and	should therefore be considered
       only a reminder of the basic unzip syntax  rather  than	an  exhaustive
       list of all possible flags.  The	exhaustive list	follows:

       -Z     zipinfo(1L)  mode.   If  the first option	on the command line is
	      -Z, the remaining	options	are taken to be	 zipinfo(1L)  options.
	      See  the	appropriate  manual  page  for	a description of these

       -A     [OS/2, Unix DLL] print extended help for the  DLL's  programming
	      interface	(API).

       -c     extract  files to	stdout/screen (``CRT'').  This option is simi-
	      lar to the -p option except  that	 the  name  of	each  file  is
	      printed as it is extracted, the -a option	is allowed, and	ASCII-
	      EBCDIC conversion	is  automatically  performed  if  appropriate.
	      This option is not listed	in the unzip usage screen.

       -f     freshen  existing	 files,	 i.e.,	extract	 only those files that
	      already exist on disk and	that are newer than the	 disk  copies.
	      By  default  unzip queries before	overwriting, but the -o	option
	      may be used to suppress the queries.  Note that under many oper-
	      ating  systems,  the  TZ (timezone) environment variable must be
	      set correctly in order for -f and	-u  to	work  properly	(under
	      Unix  the	 variable  is usually set automatically).  The reasons
	      for this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences
	      between  DOS-format file times (always local time) and Unix-for-
	      mat times	(always	in GMT/UTC) and	the necessity to  compare  the
	      two.   A	typical	 TZ value is ``PST8PDT'' (US Pacific time with
	      automatic	adjustment  for	 Daylight  Savings  Time  or  ``summer

       -l     list archive files (short	format).  The names, uncompressed file
	      sizes and	modification dates and times of	 the  specified	 files
	      are  printed,  along  with  totals  for all files	specified.  If
	      UnZip was	compiled with OS2_EAS  defined,	 the  -l  option  also
	      lists  columns  for the sizes of stored OS/2 extended attributes
	      (EAs) and	OS/2 access control lists (ACLs).   In	addition,  the
	      zipfile  comment	and individual file comments (if any) are dis-
	      played.  If a file was archived from a single-case  file	system
	      (for  example, the old MS-DOS FAT	file system) and the -L	option
	      was given, the filename is converted to lowercase	 and  is  pre-
	      fixed with a caret (^).

       -p     extract  files  to  pipe (stdout).  Nothing but the file data is
	      sent to stdout, and the files are	 always	 extracted  in	binary
	      format, just as they are stored (no conversions).

       -t     test archive files.  This	option extracts	each specified file in
	      memory  and  compares  the  CRC  (cyclic	redundancy  check,  an
	      enhanced checksum) of the	expanded file with the original	file's
	      stored CRC value.

       -T     [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that  of  the
	      newest  file  in each one.  This corresponds to zip's -go	option
	      except that it can be used on wildcard zipfiles  (e.g.,  ``unzip
	      -T \*.zip'') and is much faster.

       -u     update  existing	files  and  create  new	 ones if needed.  This
	      option performs the same function	as the -f  option,  extracting
	      (with  query) files that are newer than those with the same name
	      on disk, and in addition it extracts those  files	 that  do  not
	      already  exist on	disk.  See -f above for	information on setting
	      the timezone properly.

       -v     be verbose or print diagnostic version info.   This  option  has
	      evolved and now behaves as both an option	and a modifier.	 As an
	      option it	has two	purposes:  when	a zipfile is specified with no
	      other  options,  -v lists	archive	files verbosely, adding	to the
	      basic -l info the	compression method, compressed size,  compres-
	      sion  ratio  and 32-bit CRC.  When no zipfile is specified (that
	      is, the complete command is simply ``unzip -v''),	 a  diagnostic
	      screen  is  printed.   In	 addition  to  the  normal header with
	      release date and version,	unzip lists the	home Info-ZIP ftp site
	      and  where  to  find  a list of other ftp	and non-ftp sites; the
	      target operating system for which	it was compiled,  as  well  as
	      (possibly)  the  hardware	on which it was	compiled, the compiler
	      and version used,	and the	compilation date; any special compila-
	      tion options that	might affect the program's operation (see also
	      DECRYPTION below); and any options stored	in  environment	 vari-
	      ables  that  might  do the same (see ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below).
	      As a modifier it works in	conjunction with other options	(e.g.,
	      -t) to produce more verbose or debugging output; this is not yet
	      fully implemented	but will be in future releases.

