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curs_util(3X)							 curs_util(3X)

NAME
       delay_output, filter, flushinp, getwin, key_name, keyname, nofilter,
       putwin, unctrl, use_env,	use_tioctl, wunctrl - miscellaneous curses
       utility routines

SYNOPSIS
       #include	<curses.h>

       char *unctrl(chtype c);
       wchar_t *wunctrl(cchar_t	*c);
       char *keyname(int c);
       char *key_name(wchar_t w);
       void filter(void);
       void nofilter(void);
       void use_env(bool f);
       void use_tioctl(bool f);
       int putwin(WINDOW *win, FILE *filep);
       WINDOW *getwin(FILE *filep);
       int delay_output(int ms);
       int flushinp(void);

DESCRIPTION
       The unctrl routine returns a character string which is a	printable rep-
       resentation of the character c, ignoring	attributes.   Control  charac-
       ters  are  displayed  in	the ^X notation.  Printing characters are dis-
       played as is.  The corresponding	wunctrl	returns	a printable  represen-
       tation of a wide	character.

       The keyname routine returns a character string corresponding to the key
       c:

	  o   Printable	characters are displayed as themselves,	e.g.,  a  one-
	      character	string containing the key.

	  o   Control characters are displayed in the ^X notation.

	  o   DEL (character 127) is displayed as ^?.

	  o   Values  above  128 are either meta characters (if	the screen has
	      not been initialized, or if meta has been	called with a TRUE pa-
	      rameter),	 shown	in the M-X notation, or	are displayed as them-
	      selves.  In the latter case, the values may  not	be  printable;
	      this follows the X/Open specification.

	  o   Values above 256 may be the names	of the names of	function keys.

	  o   Otherwise	(if there is no	corresponding name) the	 function  re-
	      turns  null,  to denote an error.	 X/Open	also lists an "UNKNOWN
	      KEY" return value, which some implementations return rather than
	      null.

       The  corresponding key_name returns a character string corresponding to
       the wide-character value	w.  The	two functions do not return  the  same
       set  of strings;	the latter returns null	where the former would display
       a meta character.

       The filter routine, if used, must be called before initscr  or  newterm
       are called.  The	effect is that,	during those calls, LINES is set to 1;
       the capabilities	clear, cup, cud, cud1, cuu1, cuu,  vpa	are  disabled;
       and the home string is set to the value of cr.

       The  nofilter  routine  cancels	the effect of a	preceding filter call.
       That allows the caller to initialize a screen on	 a  different  device,
       using  a	 different  value of $TERM.  The limitation arises because the
       filter routine modifies the in-memory copy of the terminal information.

       The  use_env  routine,  if  used,  should  be  called before initscr or
       newterm are called (because those compute the screen size).   It	 modi-
       fies  the way ncurses treats environment	variables when determining the
       screen size.

       o   Normally ncurses looks first	 at  the  terminal  database  for  the
	   screen size.

	   If  use_env	was called with	FALSE for parameter, it	stops here un-
	   less	If use_tioctl was also called with TRUE	for parameter.

       o   Then	it asks	for the	screen size via	operating  system  calls.   If
	   successful, it overrides the	values from the	terminal database.

       o   Finally  (unless  use_env was called	with FALSE parameter), ncurses
	   examines the	LINES or COLUMNS environment variables,	using a	 value
	   in  those to	override the results from the operating	system or ter-
	   minal database.

	   Ncurses also	updates	the screen size	in response to	SIGWINCH,  un-
	   less	overridden by the LINES	or COLUMNS environment variables,

       The  use_tioctl	routine,  if  used, should be called before initscr or
       newterm are called (because those  compute  the	screen	size).	 After
       use_tioctl  is  called  with  TRUE as an	argument, ncurses modifies the
       last step in its	computation of screen size as follows:

       o   checks if the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables are set to  a
	   number greater than zero.

       o   for	each,  ncurses	updates	the corresponding environment variable
	   with	the value that it has obtained via operating  system  call  or
	   from	the terminal database.

       o   ncurses  re-fetches	the value of the environment variables so that
	   it is still the environment variables which set the screen size.

       The use_env and use_tioctl routines combine as summarized here:

	   use_env   use_tioctl	  Summary
	   ----------------------------------------------------------------
	   TRUE	     FALSE	  This is the default  behavior.   ncurses
				  uses operating system	calls unless over-
				  ridden by $LINES or $COLUMNS environment
				  variables.
	   TRUE	     TRUE	  ncurses   updates  $LINES  and  $COLUMNS
				  based	on operating system calls.
	   FALSE     TRUE	  ncurses ignores $LINES and $COLUMNS, us-
				  es  operating	 system	 calls	to  obtain
				  size.
	   FALSE     FALSE	  ncurses relies on the	terminal  database
				  to determine size.

