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TWM(1)			    General Commands Manual			TWM(1)

NAME
       twm - Tab Window	Manager	for the	X Window System

SYNTAX
       twm [ -display dpy ] [ -s ] [ -f	initfile ] [ -v	]

DESCRIPTION
       Twm  is	a  window manager for the X Window System.  It provides	title-
       bars, shaped windows, several forms of  icon  management,  user-defined
       macro  functions,  click-to-type	and pointer-driven keyboard focus, and
       user-specified key and pointer button bindings.

       This program is usually	started	 by  the  user's  session  manager  or
       startup	script.	  When	used from xdm(1) or xinit(1) without a session
       manager,	twm is frequently executed  in	the  foreground	 as  the  last
       client.	When run this way, exiting twm causes the session to be	termi-
       nated (i.e., logged out).

       By default, application windows are surrounded by a  ``frame''  with  a
       titlebar	at the top and a special border	around the window.  The	title-
       bar contains the	window's name, a rectangle that	is lit when the	window
       is  receiving  keyboard	input, and function boxes known	as ``titlebut-
       tons'' at the left and right edges of the titlebar.

       Pressing	pointer	Button1	(usually the left-most button  unless  it  has
       been  changed  with  xmodmap) on	a titlebutton will invoke the function
       associated with the button.  In	the  default  interface,  windows  are
       iconified  by  clicking	(pressing  and then immediately	releasing) the
       left titlebutton	(which looks like a Dot).  Conversely, windows are de-
       iconified  by clicking in the associated	icon or	entry in the icon man-
       ager (see description of	the variable ShowIconManager and of the	 func-
       tion f.showiconmgr).

       Windows	are resized by pressing	the right titlebutton (which resembles
       a group of nested squares), dragging the	pointer	over edge that	is  to
       be  moved,  and releasing the pointer when the outline of the window is
       the desired size.  Similarly, windows are moved by pressing in the  ti-
       tle or highlight	region,	dragging a window outline to the new location,
       and then	releasing when the outline is in the desired  position.	  Just
       clicking	 in  the  title	 or highlight region raises the	window without
       moving it.

       When new	windows	are created, twm will honor any	size and location  in-
       formation requested by the user (usually	through	-geometry command line
       argument	or resources for the individual	applications).	Otherwise,  an
       outline	of the window's	default	size, its titlebar, and	lines dividing
       the window into a 3x3  grid  that  track	 the  pointer  are  displayed.
       Clicking	 pointer Button1 will position the window at the current posi-
       tion and	give it	the default size.  Pressing pointer  Button2  (usually
       the  middle pointer button) and dragging	the outline will give the win-
       dow its current position	but allow the sides to be resized as described
       above.	Clicking  pointer  Button3  (usually the right pointer button)
       will give the window its	current	position but attempt to	make  it  long
       enough to touch the bottom the screen.

OPTIONS
       Twm accepts the following command line options:

       -display	dpy
	       This option specifies the X server to use.

       -s      This  option  indicates that only the default screen (as	speci-
	       fied by -display	or by the DISPLAY environment variable)	should
	       be managed.  By default,	twm will attempt to manage all screens
	       on the display.

       -f filename
	       This option specifies the name of the startup file to use.   By
	       default,	 twm  will look	in the user's home directory for files
	       named .twmrc.num	(where num is a	screen number) or .twmrc.

       -v      This option indicates that  twm	should	print  error  messages
	       whenever	 an unexpected X Error event is	received.  This	can be
	       useful when debugging applications but can  be  distracting  in
	       regular use.

CUSTOMIZATION
       Much  of	twm's appearance and behavior can be controlled	by providing a
       startup file in one of the following locations (searched	in  order  for
       each screen being managed when twm begins):

       $HOME/.twmrc.screennumber
	       The  screennumber  is a small positive number (e.g. 0, 1, etc.)
	       representing the	screen number (e.g. the	 last  number  in  the
	       DISPLAY	environment  variable  host:displaynum.screennum) that
	       would be	used to	contact	that screen of the display.   This  is
	       intended	for displays with multiple screens of differing	visual
	       types.

       $HOME/.twmrc
	       This is the usual name for an individual	user's startup file.

       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/twm/system.twmrc
	       If neither of the preceding files are found, twm	will  look  in
	       this  file for a	default	configuration.	This is	often tailored
	       by the site administrator to provide convenient menus or	famil-
	       iar bindings for	novice users.

       If  no  startup files are found,	twm will use the built-in defaults de-
       scribed above.  The only	resource used by twm is	bitmapFilePath	for  a
       colon-separated	list  of directories to	search when looking for	bitmap
       files  (for  more  information,	see  the  Athena  Widgets  manual  and
       xrdb(1)).

       Twm  startup files are logically	broken up into three types of specifi-
       cations:	 Variables, Bindings, Menus.  The Variables section must  come
       first  and  is  used  to	 describe  the	fonts, colors, cursors,	border
       widths, icon and	window placement, highlighting,	autoraising, layout of
       titles, warping,	use of the icon	manager.  The Bindings section usually
       comes second and	is used	to specify the functions that should be	to  be
       invoked	when  keyboard	and  pointer  buttons  are pressed in windows,
       icons, titles, and frames.  The Menus section  gives  any  user-defined
       menus (containing functions to be invoked or commands to	be executed).

       Variable	names and keywords are case-insensitive.  Strings must be sur-
       rounded by double quote characters (e.g.	"blue")	 and  are  case-sensi-
       tive.  A	pound sign (#) outside of a string causes the remainder	of the
       line in which the character appears to be treated as a comment.

VARIABLES
       Many of the aspects of twm's user interface are controlled by variables
       that  may  be  set in the user's	startup	file.  Some of the options are
       enabled or disabled simply by the presence  of  a  particular  keyword.
       Other  options  require	keywords, numbers, strings, or lists of	all of
       these.

       Lists are surrounded by braces and are usually separated	by  whitespace
       or a newline.  For example:
       AutoRaise { "emacs" "XTerm" "Xmh" }
       or
       AutoRaise
       {
	    "emacs"
	    "XTerm"
	    "Xmh"
       }
       When  a	variable  containing a list of strings representing windows is
       searched	(e.g. to determine whether or not to enable autoraise as shown
       above), a string	must be	an exact, case-sensitive match to the window's
       name (given by the WM_NAME window property),  resource  name  or	 class
       name (both given	by the WM_CLASS	window property).  The preceding exam-
       ple would enable	autoraise on windows named ``emacs'' as	 well  as  any
       xterm  (since they are of class ``XTerm'') or xmh windows (which	are of
       class ``Xmh'').