       -z     display only the archive comment.

       -a     convert text files.  Ordinarily all files	are extracted  exactly
	      as  they are stored (as ``binary'' files).  The -a option	causes
	      files identified by zip as text files (those with	the `t'	 label
	      in  zipinfo  listings,  rather  than  `b')  to  be automatically
	      extracted	as such, converting line endings, end-of-file  charac-
	      ters  and	 the character set itself as necessary.	 (For example,
	      Unix files use line feeds	(LFs) for end-of-line (EOL)  and  have
	      no  end-of-file  (EOF)  marker; Macintoshes use carriage returns
	      (CRs) for	EOLs; and most PC operating systems use	CR+LF for EOLs
	      and  control-Z  for  EOF.	  In  addition,	IBM mainframes and the
	      Michigan Terminal	System use EBCDIC rather than the more	common
	      ASCII  character set, and	NT supports Unicode.)  Note that zip's
	      identification of	text  files  is	 by  no	 means	perfect;  some
	      ``text''	files  may  actually  be binary	and vice versa.	 unzip
	      therefore	prints ``[text]'' or ``[binary]'' as  a	 visual	 check
	      for  each	 file  it  extracts when using the -a option.  The -aa
	      option forces all	files to be extracted as text,	regardless  of
	      the supposed file	type.

       -b     [general]	treat all files	as binary (no text conversions).  This
	      is a shortcut for	---a.

       -b     [Tandem] force the creation files	with filecode type  180	 ('C')
	      when  extracting Zip entries marked as "text". (On Tandem, -a is
	      enabled by default, see above).

       -b     [VMS] auto-convert binary	files (see -a above) to	 fixed-length,
	      512-byte	record	format.	  Doubling the option (-bb) forces all
	      files to be extracted in this format. When extracting  to	 stan-
	      dard  output (-c or -p option in effect),	the default conversion
	      of text record delimiters	is disabled for	binary (-b) resp.  all
	      (-bb) files.

       -B     [Unix only, and only if compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined]	save a
	      backup copy of each  overwritten	file  with  a  tilde  appended
	      (e.g., the old copy of ``foo'' is	renamed	to ``foo~'').  This is
	      similar to the default behavior of emacs(1) in many locations.

       -C     match filenames case-insensitively.  unzip's philosophy is ``you
	      get  what	 you ask for'' (this is	also responsible for the -L/-U
	      change; see the relevant options below).	Because	some file sys-
	      tems  are	 fully	case-sensitive	(notably  those	under the Unix
	      operating	system)	and because both ZIP archives and unzip	itself
	      are  portable  across  platforms,	unzip's	default	behavior is to
	      match both  wildcard  and	 literal  filenames  case-sensitively.
	      That  is,	 specifying ``makefile'' on the	command	line will only
	      match ``makefile'' in the	archive, not ``Makefile''  or  ``MAKE-
	      FILE''  (and similarly for wildcard specifications).  Since this
	      does not correspond to the behavior of many other	operating/file
	      systems  (for example, OS/2 HPFS,	which preserves	mixed case but
	      is not sensitive to it), the -C option may be used to force  all
	      filename	matches	to be case-insensitive.	 In the	example	above,
	      all three	files would then match ``makefile'' (or	``make*'',  or
	      similar).	  The  -C option affects files in both the normal file
	      list and the excluded-file list (xlist).

       -E     [MacOS only]  display  contents  of  MacOS  extra	 field	during
	      restore operation.

       -F     [Acorn  only]  suppress  removal	of NFS filetype	extension from
	      stored filenames.

