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TVTWM(1)		    General Commands Manual		      TVTWM(1)

NAME
       tvtwm - Tom's Virtual Tab Window	Manager	for the	X Window System

SYNTAX
       tvtwm [-display dpy] [-s] [-m | -M] [-k]	[-f initfile] [-v]

DESCRIPTION
       Tvtwm  is  a  window manager for	the X Window System based on the X11R5
       version of twm.	It includes a ``Virtual	Desktop'' feature that	effec-
       tively  makes  the  root	 window	of the screen larger than the physical
       limits of the display.  To change as little as possible in this manual,
       from here on the	window manager is referred to as twm.

       Twm  is	a  window manager for the X Window System.  It provides	title-
       bars, shaped windows, several forms of  icon  management,  user-defined
       macro  functions,  click-to-type	and pointer-driven keyboard focus, and
       user-specified key and pointer button bindings.

       This program is usually	started	 by  the  user's  session  manager  or
       startup	script.	  When	used from xdm(1) or xinit(1) without a session
       manager,	twm is frequently executed  in	the  foreground	 as  the  last
       client.	When run this way, exiting twm causes the session to be	termi-
       nated (i.e. logged out).

       By default, application windows are surrounded by a  ``frame''  with  a
       titlebar	at the top and a special border	around the window.  The	title-
       bar contains the	window's name, a rectangle that	is lit when the	window
       is  receiving  keyboard	input, and function boxes known	as ``titlebut-
       tons'' at the left and right edges of the titlebar.

       Pressing	pointer	Button1	(usually the left-most button  unless  it  has
       been  changed  with  xmodmap) on	a titlebutton will invoke the function
       associated with the button.  In	the  default  interface,  windows  are
       iconified  by  clicking	(pressing  and then immediately	releasing) the
       left titlebutton	(which looks like a Dot).  Conversely, windows are de-
       iconified  by clicking in the associated	icon or	entry in the icon man-
       ager (see description of	the variable ShowIconManager and of the	 func-
       tion f.showiconmgr).

       Windows	are resized by pressing	the right titlebutton (which resembles
       a group of nested squares), dragging the	pointer	over edge that	is  to
       be  moved,  and releasing the pointer when the outline of the window is
       the desired size.  Similarly, windows are moved by pressing in the  ti-
       tle or highlight	region,	dragging a window outline to the new location,
       and then	releasing when the outline is in the desired  position.	  Just
       clicking	 in  the  title	 or highlight region raises the	window without
       moving it.

       When new	windows	are created, twm will honor any	size and location  in-
       formation requested by the user (usually	through	-geometry command line
       argument	or resources for the individual	applications).	Otherwise,  an
       outline	of the window's	default	size, its titlebar, and	lines dividing
       the window into a 3x3  grid  that  track	 the  pointer  are  displayed.
       Clicking	 pointer Button1 will position the window at the current posi-
       tion and	give it	the default size.  Pressing pointer  Button2  (usually
       the  middle pointer button) and dragging	the outline will give the win-
       dow its current position	but allow the sides to be resized as described
       above.	Clicking  pointer  Button3  (usually the right pointer button)
       will give the window its	current	position but attempt to	make  it  long
       enough to touch the bottom the screen.

OPTIONS
       Twm accepts the following command line options:

       -display	dpy
	       This option specifies the X server to use.

       -s      This  option  indicates that only the default screen (as	speci-
	       fied by -display	or by the DISPLAY environment variable)	should
	       be managed.  By default,	twm will attempt to manage all screens
	       on the display.

       -m      Causes tvtwm to preprocess the  .twmrc  file  using  the	 m4(1)
	       macro processor.

       -M      Causes  tvtwm not to preprocess the .twmrc file using the m4(1)
	       macro processor.

       -k      This option makes twm leave a file in /tmp containing the  pre-
	       defines	that  are  generated  and fed to m4 before your	.twmrc
	       file.  Twm passes  this	file,  followed	 immediately  by  your
	       .twmrc  file (which may not be called .twmrc.  See -f option.),
	       to m4(1)	for preprocessing.  If you give	twm the	-k option,  it
	       will  leave a copy of the temporary file	as /tmp/twmrc$$	(where
	       $$ is variable).	 This is often useful for knowing what you can
	       use when	adding m4 commands and conditions to your .twmrc file.

       -f filename
	       This  option specifies the name of the startup file to use.  By
	       default,	twm will look in the user's home directory  for	 files
	       named .twmrc.num	(where num is a	screen number) or .twmrc.

       -v      This  option  indicates	that  twm  should print	error messages
	       whenever	an unexpected X	Error event is received.  This can  be
	       useful  when  debugging	applications but can be	distracting in
	       regular use.

CUSTOMIZATION
       Much of twm's appearance	and behavior can be controlled by providing  a
       startup	file  in one of	the following locations	(searched in order for
       each screen being managed when twm begins):

       $HOME/.tvtwmrc.screennumber
	       The screennumber	is a small positive number (e.g. 0,  1,	 etc.)
	       representing  the  screen  number  (e.g.	the last number	in the
	       DISPLAY environment  variable  host:displaynum.screennum)  that
	       would  be  used to contact that screen of the display.  This is
	       intended	for displays with multiple screens of differing	visual
	       types.

       $HOME/.tvtwmrc
	       This is the usual name for an individual	user's startup file.

       $HOME/.twmrc.screennumber
	       Same as .tvtwmrc.screennumber.

       $HOME/.twmrc
	       Same as .tvtwmrc.

       /usr/lib/X11/twm/system.twmrc
	       If  neither  of the preceding files are found, twm will look in
	       this file for a default configuration.  This is often  tailored
	       by the site administrator to provide convenient menus or	famil-
	       iar bindings for	novice users.

       If no startup files are found, twm will use the built-in	 defaults  de-
       scribed	above.	 The only resource used	by twm is bitmapFilePath for a
       colon-separated list of directories to search when looking  for	bitmap
       files  (for  more  information,	see  the  Athena  Widgets  manual  and
       xrdb(1)).

       Twm startup files are logically broken up into three types of  specifi-
       cations:	  Variables, Bindings, Menus.  The Variables section must come
       first and is used  to  describe	the  fonts,  colors,  cursors,	border
       widths, icon and	window placement, highlighting,	autoraising, layout of
       titles, warping,	use of the icon	manager.  The Bindings section usually
       comes  second and is used to specify the	functions that should be to be
       invoked when keyboard and  pointer  buttons  are	 pressed  in  windows,
       icons,  titles,	and  frames.  The Menus	section	gives any user-defined
       menus (containing functions to be invoked or commands to	be executed).

       Variable	names and keywords are case-insensitive.  Strings must be sur-
       rounded	by  double  quote characters (e.g. "blue") and are case-sensi-
       tive.  A	pound sign (#) outside of a string causes the remainder	of the
       line in which the character appears to be treated as a comment.

M4 PREPROCESSING
       A new feature in	this release of	tvtwm is that it can use m4(1) to pre-
       process it's setup files.  When twm is started with the -m  option,  or
       if it was compiled to use m4 by default and the -M option was not spec-
       ified, it will open a file for input as described above.	 But, it  will
       process	that  file  through  m4	before parsing it.  So,	you can	use m4
       macro's to perform operations at	runtime.  This makes it	very  easy  to
       work when you use many different	display's, with	different characteris-
       tics.  For example, If you want to set the lower	right section  of  the
       screen  to be your IconRegion, (see below for details on	the IconRegion
       variable) you can use m4	directives and pre-defined symbols  to	calcu-
       late the	region you want.  For example:
       define(IRegion, translit(eval(WIDTH/3)*eval(HEIGHT/2)+eval(WIDTH-WIDTH/3)-0, *, x))
       IconRegion  "IRegion" SOUTH EAST	75 25
       will  define  the  lower	half, and right-hand third of the screen.  The
       above makes use of symbols that are predefined in m4 by twm.  The  sym-
       bols  WIDTH  and	HEIGHT are calculated by twm and written into a	tempo-
       rary file for m4	to use.	  The  following  symbols  are	predefined  by
       tvtwm:

       SERVERHOST	       This variable is	set to the name	of the machine
			       that is running the X server.