       String arguments	that are interpreted as	filenames  (see	 the  Pixmaps,
       Cursors,	 and  IconDirectory  below)  will prepend the user's directory
       (specified by the HOME environment variable) if the first character  is
       a tilde (~).  If, instead, the first character is a colon (:), the name
       is assumed to refer to one of the internal bitmaps  that	 are  used  to
       create the default titlebars symbols:  :xlogo or	:delete	(both refer to
       the X logo), :dot or :iconify (both refer to  the  dot),	 :resize  (the
       nested  squares	used by	the resize button), :menu (a page with lines),
       and :question (the question mark	used for non-existent bitmap files).

       The following variables may be specified	at the top of  a  twm  startup
       file.   Lists  of Window	name prefix strings are	indicated by win-list.
       Optional	arguments are shown in square brackets:

       AutoRaise { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of windows that should automati-
	       cally  be  raised whenever the pointer enters the window.  This
	       action can be interactively enabled or disabled	on  individual
	       windows using the function f.autoraise.

       AutoRelativeResize
	       This variable indicates that dragging out a window size (either
	       when initially sizing the window	with pointer Button2  or  when
	       resizing	 it) should not	wait until the pointer has crossed the
	       window edges.  Instead, moving the pointer automatically	causes
	       the nearest edge	or edges to move by the	same amount.  This al-
	       lows the	resizing of windows that extend	off the	 edge  of  the
	       screen.	 If  the pointer is in the center of the window, or if
	       the resize is begun by pressing a titlebutton, twm  will	 still
	       wait  for  the pointer to cross a window	edge (to prevent acci-
	       dents).	This option is particularly useful for people who like
	       the press-drag-release method of	sweeping out window sizes.

       BorderColor string [{ wincolorlist }]
	       This  variable  specifies the default color of the border to be
	       placed around all non-iconified windows,	and may	only be	 given
	       within  a  Color,  Grayscale  or	Monochrome list.  The optional
	       wincolorlist specifies a	list of	window and  color  name	 pairs
	       for  specifying particular border colors	for different types of
	       windows.	 For example:
	       BorderColor "gray50"
	       {
		    "XTerm"   "red"
		    "xmh"     "green"
	       }
	       The default is "black".

       BorderTileBackground string [{ wincolorlist }]
	       This variable specifies the default  background	color  in  the
	       gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only	if NoHighlight
	       hasn't been set),  and  may  only  be  given  within  a	Color,
	       Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional wincolorlist	allows
	       per-window colors to be specified.  The default	is "white".

       BorderTileForeground string [{ wincolorlist }]
	       This variable specifies the default  foreground	color  in  the
	       gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only	if NoHighlight
	       hasn't been set),  and  may  only  be  given  within  a	Color,
	       Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional wincolorlist	allows
	       per-window colors to be specified.  The default is "black".

       BorderWidth pixels
	       This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border  sur-
	       rounding	 all client window frames if ClientBorderWidth has not
	       been specified.	This value is also used	to set the border size
	       of  windows created by twm (such	as the icon manager).  The de-
	       fault is	2.

       ButtonIndent pixels
	       This variable specifies the amount by which titlebuttons	should
	       be indented on all sides.  Positive values cause	the buttons to
	       be smaller than the window text and highlight area so that they
	       stand  out.   Setting this and the TitleButtonBorderWidth vari-
	       ables to	0 makes	titlebuttons be	as tall	and wide as  possible.
	       The default is 1.

       ClientBorderWidth
	       This  variable  indicates that border width of a	window's frame
	       should be set to	the initial border width of the	window,	rather
	       than to the value of BorderWidth.

       Color { colors-list }
	       This  variable specifies	a list of color	assignments to be made
	       if the default display is capable of displaying more than  sim-
	       ple black and white.  The colors-list is	made up	of the follow-
	       ing color variables and their  values:  DefaultBackground,  De-
	       faultForeground,	MenuBackground,	MenuForeground,	MenuTitleBack-
	       ground,	MenuTitleForeground,   MenuShadowColor,	  PointerFore-
	       ground,	and  PointerBackground.	 The following color variables
	       may also	be given a list	of window and color name pairs to  al-
	       low  per-window colors to be specified (see BorderColor for de-
	       tails):	BorderColor,  IconManagerHighlight,   BorderTitleBack-
	       ground,	 BorderTitleForeground,	  TitleBackground,  TitleFore-
	       ground, IconBackground, IconForeground, IconBorderColor,	 Icon-
	       ManagerBackground, and IconManagerForeground.  For example:
	       Color
	       {
		    MenuBackground	"gray50"
		    MenuForeground	"blue"
		    BorderColor		     "red" { "XTerm" "yellow" }
		    TitleForeground	     "yellow"
		    TitleBackground	     "blue"
	       }
	       All  of	these  color  variables	 may also be specified for the
	       Monochrome variable, allowing the same initialization  file  to
	       be used on both color and monochrome displays.

       ConstrainedMoveTime milliseconds
	       This  variable  specifies  the  length  of  time	between	button
	       clicks needed to	begin a	constrained  move  operation.	Double
	       clicking	 within	 this amount of	time when invoking f.move will
	       cause the window	to be moved only in a horizontal  or  vertical
	       direction.   Setting  this  value to 0 will disable constrained
	       moves.  The default is 400 milliseconds.

       Cursors { cursor-list }
	       This variable specifies the glyphs that twm should use for var-
	       ious  pointer  cursors.	Each cursor may	be defined either from
	       the cursor font or from two bitmap files.  Shapes from the cur-
	       sor font	may be specified directly as:
		    cursorname	   "string"
	       where  cursorname  is one of the	cursor names listed below, and
	       string  is  the	name  of  a  glyph  as	found  in   the	  file
	       /usr/X11R6/include/X11/cursorfont.h  (without  the ``XC_'' pre-
	       fix).  If the cursor is to be defined from  bitmap  files,  the
	       following syntax	is used	instead:
		    cursorname	   "image"   "mask"
	       The  image and mask strings specify the names of	files contain-
	       ing the glyph image and mask in	bitmap(1)  form.   The	bitmap
	       files are located in the	same manner as icon bitmap files.  The
	       following example shows the default cursor definitions:
	       Cursors
	       {
		    Frame	   "top_left_arrow"
		    Title	   "top_left_arrow"
		    Icon      "top_left_arrow"
		    IconMgr   "top_left_arrow"
		    Move      "fleur"
		    Resize	   "fleur"
		    Menu      "sb_left_arrow"
		    Button	   "hand2"
		    Wait      "watch"
		    Select	   "dot"
		    Destroy   "pirate"
	       }

       DecorateTransients
	       This variable indicates that transient windows (those  contain-
	       ing a WM_TRANSIENT_FOR property)	should have titlebars.	By de-
	       fault, transients are not reparented.