       -F     [non-Acorn systems supporting long filenames with	embedded  com-
	      mas,  and	 only if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS defined]	trans-
	      late filetype information	from ACORN RISC	OS extra field	blocks
	      into  a NFS filetype extension and append	it to the names	of the
	      extracted	files.	(When the stored filename appears  to  already
	      have  an	appended NFS filetype extension, it is replaced	by the
	      info from	the extra field.)

       -i     [MacOS only] ignore filenames  stored  in	 MacOS	extra  fields.
	      Instead, the most	compatible filename stored in the generic part
	      of the entry's header is used.

       -j     junk paths.  The archive's directory structure is	not recreated;
	      all files	are deposited in the extraction	directory (by default,
	      the current one).

       -J     [BeOS  only]  junk  file	attributes.   The  file's  BeOS	  file
	      attributes are not restored, just	the file's data.

       -J     [MacOS  only] ignore MacOS extra fields.	All Macintosh specific
	      info is skipped. Data-fork and  resource-fork  are  restored  as
	      separate files.

       -L     convert  to  lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-
	      only operating system or file system.  (This was unzip's default
	      behavior	in releases prior to 5.11; the new default behavior is
	      identical	to the old behavior with the -U	option,	which  is  now
	      obsolete and will	be removed in a	future release.)  Depending on
	      the archiver, files  archived  under  single-case	 file  systems
	      (VMS,  old  MS-DOS  FAT,	etc.)  may  be stored as all-uppercase
	      names; this can be ugly or inconvenient  when  extracting	 to  a
	      case-preserving  file  system such as OS/2 HPFS or a case-sensi-
	      tive one such  as	 under	Unix.	By  default  unzip  lists  and
	      extracts	such  filenames	 exactly  as they're stored (excepting
	      truncation, conversion of	unsupported  characters,  etc.);  this
	      option  causes the names of all files from certain systems to be
	      converted	to lowercase.  The -LL	option	forces	conversion  of
	      every  filename to lowercase, regardless of the originating file

       -M     pipe all output through an internal pager	similar	 to  the  Unix
	      more(1)  command.	  At  the  end of a screenful of output, unzip
	      pauses with a ``--More--'' prompt; the  next  screenful  may  be
	      viewed  by  pressing  the	 Enter	(Return) key or	the space bar.
	      unzip can	be terminated by pressing the ``q'' key	and,  on  some
	      systems, the Enter/Return	key.  Unlike Unix more(1), there is no
	      forward-searching	or editing capability.	 Also,	unzip  doesn't
	      notice if	long lines wrap	at the edge of the screen, effectively
	      resulting	in the printing	of two or more lines and  the  likeli-
	      hood that	some text will scroll off the top of the screen	before
	      being viewed.  On	some systems the number	of available lines  on
	      the  screen  is  not  detected,  in which	case unzip assumes the
	      height is	24 lines.

       -n     never overwrite existing files.  If a file already exists,  skip
	      the extraction of	that file without prompting.  By default unzip
	      queries before extracting	any file that already exists; the user
	      may  choose  to  overwrite  only the current file, overwrite all
	      files, skip extraction of	the current file, skip	extraction  of
	      all existing files, or rename the	current	file.

       -N     [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes.	 File comments
	      are created with the -c option of	zip(1L), or with the -N	option
	      of  the  Amiga  port  of zip(1L),	which stores filenotes as com-

       -o     overwrite	existing files without prompting.  This	is a dangerous
	      option,  so  use	it with	care.  (It is often used with -f, how-
	      ever, and	is the only  way  to  overwrite	 directory  EAs	 under

       -P password
	      use  password  to	 decrypt  encrypted  zipfile entries (if any).
	      THIS IS INSECURE!	 Many  multi-user  operating  systems  provide
	      ways  for	 any user to see the current command line of any other
	      user; even on stand-alone	systems	there is always	the threat  of
	      over-the-shoulder	 peeking.   Storing  the plaintext password as
	      part of a	command	line in	an automated  script  is  even	worse.
	      Whenever	possible,  use	the non-echoing, interactive prompt to
	      enter passwords.	(And where security is	truly  important,  use
	      strong  encryption  such	as  Pretty Good	Privacy	instead	of the
	      relatively weak encryption provided by standard  zipfile	utili-

       -q     perform  operations  quietly  (-qq  = even quieter).  Ordinarily
	      unzip prints the names of	the files it's extracting or  testing,
	      the extraction methods, any file or zipfile comments that	may be
	      stored in	the archive, and possibly a summary when finished with
	      each  archive.   The -q[q] options suppress the printing of some
	      or all of	these messages.