       CLIENTHOST	       The machine that	is running the clients.	  (ie,
			       twm)

       HOSTNAME		       The  canonical  hostname	 running  the clients.
			       (ie. a fully-qualified version of CLIENTHOST)

       USER		       The name	of the user running the	program.  Got-
			       ten from	the environment.

       HOME		       The user's home directory.  Gotten from the en-
			       vironment.

       VERSION		       The X major protocol version.  As seen by  Pro-
			       tocolVersion(3).

       REVISION		       The X minor protocol revision.  As seen by Pro-
			       tocolRevision(3).

       VENDOR		       The vendor of your X server.  For example:  MIT
			       X Consortium.

       RELEASE		       The  release  number of your X server.  For MIT
			       X11R5, this is 5.

       WIDTH		       The width of your display in pixels.

       HEIGHT		       The height of your display in pixels.

       X_RESOLUTION	       The X resolution	of your	display	in pixels  per
			       meter.

       Y_RESOLUTION	       The  Y resolution of your display in pixels per
			       meter.

       PLANES		       The number of bit planes	your display  supports
			       in the default root window.

       BITS_PER_RGB	       The number of significant bits in an RGB	color.
			       (log base 2 of the number  of  distinct	colors
			       that  can  be created.  This is often different
			       from the	number of colors that can be displayed
			       at once.)

       TWM_TYPE		       Tells  which  twm offshoot is running.  It will
			       always be set to	the  string  "tvtwm"  in  this
			       program.	  This	is useful for protecting parts
			       of your .twmrc file that	twm proper  won't  un-
			       derstand	 (like	VirtualDesktop)	 so that it is
			       still usable with other twm programs.

       CLASS		       Your visual class.  Will	return	one  of	 Stat-
			       icGray,	GrayScale,  StaticColor,  PseudoColor,
			       TrueColor, DirectColor, or, if it cannot	deter-
			       mine what you have, NonStandard.

       COLOR		       This  will  be  either  'Yes' or	'No'.  This is
			       just a wrapper  around  the  above  definition.
			       Returns 'Yes' on	*Color,	and 'No' on StaticGray
			       and GrayScale.

       NG_*		       There will be a large (about 16)	number of pre-
			       defines	that  look like	NG_EE or NG_AE.	 These
			       are for access control.	When they are  set  to
			       something  intelligent, you can protect certain
			       machines	or groups of machines in  login	 menus
			       by  which group of people should	be able	to ac-
			       cess them.  If you  place  an  ifelse(NG_STAFF,
			       yes, `')	in your	.twmrc file, and place the lo-
			       gin menu, or the	like, in between  the  quotes,
			       then  it	 will  only  be	seen by	members	of the
			       staff.  This is useful when you	have  a	 whole
			       system  that  include()s	 a  system-wide	 login
			       file.  This makes it easy to centrally adminis-
			       ter  things  such  as login menus, and have all
			       users notice changes  without  having  to  make
			       them  individually.   At	 the  moment, there is
			       little or no functionality in  these.   If  you
			       are  a  member  of  the group "staff", you have
			       them all	set to	'Yes',	else,  you  have  only
			       NG_STD  defined to 'Yes'.  I plan to make these
			       symbols meaningful in the near future.

       You may well find that if you research the m4(1)	manual well,  and  un-
       derstand	the power of m4, this will be a	very useful and	powerful tool.

       Be  aware  that	m4(1)  preprocessing  can  cause things	often found in
       .twmrc files to break.  For example, quotes  and	 backquotes  in	 shell
       commands	 will  be  badly messed	up by m4's own internal	quoting	mecha-
       nism.  This particular problem can be worked around by placing  change-
       quote(,)	at the top of your .twmrc file.

VIRTUAL	DESKTOP
       The Virtual Desktop feature of tvtwm was	modeled	after the same feature
       in swm (Solbourne Window	Manager).   The	 Virtual  Desktop  effectively
       makes  the  ``root''  window  of	 the  display larger than the physical
       screen size.  The Virtual Desktop is panned in one of two ways,	either
       by executing one	of the f.scroll	commands or by using the panner.

       The  panner  is a special window	that shows a miniature view of windows
       on the desktop.	The small windows in the panner	 will  have  the  same
       colors  as  the titlebars and icons of their associated client windows.
       The panner is very simple to operate.  Mouse button one,	pressed	inside
       the panner, allows you to move the outline indicating your current view
       on the desktop.	Releasing the button will reposition  the  desktop  to
       the point at which the outline is displayed.  Mouse button two, pressed
       in one of the small "virtual" windows, allows you  to  move  the	 small
       window  to  another  portion of the desktop.  If	during the move	opera-
       tion, you would like to place the window	in your	current	 view  of  the
       desktop,	simply moving the pointer out of the panner will result	in the
       window outline changing from the	small outline to a large outline show-
       ing  the	 dimensions of the client window.  The converse	is true	of any
       move operation started outside of the panner:  if the pointer is	 moved
       into  the panner	window,	the outline will change	to a small outline al-
       lowing you to place the window anywhere on the desktop.	 Another  fea-
       ture  of	 the panner is that if you resize it, the Virtual Desktop will
       resize a	corresponding amount.  During the resize, the dimensions shown
       reflect the Virtual Desktop size.

       There  are two hints that client	windows	may use	when asking the	window
       manager to position top level windows:  User Specified Position	(USPo-
       sition) and Program Specified Position (PPosition).  tvtwm handles each
       of these	two hints in a different manner.  If USPosition	hints are set,
       the  window  will be placed at the pixel	location requested.  If	PPosi-
       tion hints are set, the window will be placed at	the requested location
       plus the	offsets	of the current Virtual Desktop position.  For example,
       if the desktop is positioned at +100+300	and  a	window	is  mapped  at
       +100+100	 with  PPosition  hints	 set,  the  window  would be placed at
       +200+400	on the Virtual Desktop.

       Along with the Virtual Desktop comes a concept called  ``sticky''  win-
       dows.   Sticky  windows	can be thought of as stuck to the glass	of the
       display.	 Sticky	windows	do not scroll out of view when the desktop  is
       scrolled.

VARIABLES
       Many of the aspects of twm's user interface are controlled by variables
       that may	be set in the user's startup file.  Some of  the  options  are
       enabled	or  disabled  simply  by the presence of a particular keyword.
       Other options require keywords, numbers,	strings, or lists  of  all  of
       these.

       Lists  are surrounded by	braces and are usually separated by whitespace
       or a newline.  For example:
       AutoRaise { "emacs" "XTerm" "Xmh" }
       or
       AutoRaise
       {
	    "emacs"
	    "XTerm"
	    "Xmh"
       }
       When a variable containing a list of strings  representing  windows  is
       searched	(e.g. to determine whether or not to enable autoraise as shown
       above), a string	must be	an exact, case-sensitive match to the window's
       name  name  (given  by  the  WM_NAME window property), resource name or
       class name (both	given by the WM_CLASS window property).	 The preceding
       example	would  enable  autoraise on windows named ``emacs'' as well as
       any xterm (since	they are of class ``XTerm'') or	xmh windows (which are
       of class	``Xmh'').

       String  arguments  that	are interpreted	as filenames (see the Pixmaps,
       Cursors,	and IconDirectory below) will  prepend	the  user's  directory
       (specified  by the HOME environment variable) if	the first character is
       a tilde (~).  If, instead, the first character is a colon (:), the name
       is  assumed  to	refer  to one of the internal bitmaps that are used to
       create the default titlebars symbols:  :xlogo or	:iconify  (both	 refer
       to the X	used for the iconify button), :resize (the nested squares used
       by the resize button), and :question (the question mark used  for  non-
       existent	bitmap files).

       The  following  variables  may be specified at the top of a twm startup
       file.  Lists of Window name prefix strings are indicated	 by  win-list.
       Optional	arguments are shown in square brackets:

       AutoRaise { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of windows that should automati-
	       cally be	raised whenever	the pointer enters the	window.	  This
	       action  can  be interactively enabled or	disabled on individual
	       windows using the function f.autoraise.