       DefaultBackground string
	       This variable specifies the background color  to	 be  used  for
	       sizing and information windows.	The default is "white".

       DefaultForeground string
	       This  variable  specifies  the  foreground color	to be used for
	       sizing and information windows.	The default is "black".

       DontIconifyByUnmapping {	win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of windows that  should  not  be
	       iconified  by simply unmapping the window (as would be the case
	       if IconifyByUnmapping had been set).  This is  frequently  used
	       to  force  some windows to be treated as	icons while other win-
	       dows are	handled	by the icon manager.

       DontMoveOff
	       This variable indicates that windows should not be  allowed  to
	       be  moved off the screen.  It can be overridden by the f.force-
	       move function.

       DontSqueezeTitle	[{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that titlebars should not  be  squeezed
	       to  their  minimum  size	as described under SqueezeTitle	below.
	       If the optional window list is  supplied,  only	those  windows
	       will be prevented from being squeezed.

       ForceIcons
	       This  variable  indicates  that	icon  pixmaps specified	in the
	       Icons variable should override any client-supplied pixmaps.

       FramePadding pixels
	       This variable specifies the distance between the	titlebar deco-
	       rations	(the  button  and text)	and the	window frame.  The de-
	       fault is	2 pixels.

       Grayscale { colors }
	       This variable specifies a list of color assignments that	should
	       be  made	if the screen has a GrayScale default visual.  See the
	       description of Colors.

       IconBackground string [{	win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the background color of icons, and  may
	       only  be	 specified  inside of a	Color, Grayscale or Monochrome
	       list.  The optional win-list is a list of window	names and col-
	       ors  so	that per-window	colors may be specified.  See the Bor-
	       derColor	variable for a complete	description of	the  win-list.
	       The default is "white".

       IconBorderColor string [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable  specifies the color of the border used for icon
	       windows,	and may	only be	specified inside of a Color, Grayscale
	       or  Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a	list of	window
	       names and colors	so that	per-window colors  may	be  specified.
	       See  the	BorderColor variable for a complete description	of the
	       win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconBorderWidth pixels
	       This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border  sur-
	       rounding	icon windows.  The default is 2.

       IconDirectory string
	       This  variable  specifies the directory that should be searched
	       if if a bitmap file cannot be found in any of  the  directories
	       in the bitmapFilePath resource.

       IconFont	string
	       This  variable  specifies  the  font to be used to display icon
	       names within icons.  The	default	is "variable".

       IconForeground string [{	win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the foreground color to	be  used  when
	       displaying  icons, and may only be specified inside of a	Color,
	       Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a  list
	       of  window  names  and  colors so that per-window colors	may be
	       specified.  See the BorderColor variable	 for  a	 complete  de-
	       scription of the	win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconifyByUnmapping [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that windows should be iconified	by be-
	       ing unmapped without trying to map  any	icons.	 This  assumes
	       that  the  user will remap the window through the icon manager,
	       the f.warpto function, or the TwmWindows	menu.  If the optional
	       win-list	 is  provided, only those windows will be iconified by
	       simply unmapping.  Windows that have both this and the IconMan-
	       agerDontShow options set	may not	be accessible if no binding to
	       the TwmWindows menu is set in the user's	startup	file.

       IconManagerBackground string [{ win-list	}]
	       This variable specifies the background color to	use  for  icon
	       manager	entries,  and may only be specified inside of a	Color,
	       Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a  list
	       of  window  names  and  colors so that per-window colors	may be
	       specified.  See the BorderColor variable	 for  a	 complete  de-
	       scription of the	win-list.  The default is "white".

       IconManagerDontShow [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable  indicates that the icon manager should not dis-
	       play any	windows.  If the  optional  win-list  is  given,  only
	       those  windows will not be displayed.  This variable is used to
	       prevent windows that are	rarely iconified (such	as  xclock  or
	       xload) from taking up space in the icon manager.

       IconManagerFont string
	       This  variable  specifies  the  font to be used when displaying
	       icon manager entries.  The default is "variable".

       IconManagerForeground string [{ win-list	}]
	       This variable specifies the foreground color to	be  used  when
	       displaying  icon	manager	entries, and may only be specified in-
	       side of a Color,	Grayscale or Monochrome	 list.	 The  optional
	       win-list	 is a list of window names and colors so that per-win-
	       dow colors may be specified.  See the BorderColor variable  for
	       a  complete  description	 of  the  win-list.   The  default  is
	       "black".

       IconManagerGeometry string [ columns ]
	       This variable specifies the geometry of the icon	 manager  win-
	       dow.   The  string  argument is standard	geometry specification
	       that indicates the initial full size of the icon	manager.   The
	       icon  manager  window  is  then	broken into columns pieces and
	       scaled according	to the number of entries in the	icon  manager.
	       Extra entries are wrapped to form additional rows.  The default
	       number of columns is 1.

       IconManagerHighlight string [{ win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the border color	to be used when	 high-
	       lighting	 the  icon manager entry that currently	has the	focus,
	       and can only be specified inside	of a Color, Grayscale or Mono-
	       chrome  list.   The optional win-list is	a list of window names
	       and colors so that per-window colors may	be specified.  See the
	       BorderColor  variable  for  a  complete description of the win-
	       list.  The default is "black".

       IconManagers { iconmgr-list }
	       This variable specifies a list  of  icon	 managers  to  create.
	       Each item in the	iconmgr-list has the following format:
		    "winname" ["iconname"]   "geometry"	columns
	       where  winname  is  the	name of	the windows that should	be put
	       into this icon manager, iconname	is the name of that icon  man-
	       ager  window's icon, geometry is	a standard geometry specifica-
	       tion, and columns is the	number of columns in this icon manager
	       as described in IconManagerGeometry.  For example:
	       IconManagers
	       {
		    "XTerm"   "=300x5+800+5" 5
		    "myhost"  "=400x5+100+5" 2
	       }
	       Clients	whose  name  or	 class is ``XTerm'' will have an entry
	       created in the ``XTerm''	icon manager.  Clients whose name  was
	       ``myhost'' would	be put into the	``myhost'' icon	manager.

       IconManagerShow { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of windows that should appear in
	       the icon	manager.  When used in conjunction with	 the  IconMan-
	       agerDontShow  variable,	only  the windows in this list will be
	       shown in	the icon manager.