       -s     [OS/2, NT, MS-DOS] convert spaces	in filenames  to  underscores.
	      Since  all PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames, unzip
	      by  default  extracts  filenames	with  spaces   intact	(e.g.,
	      ``EA DATA. SF'').	 This can be awkward, however, since MS-DOS in
	      particular does not  gracefully  support	spaces	in  filenames.
	      Conversion  of  spaces to	underscores can	eliminate the awkward-
	      ness in some cases.

       -U     (obsolete; to be removed in a future  release)  leave  filenames
	      uppercase	if created under MS-DOS, VMS, etc.  See	-L above.

       -V     retain (VMS) file	version	numbers.  VMS files can	be stored with
	      a	version	number,	in the format  file.ext;##.   By  default  the
	      ``;##''  version	numbers	 are  stripped,	but this option	allows
	      them to be retained.  (On	file systems that limit	 filenames  to
	      particularly short lengths, the version numbers may be truncated
	      or stripped regardless of	this option.)

       -X     [VMS, Unix, OS/2,	NT] restore owner/protection info (UICs) under
	      VMS, or user and group info (UID/GID) under Unix,	or access con-
	      trol lists (ACLs)	under certain network-enabled versions of OS/2
	      (Warp Server with	IBM LAN	Server/Requester 3.0 to	5.0; Warp Con-
	      nect with	IBM Peer 1.0), or security ACLs	under Windows NT.   In
	      most cases this will require special system privileges, and dou-
	      bling the	option (-XX) under NT instructs	unzip  to  use	privi-
	      leges  for  extraction;  but under Unix, for example, a user who
	      belongs to several groups	can restore  files  owned  by  any  of
	      those  groups,  as  long	as  the	user IDs match his or her own.
	      Note that	ordinary file  attributes  are	always	restored--this
	      option  applies only to optional,	extra ownership	info available
	      on some operating	systems.  [NT's	access control	lists  do  not
	      appear to	be especially compatible with OS/2's, so no attempt is
	      made at cross-platform portability of access privileges.	It  is
	      not  clear  under	what conditions	this would ever	be useful any-

       -$     [MS-DOS, OS/2, NT] restore the volume label  if  the  extraction
	      medium  is  removable  (e.g.,  a diskette).  Doubling the	option
	      (-$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be  labelled  as	 well.
	      By default, volume labels	are ignored.

       -/ extensions
	      [Acorn  only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext
	      environment variable.  During  extraction,  filename  extensions
	      that  match  one of the items in this extension list are swapped
	      in front of the base name	of the extracted file.

       -:     [all but Acorn, VM/CMS, MVS, Tandem] allows to  extract  archive
	      members into locations outside of	the current `` extraction root
	      folder''.	For security reasons, unzip normally removes  ``parent
	      dir''  path  components  (``../'')  from	the names of extracted
	      file.  This safety feature (new for version 5.50)	prevents unzip
	      from  accidentally  writing files	to ``sensitive'' areas outside
	      the active extraction folder tree	 head.	 The  -:  option  lets
	      unzip  switch  back  to its previous, more liberal behaviour, to
	      allow exact extraction of	(older)	 archives  that	 used  ``../''
	      components  to  create  multiple directory trees at the level of
	      the current extraction folder.

       unzip's default behavior	may be modified	via options placed in an envi-
       ronment variable.  This can be done with	any option, but	it is probably
       most useful with	the -a,	-L, -C,	-q, -o,	or -n modifiers:   make	 unzip
       auto-convert  text  files  by  default,	make it	convert	filenames from
       uppercase systems to lowercase, make it match names case-insensitively,
       make  it	 quieter, or make it always overwrite or never overwrite files
       as it extracts them.  For example, to make unzip	act as quietly as pos-
       sible,  only  reporting errors, one would use one of the	following com-