       AutoRelativeResize
	       This variable indicates that dragging out a window size (either
	       when  initially	sizing the window with pointer Button2 or when
	       resizing	it) should not wait until the pointer has crossed  the
	       window edges.  Instead, moving the pointer automatically	causes
	       the nearest edge	or edges to move by the	same amount.  This al-
	       lows  the  resizing  windows  that  extend  off the edge	of the
	       screen.	If the pointer is in the center	of the window,	or  if
	       the  resize  is begun by	pressing a titlebutton,	twm will still
	       wait for	the pointer to cross a window edge (to	prevent	 acci-
	       dents).	This option is particularly useful for people who like
	       the press-drag-release method of	sweeping out window sizes.

       BorderColor string [{ wincolorlist }]
	       This variable specifies the default color of the	border	to  be
	       placed  around all non-iconified	windows, and may only be given
	       within a	Color or Monochrome list.  The	optional  wincolorlist
	       specifies  a list of window and color name pairs	for specifying
	       particular border colors	for different types of	windows.   For
	       example:
	       BorderColor "gray50"
	       {
		    "XTerm"   "red"
		    "xmh"     "green"
	       }
	       The default is "black".

       BorderTileBackground string [{ wincolorlist }]
	       This  variable  specifies  the  default background color	in the
	       gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only	if NoHighlight
	       hasn't been set), and may only be given within a	Color or Mono-
	       chrome list.  The optional wincolorlist allows per-window  col-
	       ors to be specified.  The default is "white".

       BorderTileForeground string [{ wincolorlist }]
	       This  variable  specifies  the  default foreground color	in the
	       gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only	if NoHighlight
	       hasn't been set), and may only be given within a	Color or Mono-
	       chrome list.  The optional wincolorlist allows per-window  col-
	       ors to be specified.  The default is "black".

       BorderWidth pixels
	       This  variable specifies	the width in pixels of the border sur-
	       rounding	all client window frames if ClientBorderWidth has  not
	       been specified.	This value is also used	to set the border size
	       of windows created by twm (such as the icon manager).  The  de-
	       fault is	2.

       ButtonIndent pixels
	       This variable specifies the amount by which titlebuttons	should
	       be indented on all sides.  Positive values cause	the buttons to
	       be smaller than the window text and highlight area so that they
	       stand out.  Setting this	and the	 TitleButtonBorderWidth	 vari-
	       ables  to 0 makes titlebuttons be as tall and wide as possible.
	       The default is 1.

       ClientBorderWidth
	       This variable indicates that border width of a  window's	 frame
	       should be set to	the initial border width of the	window,	rather
	       than to the value of BorderWidth.

       Color { colors-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of color assignments to be  made
	       if  the default display is capable of displaying	more than sim-
	       ple black and white.  The colors-list is	made up	of the follow-
	       ing  color  variables  and their	values:	DefaultBackground, De-
	       faultForeground,	MenuBackground,	MenuForeground,	MenuTitleBack-
	       ground, MenuTitleForeground, and	MenuShadowColor.  VirtualDesk-
	       topBackground.	VirtualDesktopForeground.    PannerBackground.
	       PannerForeground.   The	following  color variables may also be
	       given a list of window and color	name pairs to allow per-window
	       colors  to  be specified	(see BorderColor for details): Border-
	       Color, IconManagerHighlight,  BorderTitleBackground,  BorderTi-
	       tleForeground,	TitleBackground,   TitleForeground,  IconBack-
	       ground, IconForeground, IconBorderColor,	IconManagerBackground,
	       and IconManagerForeground.  VirtualBackground, and VirtualFore-
	       ground.	For example:
	       Color
	       {
		    MenuBackground	"gray50"
		    MenuForeground	"blue"
		    BorderColor		     "red" { "XTerm" "yellow" }
		    TitleForeground	     "yellow"
		    TitleBackground	     "blue"
	       }
	       All of these color variables may	 also  be  specified  for  the
	       Monochrome  variable,  allowing the same	initialization file to
	       be used on both color and monochrome displays.

       ConstrainedMoveTime milliseconds
	       This variable specifies	the  length  of	 time  between	button
	       clicks  needed  to  begin a constrained move operation.	Double
	       clicking	within this amount of time when	invoking  f.move  will
	       cause  the window only be moved in a horizontal or vertical di-
	       rection.	 Setting this value  to	 0  will  disable  constrained
	       moves.  The default is 400 milliseconds.

       Cursors { cursor-list }
	       This variable specifies the glyphs that twm should use for var-
	       ious pointer cursors.  Each cursor may be defined  either  from
	       the cursor font or from two bitmap files.  Shapes from the cur-
	       sor font	may be specified directly as:
		    cursorname	   "string"
	       where cursorname	is one of the cursor names listed  below,  and
	       string  is  the	name  of a glyph as found in the file /usr/in-
	       clude/X11/cursorfont.h (without the ``XC_''  prefix).   If  the
	       cursor is to be defined from bitmap files, the following	syntax
	       is used instead:
		    cursorname	   "image"   "mask"
	       The image and mask strings specify the names of files  contain-
	       ing  the	 glyph	image  and mask	in bitmap(1) form.  The	bitmap
	       files are located in the	same manner as icon bitmap files.  The
	       following example shows the default cursor definitions:
	       Cursors
	       {
		    Frame	   "top_left_arrow"
		    Title	   "top_left_arrow"
		    Icon      "top_left_arrow"
		    IconMgr   "top_left_arrow"
		    Move      "fleur"
		    Resize	   "fleur"
		    Menu      "sb_left_arrow"
		    Button	   "hand2"
		    Wait      "watch"
		    Select	   "dot"
		    Destroy   "pirate"
	       }

       DecorateTransients
	       This  variable indicates	that transient windows (those contain-
	       ing a WM_TRANSIENT_FOR property)	should have titlebars.	By de-
	       fault, transients are not reparented.

       DefaultBackground string
	       This  variable  specifies  the  background color	to be used for
	       sizing and information windows.	The default is "white".

       DefaultForeground string
	       This variable specifies the foreground color  to	 be  used  for
	       sizing and information windows.	The default is "black".

       DontIconifyByUnmapping {	win-list }
	       This  variable  specifies  a list of windows that should	not be
	       iconified by simply unmapping the window	(as would be the  case
	       if  IconifyByUnmapping  had been	set).  This is frequently used
	       to force	some windows to	be treated as icons while  other  win-
	       dows are	handled	by the icon manager.

       DontInterpolateTitles
	       This  variable specifies	a modification to the InterpolateMenu-
	       Colors behavior.	 It will cause twm to not apply	color interpo-
	       lation  to  any	titles in the middle of	the menu.  So, f.title
	       strings that appear in the middle of the	menu  (ie,  without  a
	       specific	color defined for them)	will inherit the default Menu-
	       Title foreground	and background colors.

       DontMoveOff
	       This variable indicates that windows should not be  allowed  to
	       be  moved off the screen.  It can be overridden by the f.force-
	       move function.

       DontSqueezeTitle	[{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that titlebars should not  be  squeezed
	       to  their  minimum  size	as described under SqueezeTitle	below.
	       If the optional window list is  supplied,  only	those  windows
	       will be prevented from being squeezed.

       ForceIcons
	       This  variable  indicates  that	icon  pixmaps specified	in the
	       Icons variable should override any client-supplied pixmaps.

       FramePadding pixels
	       This variable specifies the distance between the	titlebar deco-
	       rations	(the  button  and text)	and the	window frame.  The de-
	       fault is	2 pixels.

       IconBackground string [{	win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the background color of	bitmap	icons,
	       and may only be specified inside	of a Color or Monochrome list.
	       This value is ignored when the icon is an Xpm format pixmap, as
	       they have their own colors.  The	optional win-list is a list of
	       window names and	colors so that per-window colors may be	speci-
	       fied.   See the BorderColor variable for	a complete description
	       of the win-list.	 The default is	"white".