       The  putwin routine writes all data associated with window win into the
       file to which filep points.  This information can  be  later  retrieved
       using the getwin	function.

       The  getwin  routine  reads  window  related data stored	in the file by
       putwin.	The routine then creates and initializes a  new	 window	 using
       that data.  It returns a	pointer	to the new window.

       The  delay_output  routine  inserts  an ms millisecond pause in output.
       This routine should not be used extensively because padding  characters
       are  used  rather  than a CPU pause.  If	no padding character is	speci-
       fied, this uses napms to	perform	the delay.

       The flushinp routine throws away	any typeahead that has been  typed  by
       the user	and has	not yet	been read by the program.

RETURN VALUE
       Except  for  flushinp,  routines	that return an integer return ERR upon
       failure and OK (SVr4 specifies only "an integer value other than	 ERR")
       upon successful completion.

       Routines	that return pointers return NULL on error.

       X/Open does not define any error	conditions.  In	this implementation

	  flushinp
	       returns an error	if the terminal	was not	initialized.

	  meta returns an error	if the terminal	was not	initialized.

	  putwin
	       returns	an  error if the associated fwrite calls return	an er-
	       ror.

PORTABILITY
       The XSI Curses standard,	Issue 4	describes these	functions.  It	states
       that unctrl and wunctrl will return a null pointer if unsuccessful, but
       does not	define any error conditions.  This implementation  checks  for
       three cases:

	  o   the  parameter  is a 7-bit US-ASCII code.	 This is the case that
	      X/Open Curses documented.

	  o   the parameter is in the range 128-159, i.e., a C1	control	 code.
	      If  use_legacy_coding has	been called with a 2 parameter,	unctrl
	      returns the parameter, i.e., a one-character string with the pa-
	      rameter  as  the	first  character.  Otherwise, it returns "~@",
	      "~A", etc., analogous to "^@", "^A", C0 controls.

	      X/Open Curses does not document whether unctrl can be called be-
	      fore initializing	curses.	 This implementation permits that, and
	      returns the "~@",	etc., values in	that case.

	  o   parameter	values outside the 0 to	255 range.  unctrl  returns  a
	      null pointer.

       The  SVr4  documentation	 describes  the	 action	 of filter only	in the
       vaguest terms.  The description here is adapted	from  the  XSI	Curses
       standard	(which erroneously fails to describe the disabling of cuu).

       The strings returned by unctrl in this implementation are determined at
       compile time, showing C1	controls from the upper-128 codes with	a  `~'
       prefix  rather  than `^'.  Other	implementations	have different conven-
       tions.  For example, they may show both sets of control characters with
       `^', and	strip the parameter to 7 bits.	Or they	may ignore C1 controls
       and treat all of	the upper-128 codes as printable.  This	implementation
       uses  8	bits  but  does	 not modify the	string to reflect locale.  The
       use_legacy_coding function allows the caller to change  the  output  of
       unctrl.

       Likewise,  the  meta function allows the	caller to change the output of
       keyname,	i.e., it determines whether to use the `M-' prefix for	"meta"
       keys  (codes in the range 128 to	255).  Both use_legacy_coding and meta
       succeed only after curses is initialized.  X/Open Curses	does not docu-
       ment  the  treatment of codes 128 to 159.  When treating	them as	"meta"
       keys (or	if keyname is called before initializing curses), this	imple-
       mentation returns strings "M-^@", "M-^A", etc.

       The  keyname function may return	the names of user-defined string capa-
       bilities	which are defined in the terminfo entry	via the	-x  option  of
       tic.  This implementation automatically assigns at run-time keycodes to
       user-defined strings which begin	 with  "k".   The  keycodes  start  at
       KEY_MAX,	but are	not guaranteed to be the same value for	different runs
       because user-defined codes are merged from  all	terminal  descriptions
       which  have  been  loaded.   The	 use_extended_names  function controls
       whether this data is loaded when	the terminal description  is  read  by
       the library.

       The  nofilter  and  use_tioctl  routines	are specific to	ncurses.  They
       were not	supported on Version 7,	BSD or System V	 implementations.   It
       is  recommended that any	code depending on ncurses extensions be	condi-
       tioned using NCURSES_VERSION.

SEE ALSO
       legacy_coding(3X),   curses(3X),	  curs_initscr(3X),   curs_kernel(3X),
       curs_scr_dump(3X), curs_variables(3X), legacy_coding(3X).

								 curs_util(3X)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUE | PORTABILITY | SEE ALSO

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