	 Unix Bourne shell:
	      UNZIP=-qq; export	UNZIP

	 Unix C	shell:
	      setenv UNZIP -qq

	 OS/2 or MS-DOS:
	      set UNZIP=-qq

	 VMS (quotes for lowercase):
	      define UNZIP_OPTS	""-qq""

       Environment options are,	in effect, considered  to  be  just  like  any
       other  command-line options, except that	they are effectively the first
       options on the command line.  To	override an  environment  option,  one
       may use the ``minus operator'' to remove	it.  For instance, to override
       one of the quiet-flags in the example above, use	the command

	   unzip --q[other options] zipfile

       The first hyphen	is the normal switch character,	and the	 second	 is  a
       minus  sign, acting on the q option.  Thus the effect here is to	cancel
       one quantum of quietness.  To cancel both quiet flags,  two  (or	 more)
       minuses may be used:

	   unzip -t--q zipfile
	   unzip ---qt zipfile

       (the  two  are equivalent).  This may seem awkward or confusing,	but it
       is reasonably intuitive:	 just ignore the  first	 hyphen	 and  go  from
       there.  It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1).

       As  suggested  by  the  examples	 above,	the default variable names are
       UNZIP_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install unzip as a foreign
       command would otherwise be confused with	the environment	variable), and
       UNZIP for all other operating systems.  For compatibility with zip(1L),
       UNZIPOPT	 is also accepted (don't ask).	If both	UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are
       defined,	however, UNZIP takes precedence.   unzip's  diagnostic	option
       (-v  with  no zipfile name) can be used to check	the values of all four
       possible	unzip and zipinfo environment variables.

       The timezone variable (TZ) should be set	according to the  local	 time-
       zone in order for the -f	and -u to operate correctly.  See the descrip-
       tion of -f above	for details.  This variable may	also be	 necessary  in
       order  for  timestamps  on  extracted files to be set correctly.	 Under
       Windows 95/NT unzip should know the correct  timezone  even  if	TZ  is
       unset, assuming the timezone is correctly set in	the Control Panel.

       Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software, but	due to
       United States export restrictions, de-/encryption support might be dis-
       abled  in  your compiled	binary.	 However, since	spring 2000, US	export
       restrictions have been  liberated,  and	our  source  archives  do  now
       include	full  crypt  code.  In case you	need binary distributions with
       crypt support enabled, see the file ``WHERE'' in	any Info-ZIP source or
       binary distribution for locations both inside and outside the US.

       Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption.  To check a
       version for crypt  support,  either  attempt  to	 test  or  extract  an
       encrypted  archive, or else check unzip's diagnostic screen (see	the -v
       option above) for ``[decryption]'' as one of  the  special  compilation

       As  noted  above, the -P	option may be used to supply a password	on the
       command line, but at a cost  in	security.   The	 preferred  decryption
       method is simply	to extract normally; if	a zipfile member is encrypted,
       unzip will prompt for the  password  without  echoing  what  is	typed.
       unzip  continues	 to  use the same password as long as it appears to be
       valid, by testing a 12-byte header on each file.	 The correct  password
       will  always  check  out	 against  the  header, but there is a 1-in-256
       chance that an incorrect	password will as well.	(This  is  a  security
       feature	of  the	 PKWARE	 zipfile  format; it helps prevent brute-force
       attacks that might otherwise gain a large speed	advantage  by  testing
       only  the header.)  In the case that an incorrect password is given but
       it passes the header test anyway, either	an incorrect CRC will be  gen-
       erated  for  the	 extracted  data  or  else  unzip will fail during the
       extraction because the ``decrypted'' bytes do not  constitute  a	 valid
       compressed data stream.

       If  the	first password fails the header	check on some file, unzip will
       prompt for another password, and	so on until all	files  are  extracted.
       If  a  password is not known, entering a	null password (that is,	just a
       carriage	return or ``Enter'') is	taken as a signal to skip all  further
       prompting.  Only	unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be
       extracted.  (In fact, that's not	quite true; older versions of  zip(1L)
       and zipcloak(1L)	allowed	null passwords,	so unzip checks	each encrypted
       file to see if the null password	works.	This  may  result  in  ``false
       positives'' and extraction errors, as noted above.)