       IconBorderColor string [{ win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the color of the	border used  for  icon
	       windows,	 and  may only be specified inside of a	Color or Mono-
	       chrome list.  This option only has an effect  on	 icon  windows
	       that  don't  have their own shape mask (ie, only	on rectangular
	       icons).	The optional win-list is a list	of  window  names  and
	       colors  so  that	 per-window  colors may	be specified.  See the
	       BorderColor variable for	a complete  description	 of  the  win-
	       list.  The default is "black".

       IconBorderWidth pixels
	       This  variable specifies	the width in pixels of the border sur-
	       rounding	icon windows.  The default is 2.

       IconDirectory string
	       This variable specifies the directory that should  be  searched
	       if  a  bitmap file cannot be found in any of the	directories in
	       the bitmapFilePath resource.  This is generally a poor  way  to
	       do  things.   It	 is much better	to set your bitmapFilePath re-
	       source to what you want it to be	in your	resources file.

       IconFont	string
	       This variable specifies the font	to be  used  to	 display  icon
	       names within icons.  The	default	is "variable".

       IconForeground string [{	win-list }]
	       This  variable  specifies  the foreground color to be used when
	       displaying bitmap icons,	and may	only be	specified inside of  a
	       Color  or Monochrome list.  This	value is ignored when the icon
	       is an Xpm format	pixmap,	as they	have their  own	 colors.   The
	       optional	 win-list is a list of window names and	colors so that
	       per-window colors may be	specified.  See	the BorderColor	 vari-
	       able  for  a complete description of the	win-list.  The default
	       is "black".

       IconifyByUnmapping [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that windows should be iconified	by be-
	       ing  unmapped  without  trying  to map any icons.  This assumes
	       that the	user will remap	the window through the	icon  manager,
	       the f.warpto function, or the TwmWindows	menu.  If the optional
	       win-list	is provided, only those	windows	will be	 iconified  by
	       simply unmapping.  Windows that have both this and the IconMan-
	       agerDontShow options set	may not	be accessible if no binding to
	       the TwmWindows menu is set in the user's	startup	file.

       IconManagerBackground string [{ win-list	}]
	       This  variable  specifies  the background color to use for icon
	       manager entries,	and may	only be	specified inside of a Color or
	       Monochrome  list.   The	optional  win-list is a	list of	window
	       names and colors	so that	per-window colors  may	be  specified.
	       See  the	BorderColor variable for a complete description	of the
	       win-list.  The default is "white".

       IconManagerDontShow [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that the	icon manager should  not  dis-
	       play  any  windows.   If	 the  optional win-list	is given, only
	       those windows will not be displayed.  This variable is used  to
	       prevent	windows	 that  are rarely iconified (such as xclock or
	       xload) from taking up space in the icon manager.

       IconManagerFont string
	       This variable specifies the font	to  be	used  when  displaying
	       icon manager entries.  The default is "variable".

       IconManagerForeground string [{ win-list	}]
	       This  variable  specifies  the foreground color to be used when
	       displaying icon manager entries,	and may	only be	specified  in-
	       side of a Color or Monochrome list.  The	optional win-list is a
	       list of window names and	colors so that per-window  colors  may
	       be  specified.  See the BorderColor variable for	a complete de-
	       scription of the	win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconManagerGeometry string [ columns ]
	       This variable specifies the geometry of the icon	 manager  win-
	       dow.   The  string  argument is standard	geometry specification
	       that indicates the initial full size of the icon	manager.   The
	       icon  manager  window  is  then	broken into columns pieces and
	       scaled according	to the number of entries in the	icon  manager.
	       Extra entries are wrapped to form additional rows.  The default
	       number of columns is 1.

       IconManagerHighlight string [{ win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the border color	to be used when	 high-
	       lighting	 the  icon manager entry that currently	has the	focus,
	       and can only be specified inside	of a Color or Monochrome list.
	       The  optional  win-list is a list of window names and colors so
	       that per-window colors may be specified.	 See  the  BorderColor
	       variable	 for  a	complete description of	the win-list.  The de-
	       fault is	"black".

       IconManagers { iconmgr-list }
	       This variable specifies a list  of  icon	 managers  to  create.
	       Each item in the	iconmgr-list has the following format:
		    "winname" ["iconname"]   "geometry"	columns
	       where  winname  is  the	name of	the windows that should	be put
	       into this icon manager, iconname	is the name of that icon  man-
	       ager  window's icon, geometry is	a standard geometry specifica-
	       tion, and columns is the	number of columns in this icon manager
	       as described in IconManagerGeometry.  For example:
	       IconManagers
	       {
		    "XTerm"   "=300x5+800+5" 5
		    "myhost"  "=400x5+100+5" 2
	       }
	       Clients	whose  name  or	 class is ``XTerm'' will have an entry
	       created in the ``XTerm''	icon manager.  Clients whose name  was
	       ``myhost'' would	be put into the	``myhost'' icon	manager.

       IconManagerShow { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of windows that should appear in
	       the icon	manager.  When used in conjunction with	 the  IconMan-
	       agerDontShow  variable,	only  the windows in this list will be
	       shown in	the icon manager.

       IconRegion geomstring vgrav hgrav gridwidth gridheight
	       This variable specifies an area on the  root  window  in	 which
	       icons  are  placed  if no specific icon location	is provided by
	       the client.  The	geomstring is a	 quoted	 string	 containing  a
	       standard	 geometry  specification.  If more than	one IconRegion
	       lines are given,	icons will be put into the succeeding icon re-
	       gions when the first is full.  The vgrav	argument should	be ei-
	       ther North or South and control and is used to control  whether
	       icons  are  first  filled in from the top or bottom of the icon
	       region.	Similarly, the hgrav argument should be	either East or
	       West  and  is used to control whether icons should be filled in
	       from left from the right.  Icons	are laid out within the	region
	       in  a grid with cells gridwidth pixels wide and gridheight pix-
	       els high.

       Icons { win-list	}
	       This  variable  specifies  a  list  of  window  names  and  the
	       pixmap/bitmap  filenames	 that  should  be used as their	icons.
	       For example:
	       Icons
	       {
		    "XTerm"	   "xterm.icon"
		    "xfd"	   "xfd_icon"
		    "xeyes"	   "xeyes.xpm"
	       }
	       Windows that match ``XTerm'' and	would not be iconified by  un-
	       mapping,	 and  would  try  to use the icon pixmap/bitmap	in the
	       file ``xterm.icon''.  If	ForceIcons is specified,  this	bitmap
	       will  be	 used  even  if	 the client has	requested its own icon
	       pixmap.

       IconTitle { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of clients that  will  have  the
	       icon  name displayed below the icon and is used to request icon
	       titles on specific windows when NoIconTitle has been set.

       InterpolateMenuColors
	       This variable indicates that menu entry colors should be	inter-
	       polated between entry specified colors.	In the example below:
	       Menu "mymenu"
	       {
		    "Title"	   ("black":"red")	    f.title
		    "entry1"		     f.nop
		    "entry2"		     f.nop
		    "entry3"  ("white":"green")	  f.nop
		    "entry4"		     f.nop
		    "entry5"  ("red":"white")	       f.nop
	       }
	       the foreground colors for ``entry1'' and	``entry2'' will	be in-
	       terpolated between black	and white, and the  background	colors
	       between	red  and  green.   Similarly, the foreground for ``en-
	       try4'' will be half-way between white and red,  and  the	 back-
	       ground will be half-way between green and white.

       ListRings
	       This  variable  indicates  that	duplicate list entries will be
	       handled in a ring like manner.  In the example below:
	       SqueezeTitle
	       {
		    "XTerm"	   right	  0    0
		    "XTerm"	   center	  0    0
		    "XTerm"	   left	     0	  0
	       }
	       the first xterm created will have its tab on the	left  side  of
	       the  window.  The second	xterm will have	the tab	in the center,
	       and the third on	the right.  The	forth will receive it  on  the
	       left.