       IconRegion geomstring vgrav hgrav gridwidth gridheight
	       This variable specifies an area on the  root  window  in	 which
	       icons  are  placed  if no specific icon location	is provided by
	       the client.  The	geomstring is a	 quoted	 string	 containing  a
	       standard	 geometry  specification.  If more than	one IconRegion
	       lines are given,	icons will be put into the succeeding icon re-
	       gions when the first is full.  The vgrav	argument should	be ei-
	       ther North or South and control and is used to control  whether
	       icons  are  first  filled in from the top or bottom of the icon
	       region.	Similarly, the hgrav argument should be	either East or
	       West  and  is used to control whether icons should be filled in
	       from left from the right.  Icons	are laid out within the	region
	       in  a grid with cells gridwidth pixels wide and gridheight pix-
	       els high.

       Icons { win-list	}
	       This variable specifies a list of window	names and  the	bitmap
	       filenames that should be	used as	their icons.  For example:
	       Icons
	       {
		    "XTerm"   "xterm.icon"
		    "xfd"	   "xfd_icon"
	       }
	       Windows	that match ``XTerm'' and would not be iconified	by un-
	       mapping,	and would try to use  the  icon	 bitmap	 in  the  file
	       ``xterm.icon''.	 If  ForceIcons	is specified, this bitmap will
	       be used even if the client has requested	its own	icon pixmap.

       InterpolateMenuColors
	       This variable indicates that menu entry colors should be	inter-
	       polated between entry specified colors.	In the example below:
	       Menu "mymenu"
	       {
		    "Title"	   ("black":"red")	    f.title
		    "entry1"		     f.nop
		    "entry2"		     f.nop
		    "entry3"  ("white":"green")	  f.nop
		    "entry4"		     f.nop
		    "entry5"  ("red":"white")	       f.nop
	       }
	       the foreground colors for ``entry1'' and	``entry2'' will	be in-
	       terpolated between black	and white, and the  background	colors
	       between	red  and  green.   Similarly, the foreground for ``en-
	       try4'' will be half-way between white and red,  and  the	 back-
	       ground will be half-way between green and white.

       MakeTitle { win-list }
	       This  variable  specifies a list	of windows on which a titlebar
	       should be placed	and is used to request titles on specific win-
	       dows when NoTitle has been set.

       MaxWindowSize string
	       This  variable  specifies  a  geometry  in  which the width and
	       height give the maximum size for	a given	window.	 This is typi-
	       cally  used to restrict windows to the size of the screen.  The
	       default width is	32767 -	screen width.  The default  height  is
	       32767 - screen height.

       MenuBackground string
	       This  variable  specifies  the background color used for	menus,
	       and can only be specified inside	of a Color or Monochrome list.
	       The default is "white".

       MenuFont	string
	       This  variable specifies	the font to use	when displaying	menus.
	       The default is "variable".

       MenuForeground string
	       This variable specifies the foreground color  used  for	menus,
	       and can only be specified inside	of a Color, Grayscale or Mono-
	       chrome list.  The default is "black".

       MenuShadowColor string
	       This variable specifies the color of the	 shadow	 behind	 pull-
	       down  menus  and	 can  only  be	specified  inside  of a	Color,
	       Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The default is "black".

       MenuTitleBackground string
	       This variable specifies the background color  for  f.title  en-
	       tries  in  menus,  and can only be specified inside of a	Color,
	       Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The default is "white".

       MenuTitleForeground string
	       This variable specifies the foreground color  for  f.title  en-
	       tries  in  menus	and can	only be	specified inside of a Color or
	       Monochrome list.	 The default is	"black".

       Monochrome { colors }
	       This variable specifies a list of color assignments that	should
	       be made if the screen has a depth of 1.	See the	description of
	       Colors.

       MoveDelta pixels
	       This variable specifies the number of pixels the	 pointer  must
	       move  before  the f.move	function starts	working.  Also see the
	       f.deltastop function.  The default is zero pixels.

       NoBackingStore
	       This variable indicates that twm's  menus  should  not  request
	       backing	store  to minimize repainting of menus.	 This is typi-
	       cally used with servers that can	repaint	faster than  they  can
	       handle backing store.

       NoCaseSensitive
	       This  variable indicates	that case should be ignored when sort-
	       ing icon	names in an icon manager.  This	 option	 is  typically
	       used  with  applications	 that  capitalize  the first letter of
	       their icon name.

       NoDefaults
	       This variable indicates that twm	should not supply the  default
	       titlebuttons  and bindings.  This option	should only be used if
	       the startup file	contains a completely new set of bindings  and
	       definitions.

       NoGrabServer
	       This  variable  indicates  that	twm should not grab the	server
	       when popping up menus and moving	opaque windows.

       NoHighlight [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that borders should not be  highlighted
	       to track	the location of	the pointer.  If the optional win-list
	       is given, highlighting will only	be disabled for	those windows.
	       When the	border is highlighted, it will be drawn	in the current
	       BorderColor.  When the border is	not highlighted,  it  will  be
	       stippled	 with a	gray pattern using the current BorderTileFore-
	       ground and BorderTileBackground colors.

       NoIconManagers
	       This variable indicates that no icon manager should be created.

       NoMenuShadows
	       This variable indicates that menus should not have drop shadows
	       drawn  behind them.  This is typically used with	slower servers
	       since it	speeds up menu drawing at the expense  of  making  the
	       menu slightly harder to read.

       NoRaiseOnDeiconify
	       This  variable  indicates  that	windows	 that  are deiconified
	       should not be raised.

       NoRaiseOnMove
	       This variable indicates that windows should not be raised  when
	       moved.  This is typically used to allow windows to slide	under-
	       neath each other.

       NoRaiseOnResize
	       This variable indicates that windows should not be raised  when
	       resized.	 This is typically used	to allow windows to be resized
	       underneath each other.

       NoRaiseOnWarp
	       This variable indicates that windows should not be raised  when
	       the pointer is warped into them with the	f.warpto function.  If
	       this option is set, warping to an occluded window may result in
	       the  pointer  ending up in the occluding	window instead the de-
	       sired   window	(which	 causes	  unexpected   behavior	  with
	       f.warpring).

       NoSaveUnders
	       This  variable indicates	that menus should not request save-un-
	       ders to minimize	window repainting  following  menu  selection.
	       It is typically used with displays that can repaint faster than
	       they can	handle save-unders.

       NoStackMode [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that client window requests  to	change
	       stacking	 order should be ignored.  If the optional win-list is
	       given, only requests on those windows will be ignored.  This is
	       typically  used	to prevent applications	from relentlessly pop-
	       ping themselves to the front of the window stack.

       NoTitle [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that windows should not have titlebars.
	       If  the optional	win-list is given, only	those windows will not
	       have titlebars.	MakeTitle may be  used	with  this  option  to
	       force titlebars to be put on specific windows.