       Archives	 encrypted  with  8-bit	passwords (for example,	passwords with
       accented	European characters) may not be	portable across	systems	and/or
       other  archivers.  This problem stems from the use of multiple encoding
       methods for such	characters, including Latin-1  (ISO  8859-1)  and  OEM
       code  page  850.	 DOS PKZIP 2.04g uses the OEM code page; Windows PKZIP
       2.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible	with DOS PKZIP); Info-
       ZIP  uses  the  OEM code	page on	DOS, OS/2 and Win3.x ports but Latin-1
       everywhere else;	and Nico Mak's WinZip 6.x does not allow  8-bit	 pass-
       words at	all.  UnZip 5.3	(or newer) attempts to use the default charac-
       ter set first (e.g., Latin-1), followed by the alternate	one (e.g., OEM
       code  page)  to	test  passwords.   On EBCDIC systems, if both of these
       fail, EBCDIC encoding will be tested as a last resort.  (EBCDIC is  not
       tested on non-EBCDIC systems, because there are no known	archivers that
       encrypt using EBCDIC encoding.)	ISO  character	encodings  other  than
       Latin-1 are not supported.

       To use unzip to extract all members of the archive into the
       current directory and subdirectories below it, creating any subdirecto-
       ries as necessary:

	   unzip letters

       To extract all members of into the current directory	only:

	   unzip -j letters

       To test, printing only a summary message indicating whether
       the archive is OK or not:

	   unzip -tq letters

       To test all zipfiles in the current directory, printing only  the  sum-

	   unzip -tq \*.zip

       (The  backslash	before	the  asterisk  is  only	 required if the shell
       expands wildcards, as in	Unix;  double  quotes  could  have  been  used
       instead,	as in the source examples below.)  To extract to standard out-
       put all members of whose names end in .tex, auto-converting
       to the local end-of-line	convention and piping the output into more(1):

	   unzip -ca letters \*.tex | more

       To extract the binary file paper1.dvi to	standard output	and pipe it to
       a printing program:

	   unzip -p articles paper1.dvi	| dvips

       To  extract  all	 FORTRAN  and C	source files--*.f, *.c,	*.h, and Make-
       file--into the /tmp directory:

	   unzip "*.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp

       (the double quotes are necessary	only in	Unix and only if  globbing  is
       turned  on).   To extract all FORTRAN and C source files, regardless of
       case (e.g., both	*.c and	*.C, and any makefile, Makefile,  MAKEFILE  or

	   unzip -C "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names
       to lowercase and	convert	the line-endings of all	of the	files  to  the
       local  standard	(without  respect  to  any  files that might be	marked

	   unzip -aaCL "*.[fch]" makefile -d	/tmp

       To extract only newer versions of the  files  already  in  the  current
       directory,  without  querying  (NOTE:   be  careful of unzipping	in one
       timezone	a zipfile created in another--ZIP archives  other  than	 those
       created	by  Zip	 2.1  or  later	contain	no timezone information, and a
       ``newer'' file from an eastern timezone may, in fact, be	older):

	   unzip -fo sources

       To extract newer	versions of the	files already in the current directory
       and  to	create	any  files  not	already	there (same caveat as previous

	   unzip -uo sources

       To display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo  options
       are  stored  in	environment  variables,	whether	decryption support was
       compiled	in, the	compiler with which unzip was compiled,	etc.:

	   unzip -v

       In the last five	examples, assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS  is  set  to
       -q.  To do a singly quiet listing:

	   unzip -l

       To do a doubly quiet listing:

	   unzip -ql

       (Note  that the ``.zip''	is generally not necessary.)  To do a standard

	   unzip --ql
	   unzip -l-q
	   unzip -l--q
       (Extra minuses in options don't hurt.)