       MakeTitle { win-list }
	       This  variable  specifies a list	of windows on which a titlebar
	       should be placed	and is used to request titles on specific win-
	       dows when NoTitle has been set.

       MaxWindowSize string
	       This  variable  specifies  a  geometry  in  which the width and
	       height give the maximum size for	a given	window.	 This is typi-
	       cally  used to restrict windows to the size of the screen.  The
	       default is "30000x30000".

       MenuBackground string
	       This variable specifies the background color  used  for	menus,
	       and can only be specified inside	of a Color or Monochrome list.
	       The default is "white".

       MenuFont	string
	       This variable specifies the font	to use when displaying	menus.
	       The default is "variable".

       MenuForeground string
	       This  variable  specifies  the foreground color used for	menus,
	       and can only be specified inside	of a Color or Monochrome list.
	       The default is "black".

       MenuShadowColor string
	       This  variable  specifies  the color of the shadow behind pull-
	       down menus and can only be specified inside of a	Color or Mono-
	       chrome list.  The default is "black".

       MenuTitleBackground string
	       This  variable  specifies  the background color for f.title en-
	       tries in	menus, and can only be specified inside	of a Color  or
	       Monochrome list.	 The default is	"white".

       MenuTitleFont string
	       This variable specifies the font	to be used in menu titles.

       MenuTitleForeground string
	       This  variable  specifies  the foreground color for f.title en-
	       tries in	menus and can only be specified	inside of a  Color  or
	       Monochrome list.	 The default is	"black".

       Monochrome { colors }
	       This variable specifies a list of color assignments that	should
	       be made if the screen has a depth of 1.	See the	description of
	       Colors.

       MoveDelta pixels
	       This  variable  specifies the number of pixels the pointer must
	       move before the f.move function starts working.	Also  see  the
	       f.deltastop function.  The default is one pixel.

       NoBackingStore
	       This  variable  indicates  that	twm's menus should not request
	       backing store to	minimize repainting of menus.  This  is	 typi-
	       cally  used  with servers that can repaint faster than they can
	       handle backing store.

       NoCaseSensitive
	       This variable indicates that case should	be ignored when	 sort-
	       ing  icon  names	 in an icon manager or window names in the TWM
	       Windows menu.  This option is typically used with  applications
	       that capitalize the first letter	of their icon name.

       NoDefaults
	       This  variable indicates	that twm should	not supply the default
	       titlebuttons and	bindings.  This	option should only be used  if
	       the  startup file contains a completely new set of bindings and
	       definitions.

       NoGrabServer
	       This variable indicates that twm	should	not  grab  the	server
	       when popping up menus and moving	opaque windows.

       NoHighlight [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable indicates	that borders should not	be highlighted
	       to track	the location of	the pointer.  If the optional win-list
	       is given, highlighting will only	be disabled for	those windows.
	       When the	border is highlighted, it will be drawn	in the current
	       BorderColor.   When  the	 border	is not highlighted, it will be
	       stippled	with an	gray pattern using the current BorderTileFore-
	       ground and BorderTileBackground colors.

       NoIconManagers
	       This variable indicates that no icon manager should be created.

       NoIconTitle [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable indicates	that icons should not display the icon
	       name of the client.  If the optional win-list  is  given,  only
	       those clients will not have icon	titles.	 IconTitle may be used
	       with this option	to force icon titles to	be put on on  specific
	       clients

       NoMenuShadows
	       This variable indicates that menus should not have drop shadows
	       drawn behind them.  This	is typically used with slower  servers
	       since  it  speeds  up menu drawing at the expense of making the
	       menu slightly harder to read.

       NoRaiseOnDeiconify
	       This variable  indicates	 that  windows	that  are  deiconified
	       should not be raised.

       NoRaiseOnMove
	       This  variable indicates	that windows should not	be raised when
	       moved.  This is typically used to allow windows to slide	under-
	       neath each other.

       NoRaiseOnResize
	       This  variable indicates	that windows should not	be raised when
	       resized.	 This is typically used	to allow windows to be resized
	       underneath each other.

       NoRaiseOnWarp
	       This  variable indicates	that windows should not	be raised when
	       the pointer is warped into them with the	f.warpto function.  If
	       this option is set, warping to an occluded window may result in
	       the pointer ending up in	the occluding window instead  the  de-
	       sired   window	(which	 causes	  unexpected   behavior	  with
	       f.warpring).

       NoSaveUnders
	       This variable indicates that menus should not request  save-un-
	       ders  to	 minimize  window repainting following menu selection.
	       It is typically used with displays that can repaint faster than
	       they can	handle save-unders.

       NoStackMode [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable  indicates that client window requests to	change
	       stacking	order should be	ignored.  If the optional win-list  is
	       given, only requests on those windows will be ignored.  This is
	       typically used to prevent applications from  relentlessly  pop-
	       ping themselves to the front of the window stack.

       NoTitle [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that windows should not have titlebars.
	       If the optional win-list	is given, only those windows will  not
	       have  titlebars.	  MakeTitle  may  be  used with	this option to
	       force titlebars to be put on specific windows.

       NoTitleFocus
	       This variable indicates that twm	should not set keyboard	 input
	       focus  to each window as	it is entered.	Normally, twm sets the
	       focus so	that focus and key events from the titlebar  and  icon
	       managers	 are  delivered	to the application.  If	the pointer is
	       moved quickly and twm is	slow to	respond, input can be directed
	       to the old window instead of the	new.  This option is typically
	       used to prevent this ``input lag'' and to work around  bugs  in
	       older applications that have problems with focus	events.

       NoTitleHighlight	[{ win-list }]
	       This  variable  indicates that the highlight area of the	title-
	       bar, which is used to indicate the window  that	currently  has
	       the input focus,	should not be displayed.  If the optional win-
	       list is given, only those windows will not have	highlight  ar-
	       eas.   This and the SqueezeTitle	options	can be set to substan-
	       tially reduce the amount	of screen space	required by titlebars.

       OpaqueMove
	       This variable indicates that the	f.move function	 should	 actu-
	       ally  move  the	window	instead	of just	an outline so that the
	       user can	immediately see	what the window	will look like in  the
	       new  position.	This option is typically used on fast displays
	       (particularly if	NoGrabServer is	set).

       PannerBackgroundPixmap string
	       This variable specifies the filename of a pixmap	or bitmap file
	       to be used as the background image of the panner.  If this file
	       is a bitmap, the	PannerBackground and  PannerForeground	colors
	       are used	when constructing the background.

       PannerGeometry string
	       This  variable  specifies  the  position	of the Virtual Desktop
	       panner.	The default geometry is	"-0-0".

       PannerOpaqueScroll
	       This variable causes the	panner to scroll the  Virtual  Desktop
	       opaquely.   This	 variable only takes effect if the StickyAbove
	       variable	is also	set.

       PannerScale scale
	       This variable specifies that scale of the Virtual Desktop  Pan-
	       ner in relation to the actual screen.  The default scale	is 20.

       PannerState string
	       This  variable specifies	the initial state of the Virtual Desk-
	       top panner window.  Possible initial state values include "nor-
	       mal",  "iconic",	 or "withdrawn".  The default initial state is
	       "normal".

       Pixmaps { pixmaps }
	       This variable specifies a list of pixmaps that define  the  ap-
	       pearance	of various images.  Each entry is a keyword indicating
	       the pixmap to set, followed by a	string giving the name of  the
	       bitmap file.  The following pixmaps may be specified:
	       Pixmaps
	       {
		    VirtualDesktopBackgroundPixmap     "/homes/davis/pictures/background.gif"
		    PannerBackgroundPixmap	  "panner.xpm"
		    TitleHighlight	     "gray1"
	       }
	       The  default  for TitleHighlight	is to use an even stipple pat-
	       tern.  The VirtualDesktopBackgroundPixmap and PannerBackground-
	       Pixmap pixmaps can be set as detailed in	each of	their own sec-
	       tions.

       RandomPlacement
	       This variable indicates that windows with no specified geometry
	       should  should be placed	in a pseudo-random location instead of
	       having the user drag out	an outline.