       NoTitleFocus
	       This  variable indicates	that twm should	not set	keyboard input
	       focus to	each window as it is entered.  Normally, twm sets  the
	       focus  so  that focus and key events from the titlebar and icon
	       managers	are delivered to the application.  If the  pointer  is
	       moved quickly and twm is	slow to	respond, input can be directed
	       to the old window instead of the	new.  This option is typically
	       used  to	 prevent this ``input lag'' and	to work	around bugs in
	       older applications that have problems with focus	events.

       NoTitleHighlight	[{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that the	highlight area of  the	title-
	       bar,  which  is	used to	indicate the window that currently has
	       the input focus,	should not be displayed.  If the optional win-
	       list  is	 given,	only those windows will	not have highlight ar-
	       eas.  This and the SqueezeTitle options can be set to  substan-
	       tially reduce the amount	of screen space	required by titlebars.

       OpaqueMove
	       This  variable  indicates that the f.move function should actu-
	       ally move the window instead of just an	outline	 so  that  the
	       user  can immediately see what the window will look like	in the
	       new position.  This option is typically used on	fast  displays
	       (particularly if	NoGrabServer is	set).

       Pixmaps { pixmaps }
	       This  variable  specifies a list	of pixmaps that	define the ap-
	       pearance	of various images.  Each entry is a keyword indicating
	       the  pixmap to set, followed by a string	giving the name	of the
	       bitmap file.  The following pixmaps may be specified:
	       Pixmaps
	       {
		    TitleHighlight "gray1"
	       }
	       The default for TitleHighlight is to use	an even	 stipple  pat-
	       tern.

       Priority	priority
	       This  variable  sets twm's priority.  priority should be	an un-
	       quoted, signed number (e.g. 999).  This variable	has an	effect
	       only if the server supports the SYNC extension.

       RandomPlacement
	       This variable indicates that windows with no specified geometry
	       should be placed	in a pseudo-random location instead of	having
	       the user	drag out an outline.

       ResizeFont string
	       This  variable  specifies the font to be	used for in the	dimen-
	       sions window when resizing windows.  The	default	is "fixed".

       RestartPreviousState
	       This variable indicates that twm	 should	 attempt  to  use  the
	       WM_STATE	 property  on  client  windows	to  tell which windows
	       should be iconified and which should be left visible.  This  is
	       typically  used	to try to regenerate the state that the	screen
	       was in before the previous window manager was shutdown.

       SaveColor { colors-list }
	       This variable indicates a  list	of  color  assignments	to  be
	       stored  as pixel	values in the root window property _MIT_PRIOR-
	       ITY_COLORS.  Clients may	elect to preserve  these  values  when
	       installing their	own colormap.  Note that use of	this mechanism
	       is a way	an for application to avoid the	"technicolor" problem,
	       whereby useful screen objects such as window borders and	title-
	       bars disappear when a programs custom colors are	 installed  by
	       the window manager.  For	example:
	       SaveColor
	       {
		       BorderColor
		       TitleBackground
		       TitleForeground
		       "red"
		       "green"
		       "blue"
	       }
	       This  would place on the	root window 3 pixel values for borders
	       and titlebars, as well as the three color  strings,  all	 taken
	       from the	default	colormap.

       ShowIconManager
	       This  variable indicates	that the icon manager window should be
	       displayed when twm is started.  It can always be	brought	up us-
	       ing the f.showiconmgr function.

       SortIconManager
	       This variable indicates that entries in the icon	manager	should
	       be sorted alphabetically	rather than by	simply	appending  new
	       windows to the end.

       SqueezeTitle [{ squeeze-list }]
	       This  variable  indicates  that	twm  should attempt to use the
	       SHAPE extension to make titlebars occupy	only  as  much	screen
	       space  as  they	need, rather than extending all	the way	across
	       the top of the window.  The optional squeeze-list may  be  used
	       to  control the location	of the squeezed	titlebar along the top
	       of the window.  It contains entries of the form:
		    "name"	   justification  num  denom
	       where name is a window name, justification is either left, cen-
	       ter, or right, and num and denom	are numbers specifying a ratio
	       giving the relative position about which	the titlebar is	justi-
	       fied.   The ratio is measured from left to right	if the numera-
	       tor is positive,	and right to left if negative.	A  denominator
	       of 0 indicates that the numerator should	be measured in pixels.
	       For convenience,	the ratio 0/0 is the same as  1/2  for	center
	       and -1/1	for right.  For	example:
	       SqueezeTitle
	       {
		    "XTerm"   left	0    0
		    "xterm1"  left	1    3
		    "xterm2"  left	2    3
		    "oclock"  center	     0	  0
		    "emacs"   right	     0	  0
	       }
	       The  DontSqueezeTitle list can be used to turn off squeezing on
	       certain titles.

       StartIconified [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that client windows should initially be
	       left as icons until explicitly deiconified by the user.	If the
	       optional	win-list is given, only	those windows will be  started
	       iconic.	 This  is  useful  for programs	that do	not support an
	       -iconic command line option or resource.

       TitleBackground string [{ win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the background color used in titlebars,
	       and may only be specified inside	of a Color, Grayscale or Mono-
	       chrome list.  The optional win-list is a	list of	 window	 names
	       and colors so that per-window colors may	be specified.  The de-
	       fault is	"white".

       TitleButtonBorderWidth pixels
	       This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border  sur-
	       rounding	titlebuttons.  This is typically set to	0 to allow ti-
	       tlebuttons to take up as	much space as possible and to not have
	       a border.  The default is 1.

       TitleFont string
	       This variable specifies the font	to be used for displaying win-
	       dow names in titlebars.	The default is "variable".

       TitleForeground string [{ win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the foreground color used in titlebars,
	       and may only be specified inside	of a Color, Grayscale or Mono-
	       chrome list.  The optional win-list is a	list of	 window	 names
	       and colors so that per-window colors may	be specified.  The de-
	       fault is	"black".

       TitlePadding pixels
	       This variable specifies the distance between the	 various  but-
	       tons,  text,  and highlight areas in the	titlebar.  The default
	       is 8 pixels.

       UnknownIcon string
	       This variable specifies the filename of a  bitmap  file	to  be
	       used as the default icon.  This bitmap will be used as the icon
	       of all clients which do not provide an icon bitmap and are  not
	       listed in the Icons list.

       UsePPosition string
	       This  variable  specifies  whether or not twm should honor pro-
	       gram-requested locations	(given by the PPosition	 flag  in  the
	       WM_NORMAL_HINTS	property)  in  the absence of a	user-specified
	       position.  The argument string may have one  of	three  values:
	       "off"  (the default) indicating that twm	should ignore the pro-
	       gram-supplied  position,	 "on"  indicating  that	 the  position
	       should  be  used,  and  "non-zero" indicating that the position
	       should used if it is other than (0,0).  The  latter  option  is
	       for working around a bug	in older toolkits.