       The current maintainer, being a lazy sort,  finds  it  very  useful  to
       define a	pair of	aliases:  tt for ``unzip -tq'' and ii for ``unzip -Z''
       (or ``zipinfo'').  One may then simply type ``tt	zipfile'' to  test  an
       archive,	 something  that  is worth making a habit of doing.  With luck
       unzip will report ``No errors  detected	in  compressed	data  of  zip-,'' after which one may breathe a sigh of relief.

       The  maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment vari-
       able to ``-aL'' and is tempted to add  ``-C''  as  well.	  His  ZIPINFO
       variable	is set to ``-z''.

       The exit	status (or error level)	approximates the exit codes defined by
       PKWARE and takes	on the following values, except	under VMS:

	      0	     normal; no	errors or warnings detected.

	      1	     one or more warning errors	were encountered, but process-
		     ing  completed  successfully  anyway.  This includes zip-
		     files where one or	more files was skipped due  to	unsup-
		     ported  compression  method or encryption with an unknown

	      2	     a generic error in	the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
		     cessing may have completed	successfully anyway; some bro-
		     ken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-

	      3	     a	severe error in	the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
		     cessing probably failed immediately.

	      4	     unzip was unable to  allocate  memory  for	 one  or  more
		     buffers during program initialization.

	      5	     unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a
		     tty to read the decryption	password(s).

	      6	     unzip was unable to allocate memory during	 decompression
		     to	disk.

	      7	     unzip  was	 unable	 to  allocate  memory during in-memory

	      8	     [currently	not used]

	      9	     the specified zipfiles were not found.

	      10     invalid options were specified on the command line.

	      11     no	matching files were found.

	      50     the disk is (or was) full during extraction.

	      51     the end of	the ZIP	archive	was encountered	prematurely.

	      80     the user aborted unzip  prematurely  with	control-C  (or

	      81     testing  or extraction of one or more files failed	due to
		     unsupported compression methods  or  unsupported  decryp-

	      82     no	 files	were  found due	to bad decryption password(s).
		     (If even one file is successfully processed, however, the
		     exit status is 1.)

       VMS  interprets	standard Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-
       looking things, so unzip	instead	maps them into VMS-style status	codes.
       The  current  mapping  is  as  follows:	  1 (success) for normal exit,
       0x7fff0001   for	  warning   errors,   and   (0x7fff000?	  +    16*nor-
       mal_unzip_exit_status) for all other errors, where the `?' is 2 (error)
       for unzip values	2, 9-11	and 80-82, and 4 (fatal	error) for the remain-
       ing  ones (3-8, 50, 51).	 In addition, there is a compilation option to
       expand upon this	behavior:  defining RETURN_CODES results in  a	human-
       readable	explanation of what the	error status means.

       Multi-part  archives  are not yet supported, except in conjunction with
       zip.  (All parts	must be	concatenated together in order,	and then ``zip
       -F''  must be performed on the concatenated archive in order to ``fix''
       it.)  This will definitely be corrected in the next major release.

       Archives	read from standard input are not yet  supported,  except  with
       funzip  (and  then  only	 the  first  member  of	 the  archive  can  be

       Archives	encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e.g., passwords	with  accented
       European	 characters)  may  not be portable across systems and/or other
       archivers.  See the discussion in DECRYPTION above.

       unzip's -M (``more'') option is overly simplistic in  its  handling  of
       screen  output; as noted	above, it fails	to detect the wrapping of long
       lines and may thereby cause lines at  the  top  of  the	screen	to  be
       scrolled	 off  before  being  read.  unzip should detect	and treat each
       occurrence of line-wrap as one additional line printed.	This  requires
       knowledge  of  the  screen's width as well as its height.  In addition,
       unzip should detect the true screen geometry on all systems.

       Dates, times and	permissions of stored  directories  are	 not  restored
       except under Unix.

       [MS-DOS]	 When  extracting or testing files from	an archive on a	defec-
       tive floppy diskette, if	the  ``Fail''  option  is  chosen  from	 DOS's
       ``Abort,	 Retry,	 Fail?'' message, older	versions of unzip may hang the
       system, requiring a reboot.  This problem appears to be fixed, but con-
       trol-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate	unzip.