       ResizeFont string
	       This variable specifies the font	to be used for in  the	dimen-
	       sions window when resizing windows.  The	default	is "fixed".

       RestartPreviousState
	       This  variable  indicates  that	twm  should attempt to use the
	       WM_STATE	property on  client  windows  to  tell	which  windows
	       should  be iconified and	which should be	left visible.  This is
	       typically used to try to	regenerate the state that  the	screen
	       was in before the previous window manager was shutdown.

       SaveColor { colors-list }
	       This  variable  indicates  a  list  of  color assignments to be
	       stored as pixel values in the root window property  _MIT_PRIOR-
	       ITY_COLORS.   Clients  may  elect to preserve these values when
	       installing their	own colormap.  Note that use of	this mechanism
	       is a way	for an application to avoid the	"technicolor" problem,
	       whereby useful screen objects such as window borders and	title-
	       bars  disappear	when a programs	custom colors are installed by
	       the window manager.  For	example:
	       SaveColor
	       {
		       BorderColor
		       TitleBackground
		       TitleForeground
		       "red"
		       "green"
		       "blue"
	       }
	       This would place	on the root window 3 pixel values for  borders
	       and  titlebars,	as  well as the	three color strings, all taken
	       from the	default	colormap.

       ScrollDistanceX percentage
	       This variable specifies the amount  (as	a  percentage  of  the
	       screen width) to	move when one of the scroll functions f.scrol-
	       lleft or	f.scrollright is called.

       ScrollDistanceY percentage
	       This variable specifies the amount  (as	a  percentage  of  the
	       screen  height)	to  move  when	one  of	 the  scroll functions
	       f.scrollup or f.scrolldown is called.

       ShowIconManager
	       This variable indicates that the	icon manager window should  be
	       displayed when twm is started.  It can always be	brought	up us-
	       ing the f.showiconmgr function.

       ShowVirtualNames
	       This variable causes client window names	to be displayed	in the
	       small  virtual  windows inside the Virtual Desktop panner.  The
	       names will be displayed using the current VirtualFont.

       SortIconManager
	       This variable indicates that entries in the icon	manager	should
	       be  sorted  alphabetically  rather than by simply appending new
	       windows to the end.

       SqueezeTitle [{ squeeze-list }]
	       This variable indicates that twm	 should	 attempt  to  use  the
	       SHAPE  extension	 to  make titlebars occupy only	as much	screen
	       space as	they need, rather than extending all  the  way	across
	       the  top	 of the	window.	 The optional squeeze-list may be used
	       to control the location of the squeezed titlebar	along the  top
	       of the window.  It contains entries of the form:
		    "name"	   justification  num  denom
	       where name is a window name, justification is either left, cen-
	       ter, or right, and num and denom	are numbers specifying a ratio
	       giving the relative position about which	the titlebar is	justi-
	       fied.  The ratio	is measured from left to right if the  numera-
	       tor  is positive, and right to left if negative.	 A denominator
	       of 0 indicates that the numerator should	be measured in pixels.
	       For  convenience,  the  ratio 0/0 is the	same as	1/2 for	center
	       and -1/1	for right.  For	example:
	       SqueezeTitle
	       {
		    "XTerm"   left	0    0
		    "xterm1"  left	1    3
		    "xterm2"  left	2    3
		    "oclock"  center	     0	  0
		    "emacs"   right	     0	  0
	       }
	       The DontSqueezeTitle list can be	used to	turn off squeezing  on
	       certain titles.

       StartIconified [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that client windows should initially be
	       left as icons until explicitly deiconified by the user.	If the
	       optional	 win-list is given, only those windows will be started
	       iconic.	This is	useful for programs that  do  not  support  an
	       -iconic command line option or resource.

       StayUpMenus
	       This variable alters menu interaction.  By default, a menu item
	       is selected when	a mouse	button	is  released  over  it.	  This
	       variable	 causes	 menu  items to	be selected on the next	button
	       press event.

       Sticky [{ win-list }]
	       This variable is	a list of client windows that will  be	sticky
	       by  default.   See  the	VIRTUAL	DESKTOP	section	for a full de-
	       scription of sticky windows.

       StickyAbove
	       This variable causes sticky windows to be physically above non-
	       sticky windows.

       TitleBackground string [{ win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the background color used in titlebars,
	       and may only be specified inside	of a Color or Monochrome list.
	       The  optional  win-list is a list of window names and colors so
	       that per-window	colors	may  be	 specified.   The  default  is
	       "white".

       TitleButtonBorderWidth pixels
	       This  variable specifies	the width in pixels of the border sur-
	       rounding	titlebuttons.  This is typically set to	0 to allow ti-
	       tlebuttons to take up as	much space as possible and to not have
	       a border.  The default is 1.

       TitleFont string
	       This variable specifies the font	to used	for displaying	window
	       names in	titlebars.  The	default	is "variable".

       TitleFontPadding	pixels
	       This  variable  specifies the number of pixels of padding to be
	       placed above window titles.  This allows	for using small	 fonts
	       with larger buttons.

       TitleForeground string [{ win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the foreground color used in titlebars,
	       and may only be specified inside	of a Color or Monochrome list.
	       The  optional  win-list is a list of window names and colors so
	       that per-window	colors	may  be	 specified.   The  default  is
	       "black".

       TitlePadding pixels
	       This  variable  specifies the distance between the various but-
	       tons, text, and highlight areas in the titlebar.	  The  default
	       is 8 pixels.

       UnknownIcon string
	       This  variable  specifies  the  filename	of a bitmap file to be
	       used as the default icon.  This bitmap will be used as the icon
	       of  all clients which do	not provide an icon bitmap and are not
	       listed in the Icons list.

       UsePPosition string
	       This variable specifies whether or not twm  should  honor  pro-
	       gram-requested  locations  (given  by the PPosition flag	in the
	       WM_NORMAL_HINTS property) in the	absence	 of  a	user-specified
	       position.   The	argument  string may have one of three values:
	       "off" (the default) indicating that twm should ignore the  pro-
	       gram-supplied  position,	 "on"  indicating  that	 the  position
	       should be used, and "non-zero"  indicating  that	 the  position
	       should  used  if	 it is other than (0,0).  The latter option is
	       for working around a bug	in older toolkits.

       VirtualDesktop string
	       This variable enables the Virtual Desktop feature and specifies
	       the  initial  size of the desktop, either in pixels or in inte-
	       gral multiples of the screen size.  The size is specified as  a
	       standard	 geometry  string.   If	 a  width  or  height value is
	       smaller than the	width or height	of the physical	display, it is
	       assumed	to mean	a multiple of the screen size, otherwise it is
	       assumed to be in	pixels.	 So to get a 2x2 sized Virtual Desktop
	       across  all platforms, one could	use the	string "2x2" to	enable
	       the desktop.

       VirtualDesktopBackgroundPixmap string
	       This variable specifies the filename of a image to be  used  as
	       the  background image of	the Virtual Desktop.  If you have con-
	       figured twm to use xloadimage(1)	to load	this image, the	string
	       must  be	 a  full  pathname,  or	 be  in	the image-path in your
	       ~/.xloadimagerc file.  If you have not configured  twm  to  use
	       xloadimage(1), then it will load	a bitmap or pixmap in the tra-
	       ditional	fashion.  If the pixmap	you  load  is  a  bitmap  (one
	       plane  deep),  VirtualDesktopBackground and VirtualDesktopFore-
	       ground colors are used when constructing	the background.

       WarpCursor [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that the	pointer	should be warped  into
	       windows when they are deiconified.  If the optional win-list is
	       given, the pointer will only be warped when those  windows  are
	       deiconified.  This will also change the position	of the virtual
	       desktop if the unmapped window wasn't visible from  the	actual
	       position.