       WarpCursor [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable indicates	that the pointer should	be warped into
	       windows when they are deiconified.  If the optional win-list is
	       given,  the  pointer will only be warped	when those windows are
	       deiconified.

       WindowRing { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a  list	of  windows  along  which  the
	       f.warpring function cycles.

       WarpUnmapped
	       This  variable  indicates that the f.warpto function should de-
	       iconify any iconified windows it	encounters.  This is typically
	       used  to	 make  a key binding that will pop a particular	window
	       (such as	xmh), no matter	where  it  is.	 The  default  is  for
	       f.warpto	to ignore iconified windows.

       XorValue	number
	       This  variable  specifies  the value to use when	drawing	window
	       outlines	for moving and resizing.  This	should	be  set	 to  a
	       value  that will	result in a variety of of distinguishable col-
	       ors when	exclusive-or'ed	with the contents of the user's	 typi-
	       cal  screen.   Setting  this variable to	1 often	gives nice re-
	       sults if	adjacent colors	in the default colormap	are  distinct.
	       By default, twm will attempt to cause temporary lines to	appear
	       at the opposite end of the colormap from	the graphics.

       Zoom [ count ]
	       This variable indicates that outlines suggesting	movement of  a
	       window  to  and	from  its  iconified state should be displayed
	       whenever	a window is iconified or  deiconified.	 The  optional
	       count  argument	specifies  the number of outlines to be	drawn.
	       The default count is 8.

       The following variables must be set after the fonts have	been assigned,
       so it is	usually	best to	put them at the	end of the variables or	begin-
       ning of the bindings sections:

       DefaultFunction function
	       This variable specifies the function to be executed when	a  key
	       or  button  event is received for which no binding is provided.
	       This is typically bound to f.nop, f.beep, or a menu  containing
	       window operations.

       WindowFunction function
	       This  variable  specifies the function to execute when a	window
	       is selected from	the TwmWindows menu.  If this variable is  not
	       set, the	window will be deiconified and raised.

BINDINGS
       After  the  desired  variables have been	set, functions may be attached
       titlebuttons and	key and	pointer	buttons.  Titlebuttons	may  be	 added
       from  the  left	or right side and appear in the	titlebar from left-to-
       right according to the order in which  they  are	 specified.   Key  and
       pointer button bindings may be given in any order.

       Titlebuttons  specifications must include the name of the pixmap	to use
       in the button box and the function to be	invoked	when a pointer	button
       is pressed within them:
       LeftTitleButton "bitmapname"  = function
       or
       RightTitleButton	"bitmapname" = function
       The  bitmapname	may  refer  to one of the  built-in bitmaps (which are
       scaled to match TitleFont) by using the appropriate colon-prefixed name
       described above.

       Key and pointer button specifications must give the modifiers that must
       be pressed, over	which parts of the screen the  pointer	must  be,  and
       what  function  is to be	invoked.  Keys are given as strings containing
       the appropriate keysym name; buttons are	given  as  the	keywords  But-
       ton1-Button5:
       "FP1"	      =	modlist	: context : function
       Button1	 = modlist : context : function
       The  modlist  is	 any combination of the	modifier names shift, control,
       lock, meta, mod1, mod2, mod3, mod4, or mod5 (which may  be  abbreviated
       as  s, c, l, m, m1, m2, m3, m4, m5, respectively) separated by a	verti-
       cal bar (|).  Similarly,	the context is any combination of window,  ti-
       tle, icon, root,	frame, iconmgr,	their first letters (iconmgr abbrevia-
       tion is m), or all, separated by	a vertical bar.	 The function  is  any
       of  the f.  keywords described below.  For example, the default startup
       file contains the following bindings:
       Button1	 =    :	root	     : f.menu "TwmWindows"
       Button1	 = m  :	window | icon	  : f.function "move-or-lower"
       Button2	 = m  :	window | icon	  : f.iconify
       Button3	 = m  :	window | icon	  : f.function "move-or-raise"
       Button1	 =    :	title	     : f.function "move-or-raise"
       Button2	 =    :	title	     : f.raiselower
       Button1	 =    :	icon	     : f.function "move-or-iconify"
       Button2	 =    :	icon	     : f.iconify
       Button1	 =    :	iconmgr	: f.iconify
       Button2	 =    :	iconmgr	: f.iconify
       A user who wanted to be able to manipulate windows  from	 the  keyboard
       could use the following bindings:
       "F1" =	 : all		: f.iconify
       "F2" =	 : all		: f.raiselower
       "F3" =	 : all		: f.warpring "next"
       "F4" =	 : all		: f.warpto "xmh"
       "F5" =	 : all		: f.warpto "emacs"
       "F6" =	 : all		: f.colormap "next"
       "F7" =	 : all		: f.colormap "default"
       "F20"	 =    :	all	     : f.warptoscreen "next"
       "Left"	 = m  :	all	     : f.backiconmgr
       "Right"	 = m | s   : all	  : f.forwiconmgr
       "Up" = m	 : all		: f.upiconmgr
       "Down"	 = m | s   : all	  : f.downiconmgr
       Twm  provides many more window manipulation primitives than can be con-
       veniently stored	in a titlebar, menu, or	set of key bindings.  Although
       a  small	 set of	defaults are supplied (unless the NoDefaults is	speci-
       fied), most users will want to have their most common operations	 bound
       to  key and button strokes.  To do this,	twm associates names with each
       of the primitives and  provides	user-defined  functions	 for  building
       higher  level  primitives  and  menus for interactively selecting among
       groups of functions.

       User-defined functions contain the name by which	they are referenced in
       calls  to f.function and	a list of other	functions to execute.  For ex-
       ample:
       Function	"move-or-lower"	{ f.move f.deltastop f.lower }
       Function	"move-or-raise"	{ f.move f.deltastop f.raise }
       Function	"move-or-iconify"    { f.move f.deltastop f.iconify }
       Function	"restore-colormap"   { f.colormap "default" f.lower }
       The function name must be used in f.function exactly as it  appears  in
       the function specification.