       Under DEC Ultrix, unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC,
       not always reproducible).  This was apparently due either to a hardware
       bug  (cache  memory)  or	 an operating system bug (improper handling of
       page faults?).  Since Ultrix has	been abandoned	in  favor  of  Digital
       Unix (OSF/1), this may not be an	issue anymore.

       [Unix]  Unix  special  files  such as FIFO buffers (named pipes), block
       devices and character devices are not restored even if they are somehow
       represented  in the zipfile, nor	are hard-linked	files relinked.	 Basi-
       cally the only file types restored by unzip are regular files, directo-
       ries and	symbolic (soft)	links.

       [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if
       the -o (``overwrite all'') option is given.  This is  a	limitation  of
       the  operating  system;	because	 directories only have a creation time
       associated with them, unzip has no way to determine whether the	stored
       attributes are newer or older than those	on disk.  In practice this may
       mean a two-pass approach	is required:  first unpack  the	 archive  nor-
       mally  (with or without freshening/updating existing files), then over-
       write just the directory	entries	(e.g., ``unzip -o foo */'').

       [VMS] When extracting to	another	directory, only	the [.foo]  syntax  is
       accepted	 for  the  -d  option;	the simple Unix	foo syntax is silently
       ignored (as is the less common VMS foo.dir syntax).

       [VMS] When the file being extracted already exists, unzip's query  only
       allows  skipping, overwriting or	renaming; there	should additionally be
       a choice	for creating a new version of the file.	 In fact, the  ``over-
       write''	choice does create a new version; the old version is not over-
       written or deleted.

       funzip(1L),  zip(1L),  zipcloak(1L),  zipgrep(1L),  zipinfo(1L),	  zip-
       note(1L), zipsplit(1L)

       The Info-ZIP home page is currently at
       or .

       The  primary  Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of the Zip-
       Bugs workgroup) are:  Greg ``Cave Newt''	Roelofs	(UnZip); Onno van  der
       Linden  (Zip);  Jean-loup  Gailly (compression);	Mark Adler (decompres-
       sion, fUnZip); Christian	Spieler	(UnZip	maintance  coordination,  VMS,
       MS-DOS,	Windows	95, NT,	shared code, general Zip and UnZip integration
       and optimization); Mike White (Windows GUI, Windows DLLs); Kai Uwe Rom-
       mel  (OS/2);  Paul  Kienitz  (Amiga, Windows 95); Chris Herborth	(BeOS,
       QNX, Atari); Jonathan Hudson (SMS/QDOS);	Sergio Monesi (Acorn RISC OS);
       Harald  Denker (Atari, MVS); John Bush (Solaris,	Amiga);	Hunter Goatley
       (VMS); Steve Salisbury (Windows 95, NT);	Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI),
       Johnny  Lee (MS-DOS, Windows 95,	NT); and Dave Smith (Tandem NSK).  The
       author of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP's	was  based  is
       Samuel  H.  Smith;  Carl	 Mascott did the first Unix port; and David P.
       Kirschbaum organized and	led Info-ZIP in	 its  early  days  with	 Keith
       Petersen	 hosting the original mailing list at WSMR-SimTel20.  The full
       list of contributors to UnZip has grown quite large;  please  refer  to
       the  CONTRIBS  file  in	the UnZip source distribution for a relatively
       complete	version.

       v1.2   15 Mar 89	  Samuel H. Smith
       v2.0    9 Sep 89	  Samuel H. Smith
       v2.x   fall 1989	  many Usenet contributors
       v3.0    1 May 90	  Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v3.1   15 Aug 90	  Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v4.0    1 Dec 90	  Info-ZIP (GRR, maintainer)
       v4.1   12 May 91	  Info-ZIP
       v4.2   20 Mar 92	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.0   21 Aug 92	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.01  15 Jan 93	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.1    7 Feb 94	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.11   2 Aug 94	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.12  28 Aug 94	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.2   30 Apr 96	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.3   22 Apr 97	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.31  31 May 97	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.32   3 Nov 97	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.4   28 Nov 98	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.41  16 Apr 00	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.42  14 Jan 01	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.5   17 Feb 02	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)

Info-ZIP		    17 February	2002 (v5.5)		     UNZIP(1L)


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