       WrapVirtual
	       This  variable  will  cause  tvtwm's  scroll behavior to	change
	       slightly.   If  this  is	 set,  then  calls  to	 f.scrollleft,
	       f.scrollright,  f.scrollup,  and	 f.scrolldown, that would move
	       the panner outside of the virtual desktop, will shift  position
	       to  the other end.  In effect, "wrap-around" the	outside	of the
	       virtual desktop.	  (This	 is  phrased  poorly,  and  should  be
	       rewritten)

       VirtualFont font
	       This is the font	used to	display	window names in	the small win-
	       dows inside the panner  if  the	ShowVirtualNames  variable  is
	       specified.  The default font is "5x8".

       WindowRing { win-list }
	       This  variable  specifies  a  list  of  windows along which the
	       f.warpring function cycles.

       WarpUnmapped
	       This variable indicates that that the f.warpto function	should
	       deiconify  any  iconified windows it encounters.	 This is typi-
	       cally used to make a key	binding	that  will  pop	 a  particular
	       window  (such  as  xmh),	no matter where	it is.	The default is
	       for f.warpto to ignore iconified	windows.

       XorValue	number
	       This variable specifies the value to use	 when  drawing	window
	       outlines	 for  moving  and  resizing.   This should be set to a
	       value that will result in a variety of of distinguishable  col-
	       ors  when exclusive-or'ed with the contents of the user's typi-
	       cal screen.  Setting this variable to 1 often  gives  nice  re-
	       sults  if adjacent colors in the	default	colormap are distinct.
	       By default, twm will attempt to cause temporary lines to	appear
	       at the opposite end of the colormap from	the graphics.

       Zoom [ count ]
	       This  variable indicates	that outlines suggesting movement of a
	       window to and from its  iconified  state	 should	 be  displayed
	       whenever	 a  window  is iconified or deiconified.  The optional
	       count argument specifies	the number of outlines	to  be	drawn.
	       The default count is 8.

       The following variables must be set after the fonts have	been assigned,
       so it is	usually	best to	put them at the	end of the variables or	begin-
       ning of the bindings sections:

       DefaultFunction function
	       This  variable specifies	the function to	be executed when a key
	       or button event is received for which no	binding	 is  provided.
	       This  is	typically bound	to f.nop, f.beep, or a menu containing
	       window operations.

       WindowFunction function
	       This variable specifies the function to execute when  a	window
	       is  selected from the TwmWindows	menu.  If this variable	is not
	       set, the	window will be deiconified and raised.

BINDINGS
       After the desired variables have	been set, functions  may  be  attached
       titlebuttons  and  key  and pointer buttons.  Titlebuttons may be added
       from the	left or	right side and appear in the  titlebar	from  left-to-
       right  according	 to  the  order	 in which they are specified.  Key and
       pointer button bindings may be given in any order.

       Titlebuttons specifications must	include	the name of the	pixmap to  use
       in  the button box and the function to be invoked when a	pointer	button
       is pressed within them:
       LeftTitleButton "bitmapname"  = function
       or
       RightTitleButton	"bitmapname" = function
       The bitmapname may refer	to one of the	built-in  bitmaps  (which  are
       scaled to match TitleFont) by using the appropriate colon-prefixed name
       described above.

       Key and pointer button specifications must give the modifiers that must
       be  pressed,  over  which  parts	of the screen the pointer must be, and
       what function is	to be invoked.	Keys are given as  strings  containing
       the  appropriate	 keysym	 name;	buttons	are given as the keywords But-
       ton1-Button5:
       "FP1"	      =	modlist	: context : function
       Button1	 = modlist : context : function
       The modlist is any combination of the modifier  names  shift,  control,
       lock,  meta,  mod1, mod2, mod3, mod4, or	mod5 (which may	be abbreviated
       as s, c,	l, m, m1, m2, m3, m4, m5, respectively)	separated by a	verti-
       cal  bar	(|).  Similarly, the context is	any combination	of window, ti-
       tle, icon, root,	frame, iconmgr,	their first letters (iconmgr abbrevia-
       tion  is	 m), or	all, separated by a vertical bar.  The function	is any
       of the f.  keywords described below.  For example, the default  startup
       file contains the following bindings:
       Button1	 =    :	root	     : f.menu "TwmWindows"
       Button1	 = m  :	window | icon	  : f.function "move-or-lower"
       Button2	 = m  :	window | icon	  : f.iconify
       Button3	 = m  :	window | icon	  : f.function "move-or-raise"
       Button1	 =    :	title	     : f.function "move-or-raise"
       Button2	 =    :	title	     : f.raiselower
       Button1	 =    :	icon	     : f.function "move-or-iconify"
       Button2	 =    :	icon	     : f.iconify
       Button1	 =    :	iconmgr	: f.iconify
       Button2	 =    :	iconmgr	: f.iconify
       A  user	who  wanted to be able to manipulate windows from the keyboard
       could use the following bindings:
       "F1"	 =    :	all	     : f.iconify
       "F2"	 =    :	all	     : f.raiselower
       "F3"	 =    :	all	     : f.warpring "next"
       "F4"	 =    :	all	     : f.warpto	"xmh"
       "F5"	 =    :	all	     : f.warpto	"emacs"
       "F6"	 =    :	all	     : f.colormap "next"
       "F7"	 =    :	all	     : f.colormap "default"
       "F20"	      =	   : all	  : f.warptoscreen "next"
       "Left"	      =	m  : all	  : f.backiconmgr
       "Right"	 = m | s   : all	  : f.forwiconmgr
       "Up"	 = m  :	all	     : f.upiconmgr
       "Down"	 = m | s   : all	  : f.downiconmgr
       Twm provides many more window manipulation primitives than can be  con-
       veniently stored	in a titlebar, menu, or	set of key bindings.  Although
       a small set of defaults are supplied (unless the	NoDefaults  is	speci-
       fied),  most users will want to have their most common operations bound
       to key and button strokes.  To do this, twm associates names with  each
       of  the	primitives  and	 provides  user-defined	functions for building
       higher level primitives and menus  for  interactively  selecting	 among
       groups of functions.

       User-defined functions contain the name by which	they are referenced in
       calls to	f.function and a list of other functions to execute.  For  ex-
       ample:
       Function	"move-or-lower"	{ f.move f.deltastop f.lower }
       Function	"move-or-raise"	{ f.move f.deltastop f.raise }
       Function	"move-or-iconify"    { f.move f.deltastop f.iconify }
       Function	"restore-colormap"   { f.colormap "default" f.lower }
       The  function  name must	be used	in f.function exactly as it appears in
       the function specification.

       In the descriptions below, if the function is said to  operate  on  the
       selected	 window,  but  is invoked from a root menu, the	cursor will be
       changed to the Select cursor and	the next window	to  receive  a	button
       press will be chosen:

       ! string
	       This is an abbreviation for f.exec string.

       f.autoraise
	       This  function  toggles	whether	 or not	the selected window is
	       raised whenever entered by the pointer.	See the	description of
	       the variable AutoRaise.

       f.backiconmgr
	       This  function  warps the pointer to the	previous column	in the
	       current icon manager, wrapping back to the previous row if nec-
	       essary.

       f.beep  This function sounds the	keyboard bell.

       f.bottomzoom
	       This  function  is  similar to the f.fullzoom function, but re-
	       sizes the window	to fill	only the bottom	half of	the screen.

       f.circledown
	       This function lowers the	top-most window	that occludes  another
	       window.

       f.circleup
	       This function raises the	bottom-most window that	is occluded by
	       another window.

       f.colormap string
	       This function rotates the colormaps (obtained from the  WM_COL-
	       ORMAP_WINDOWS  property	on  the	 window) that twm will display
	       when the	pointer	is in this window.  The	 argument  string  may
	       have  one  of  the  following  values: "next", "prev", and "de-
	       fault".	It should be noted here	that in	general, the installed
	       colormap	 is  determined	 by  keyboard focus.  A	pointer	driven
	       keyboard	focus will install a private colormap  upon  entry  of
	       the window owning the colormap.	Using the click	to type	model,
	       private colormaps will not be installed until the user  presses
	       a mouse button on the target window.

       f.constrainedmove
	       This function will have approximately the same behavior,	except
	       that the	move will  be  constrained  without  need  for	double
	       clicking.