       In  the	descriptions  below, if	the function is	said to	operate	on the
       selected	window,	but is invoked from a root menu, the  cursor  will  be
       changed	to  the	 Select	cursor and the next window to receive a	button
       press will be chosen:

       ! string
	       This is an abbreviation for f.exec string.

       f.autoraise
	       This function toggles whether or	not  the  selected  window  is
	       raised whenever entered by the pointer.	See the	description of
	       the variable AutoRaise.

       f.backiconmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the previous column  in  the
	       current icon manager, wrapping back to the previous row if nec-
	       essary.

       f.beep  This function sounds the	keyboard bell.

       f.bottomzoom
	       This function is	similar	to the f.fullzoom  function,  but  re-
	       sizes the window	to fill	only the bottom	half of	the screen.

       f.circledown
	       This  function lowers the top-most window that occludes another
	       window.

       f.circleup
	       This function raises the	bottom-most window that	is occluded by
	       another window.

       f.colormap string
	       This  function rotates the colormaps (obtained from the WM_COL-
	       ORMAP_WINDOWS property on the window)  that  twm	 will  display
	       when  the  pointer  is in this window.  The argument string may
	       have one	of the following  values:  "next",  "prev",  and  "de-
	       fault".	It should be noted here	that in	general, the installed
	       colormap	is determined by keyboard  focus.   A  pointer	driven
	       keyboard	 focus	will  install a	private	colormap upon entry of
	       the window owning the colormap.	Using the click	to type	model,
	       private	colormaps will not be installed	until the user presses
	       a mouse button on the target window.

       f.deiconify
	       This function deiconifies the selected window.  If  the	window
	       is not an icon, this function does nothing.

       f.delete
	       This  function  sends  the  WM_DELETE_WINDOW message to the se-
	       lected window  if  the  client  application  has	 requested  it
	       through	the  WM_PROTOCOLS window property.  The	application is
	       supposed	to respond to the message by  removing	the  indicated
	       window.	 If the	window has not requested WM_DELETE_WINDOW mes-
	       sages, the keyboard bell	will be	rung indicating	that the  user
	       should choose an	alternative method.  Note this is very differ-
	       ent from	f.destroy.  The	intent here is to delete a single win-
	       dow,  not necessarily the entire	application.

       f.deltastop
	       This  function  allows a	user-defined function to be aborted if
	       the pointer has been moved more than MoveDelta pixels.  See the
	       example	definition  given  for Function	"move-or-raise"	at the
	       beginning of the	section.

       f.destroy
	       This function instructs the X server to close the display  con-
	       nection	of  the	client that created the	selected window.  This
	       should only be used as a	last resort for	shutting down  runaway
	       clients.	 See also f.delete.

       f.downiconmgr
	       This  function warps the	pointer	to the next row	in the current
	       icon manger, wrapping to	the beginning of the  next  column  if
	       necessary.

       f.exec string
	       This  function passes the argument string to /bin/sh for	execu-
	       tion.  In multiscreen mode, if string starts  a	new  X	client
	       without	giving	a  display argument, the client	will appear on
	       the screen from which this function was invoked.

       f.focus This function toggles the keyboard focus	of the server  to  the
	       selected	window,	changing the focus rule	from pointer-driven if
	       necessary.  If the selected window already  was	focused,  this
	       function	executes an f.unfocus.

       f.forcemove
	       This  function  is like f.move except that it ignores the Dont-
	       MoveOff variable.

       f.forwiconmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the next column in the  cur-
	       rent icon manager, wrapping to the beginning of the next	row if
	       necessary.

       f.fullzoom
	       This function resizes the selected window to the	full  size  of
	       the  display  or	 else restores the original size if the	window
	       was already zoomed.

       f.function string
	       This function executes the user-defined function	whose name  is
	       specified by the	argument string.

       f.hbzoom
	       This function is	a synonym for f.bottomzoom.

       f.hideiconmgr
	       This function unmaps the	current	icon manager.

       f.horizoom
	       This variable is	similar	to the f.zoom function except that the
	       selected	window is resized to the full width of the display.

       f.htzoom
	       This function is	a synonym for f.topzoom.

       f.hzoom This function is	a synonym for f.horizoom.

       f.iconify
	       This function iconifies or deiconifies the selected  window  or
	       icon, respectively.

       f.identify
	       This  function  displays	 a summary of the name and geometry of
	       the selected window.  If	the server supports  the  SYNC	exten-
	       sion, the priority of the client	owning the window is also dis-
	       played.	Clicking the pointer or	pressing a key in  the	window
	       will dismiss it.

       f.lefticonmgr
	       This  function  similar	to  f.backiconmgr except that wrapping
	       does not	change rows.

       f.leftzoom
	       This variable is	 similar  to  the  f.bottomzoom	 function  but
	       causes  the selected window is only resized to the left half of
	       the display.

       f.lower This function lowers the	selected window.

       f.menu string
	       This function  invokes  the  menu  specified  by	 the  argument
	       string.	 Cascaded  menus  may  be  built  by  nesting calls to
	       f.menu.

       f.move  This function drags an outline of the selected window  (or  the
	       window  itself if the OpaqueMove	variable is set) until the in-
	       voking pointer button is	released.  Double clicking within  the
	       number  of  milliseconds	given by ConstrainedMoveTime warps the
	       pointer to the center of	the window and constrains the move  to
	       be  either  horizontal or vertical depending on which grid line
	       is crossed.  To abort a move, press another button  before  re-
	       leasing the first button.

       f.nexticonmgr
	       This  function  warps the pointer to the	next icon manager con-
	       taining any windows on the current or any succeeding screen.

       f.nop   This function does nothing and is typically used	with  the  De-
	       faultFunction or	WindowFunction variables or to introduce blank
	       lines in	menus.

       f.previconmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the  previous	 icon  manager
	       containing any windows on the current or	preceding screens.

       f.priority string
	       This  function  sets  the priority of the client	owning the se-
	       lected window to	the numeric  value  of	the  argument  string,
	       which  should  be a signed integer in double quotes (e.g. "999"
	       ).  This	function has an	effect only if the server supports the
	       SYNC extension.

       f.quit  This  function  causes  twm to restore the window's borders and
	       exit.  If twm is	the first client invoked from xdm,  this  will
	       result in a server reset.

       f.raise This function raises the	selected window.

       f.raiselower
	       This  function  raises  the  selected  window to	the top	of the
	       stacking	order if it is occluded	by any windows,	otherwise  the
	       window will be lowered.

       f.refresh
	       This function causes all	windows	to be refreshed.

       f.resize
	       This  function  displays	 an  outline  of  the selected window.
	       Crossing	a border (or setting  AutoRelativeResize)  will	 cause
	       the  outline  to	begin to rubber	band until the invoking	button
	       is released.  To	abort a	resize,	press  another	button	before
	       releasing the first button.

       f.restart
	       This function kills and restarts	twm.

       f.startwm string
	       This  function  kills twm and starts another window manager, as
	       specified by string.

       f.righticonmgr
	       This function is	similar	to f.nexticonmgr except	that  wrapping
	       does not	change rows.

       f.rightzoom
	       This  variable  is  similar to the f.bottomzoom function	except
	       that the	selected window	is only	resized	to the right  half  of
	       the display.

       f.saveyourself
	       This  function  sends a WM_SAVEYOURSELF message to the selected
	       window if it has	requested the message in its WM_PROTOCOLS win-
	       dow property.  Clients that accept this message are supposed to
	       checkpoint all state associated with the	window and update  the
	       WM_COMMAND property as specified	in the ICCCM.  If the selected
	       window has not selected for this	 message,  the	keyboard  bell
	       will be rung.

       f.showiconmgr
	       This function maps the current icon manager.

       f.sorticonmgr
	       This function sorts the entries in the current icon manager al-
	       phabetically.  See the variable SortIconManager.

       f.title This function provides a	centered, unselectable item in a  menu
	       definition.  It should not be used in any other context.

       f.topzoom
	       This  variable  is  similar to the f.bottomzoom function	except
	       that the	selected window	is only	resized	to the top half	of the
	       display.

       f.unfocus
	       This  function  resets  the focus back to pointer-driven.  This
	       should be used when a focused window is no longer desired.

       f.upiconmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the previous row in the cur-
	       rent  icon manager, wrapping to the last	row in the same	column
	       if necessary.

       f.vlzoom
	       This function is	a synonym for f.leftzoom.

       f.vrzoom
	       This function is	a synonym for f.rightzoom.

       f.warpring string
	       This function warps the pointer to the next or previous	window
	       (as  indicated  by  the argument	string,	which may be "next" or
	       "prev") specified in the	WindowRing variable.

       f.warpto	string
	       This function warps the pointer to the window which has a  name
	       or  class  that matches string.	If the window is iconified, it
	       will be deiconified if the variable WarpUnmapped	is set or else
	       ignored.

       f.warptoiconmgr string
	       This function warps the pointer to the icon manager entry asso-
	       ciated with the window containing the pointer in	the icon  man-
	       ager  specified	by  the	 argument  string.  If string is empty
	       (i.e. ""), the current icon manager is chosen.

       f.warptoscreen string
	       This function warps the pointer to the screen specified by  the
	       argument	string.	 String	may be a number	(e.g. "0" or "1"), the
	       word "next" (indicating the current  screen  plus  1,  skipping
	       over  any  unmanaged  screens), the word	"back" (indicating the
	       current screen minus 1, skipping	over any  unmanaged  screens),
	       or the word "prev" (indicating the last screen visited.

       f.winrefresh
	       This  function is similar to the	f.refresh function except that
	       only the	selected window	is refreshed.

       f.zoom  This function is	similar	to  the	 f.fullzoom  function,	except
	       that the	only the height	of the selected	window is changed.

MENUS
       Functions  may be grouped and interactively selected using pop-up (when
       bound to	a pointer button) or pull-down (when associated	with a	title-
       button)	menus.	 Each menu specification contains the name of the menu
       as it will be referred to by f.menu, optional  default  foreground  and
       background colors, the list of item names and the functions they	should
       invoke, and optional foreground and background  colors  for  individual
       items:
       Menu "menuname" [ ("deffore":"defback") ]
       {
	    string1   [	("fore1":"backn")]     function1
	    string2   [	("fore2":"backn")]     function2
		 .
		 .
		 .
	    stringN   [	("foreN":"backN")]     functionN
       }

       The menuname is case-sensitive.	The optional deffore and defback argu-
       ments specify the foreground and	background colors used on a color dis-
       play  to	highlight menu entries.	 The string portion of each menu entry
       will be the text	which will appear in the menu.	The optional fore  and
       back arguments specify the foreground and background colors of the menu
       entry when the pointer is not in	the entry.  These colors will only  be
       used on a color display.	 The default is	to use the colors specified by
       the MenuForeground and MenuBackground variables.	 The function  portion
       of  the	menu entry is one of the functions, including any user-defined
       functions, or additional	menus.

       There is	a special menu named TwmWindows	which contains	the  names  of
       all  of	the  client and	twm-supplied windows.  Selecting an entry will
       cause the WindowFunction	to be executed on that window.	If WindowFunc-
       tion hasn't been	set, the window	will be	deiconified and	raised.

ICONS
       Twm  supports several different ways of manipulating iconified windows.
       The common pixmap-and-text style	may be laid out	by hand	 or  automati-
       cally arranged as described by the IconRegion variable.	In addition, a
       terse grid of icon names, called	an icon	manager, provides a more effi-
       cient use of screen space as well as the	ability	to navigate among win-
       dows from the keyboard.

       An icon manager is a window that	contains names of selected or all win-
       dows currently on the display.  In addition to the window name, a small
       button using the	default	iconify	symbol will be displayed to  the  left
       of  the	name when the window is	iconified.  By default,	clicking on an
       entry in	the icon manager performs f.iconify.  To  change  the  actions
       taken  in the icon manager, use the the iconmgr context when specifying
       button and keyboard bindings.

       Moving the pointer into the icon	manager	also directs keyboard focus to
       the indicated window (setting the focus explicitly or else sending syn-
       thetic events NoTitleFocus is set).  Using the f.upiconmgr, f.downicon-
       mgr f.lefticonmgr, and f.righticonmgr functions,	the input focus	can be
       changed between windows directly	from the keyboard.

BUGS
       The resource manager should have	been used instead of all of the	window
       lists.

       The IconRegion variable should take a list.

       Double  clicking	 very  fast  to	get the	constrained move function will
       sometimes cause the window to move, even	 though	 the  pointer  is  not
       moved.

       If  IconifyByUnmapping  is  on  and  windows are	listed in IconManager-
       DontShow	but not	in DontIconifyByUnmapping, they	may be	lost  if  they
       are  iconified  and  no bindings	to f.menu "TwmWindows" or f.warpto are
       setup.

FILES
       $HOME/.twmrc._screen number_
       $HOME/.twmrc
       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/twm/system.twmrc

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       DISPLAY This variable is	used to	determine which	X server to  use.   It
	       is  also	 set  during  f.exec  so  that programs	come up	on the
	       proper screen.

       HOME    This variable is	used as	the prefix for files that begin	with a
	       tilde and for locating the twm startup file.

SEE ALSO
       X(7), Xserver(1), xdm(1), xrdb(1)

AUTHORS
       Tom  LaStrange, Solbourne Computer; Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium; Steve
       Pitschke, Stardent Computer; Keith  Packard,  MIT  X  Consortium;  Dave
       Sternlicht, MIT X Consortium; Dave Payne, Apple Computer.

X Version 11			  Release 6.6				TWM(1)

NAME | SYNTAX | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | CUSTOMIZATION | VARIABLES | BINDINGS | MENUS | ICONS | BUGS | FILES | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | SEE ALSO | AUTHORS

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