       f.deiconify
	       This  function  deiconifies the selected	window.	 If the	window
	       is not an icon or an unmapped window, this function does	 noth-
	       ing.

       f.delete
	       This  function  sends  the  WM_DELETE_WINDOW message to the se-
	       lected window  if  the  client  application  has	 requested  it
	       through	the  WM_PROTOCOLS window property.  The	application is
	       supposed	to respond to the message by  removing	the  indicated
	       window.	 If the	window has not requested WM_DELETE_WINDOW mes-
	       sages, the keyboard bell	will be	rung indicating	that the  user
	       should choose an	alternative method.  Note this is very differ-
	       ent from	f.destroy.  The	intent here is to delete a single win-
	       dow,  not necessarily the entire	application.

       f.deltastop
	       This  function  allows a	user-defined function to be aborted if
	       the pointer has been moved more than MoveDelta pixels.  See the
	       example	definition  given  for Function	"move-or-raise"	at the
	       beginning of the	section.

       f.destroy
	       This function instructs the X server to close the display  con-
	       nection	of  the	client that created the	selected window.  This
	       should only be used as a	last resort for	shutting down  runaway
	       clients.	 See also f.delete.

       f.downiconmgr
	       This  function warps the	pointer	to the next row	in the current
	       icon manger, wrapping to	the beginning of the  next  column  if
	       necessary.

       f.exec string
	       This  function passes the argument string to /bin/sh for	execu-
	       tion.  In multiscreen mode, if string starts  a	new  X	client
	       without	giving	a  display argument, the client	will appear on
	       the screen from which this function was invoked.

       f.focus This function toggles the keyboard focus	of the server  to  the
	       selected	window,	changing the focus rule	from pointer-driven if
	       necessary.  If the selected window already  was	focused,  this
	       function	executes an f.unfocus.

       f.forcemove
	       This  function  is like f.move except that it ignores the Dont-
	       MoveOff variable.

       f.forwiconmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the next column in the  cur-
	       rent icon manager, wrapping to the beginning of the next	row if
	       necessary.

       f.fullzoom
	       This function resizes the selected window to the	full  size  of
	       the  display  or	 else restores the original size if the	window
	       was already zoomed.

       f.function string
	       This function executes the user-defined function	whose name  is
	       specified by the	argument string.

       f.hbzoom
	       This function is	a synonym for f.bottomzoom.

       f.hideiconmgr
	       This function unmaps the	current	icon manager.

       f.horizoom
	       This variable is	similar	to the f.zoom function except that the
	       selected	window is resized to the full width of the display.

       f.htzoom
	       This function is	a synonym for f.topzoom.

       f.hzoom This function is	a synonym for f.horizoom.

       f.iconify
	       This function iconifies or deiconifies the selected  window  or
	       icon, respectively.

       f.identify
	       This  function  displays	 a summary of the name and geometry of
	       the selected window.  Clicking the pointer or pressing a	key in
	       the window will dismiss it.

       f.lefticonmgr
	       This  function  similar	to  f.backiconmgr except that wrapping
	       does not	change rows.

       f.leftzoom
	       This variable is	 similar  to  the  f.bottomzoom	 function  but
	       causes  the selected window is only resized to the left half of
	       the display.

       f.lower This function lowers the	selected window.

       f.menu string
	       This function  invokes  the  menu  specified  by	 the  argument
	       string.	 Cascaded  menus  may  be  built  by  nesting calls to
	       f.menu.

       f.menufunc string1 : string2
	       This functions invokes a	menu like f.menu, but if the user does
	       not  pop	 up the	menu menu "string1" the	function  string2 will
	       be called.

       f.move  This function drags an outline of the selected window  (or  the
	       window  itself if the OpaqueMove	variable is set) until the in-
	       voking pointer button is	released.  Double clicking within  the
	       number  of  milliseconds	given by ConstrainedMoveTime warps the
	       pointer to the center of	the window and constrains the move  to
	       be  either  horizontal or vertical depending on which grid line
	       is crossed.  To abort a move, press another button  before  re-
	       leasing the first button.

       f.nexticonmgr
	       This  function  warps the pointer to the	next icon manager con-
	       taining any windows on the current or any succeeding screen.

       f.nop   This function does nothing and is typically used	with  the  De-
	       faultFunction or	WindowFunction variables or to introduce blank
	       lines in	menus.

       f.opaquemove
	       This function will exact	as does	f.move,	 but  it  will	do  an
	       opaque move regardless of whether OpaqueMove is set or not.

       f.panner
	       This function toggles the display of the	panner window.

       f.previconmgr
	       This  function  warps  the pointer to the previous icon manager
	       containing any windows on the current or	preceding screens.

       f.quit  This function causes twm	to restore the	window's  borders  and
	       exit.   If  twm is the first client invoked from	xdm, this will
	       result in a server reset.

       f.raise This function raises the	selected window.

       f.raiselower
	       This function raises the	selected window	 to  the  top  of  the
	       stacking	 order if it is	occluded by any	windows, otherwise the
	       window will be lowered.

       f.refresh
	       This function causes all	windows	to be refreshed.

       f.relativemove string
	       This function will move the selected  window  relative  to  its
	       current	position.  The string parameter	is a geometry specifi-
	       cation indicating how many pixels to move the window.  For  ex-
	       ample, "+15+0" would move the window fifteen (15) pixels	to the
	       right, and "+5-10" would	move the window	five (5) pixels	 right
	       and ten (10) pixels up.

       f.relativeresize
	       This function will do a resize and behave as if AutoRelativeRe-
	       size were set, whether it is or not

       f.resize
	       This function displays  an  outline  of	the  selected  window.
	       Crossing	 a  border  (or	setting	AutoRelativeResize) will cause
	       the outline to begin to rubber band until the  invoking	button
	       is  released.   To  abort a resize, press another button	before
	       releasing the first button.

       f.restart
	       This function kills and restarts	twm.

       f.righticonmgr
	       This function is	similar	to f.nexticonmgr except	that  wrapping
	       does not	change rows.

       f.rightzoom
	       This  variable  is  similar to the f.bottomzoom function	except
	       that the	selected window	is only	resized	to the right  half  of
	       the display.

       f.saveyourself
	       This  function  sends a WM_SAVEYOURSELF message to the selected
	       window if it has	requested the message in its WM_PROTOCOLS win-
	       dow property.  Clients that accept this message are supposed to
	       checkpoint all state associated with the	window and update  the
	       WM_COMMAND property as specified	in the ICCCM.  If the selected
	       window has not selected for this	 message,  the	keyboard  bell
	       will be rung.

       f.scroll	string
	       This function scrolls the Virtual Desktop to a specific logical
	       screen quadrant.	 The string parameter is a geometry specifica-
	       tion indicating how to scroll the desktop.  For example,	"+0+0"
	       would scroll the	desktop	to the home location and "+2+1"	 would
	       scroll  the desktop to the quadrant in the third	logical	column
	       and the second row.

       f.scrollback
	       This function scrolls the Virtual Desktop back to its  previous
	       location.

       f.scrolldown
	       This  function  scrolls	the Virtual Desktop down a fraction of
	       the height of the screen	specified in ScrollDistanceY.

       f.scrollhome
	       This function scrolls the Virtual Desktop to the	home location.

       f.scrollleft
	       This function scrolls the Virtual Desktop left  a  fraction  of
	       the width of the	screen specified in ScrollDistanceX.

       f.scrollright
	       This  function  scrolls the Virtual Desktop right a fraction of
	       the width of the	screen specified in ScrollDistanceX.

       f.scrollup
	       This function scrolls the Virtual Desktop up one	a fraction  of
	       the height of the screen	specified in ScrollDistanceY.

       f.showiconmgr
	       This function maps the current icon manager.

       f.sorticonmgr
	       This function sorts the entries in the current icon manager al-
	       phabetically.  See the variable SortIconManager.

       f.stick This function toggles making a window sticky.

       f.title This function provides a	centered, unselectable item in a  menu
	       definition.  It should not be used in any other context.

       f.topzoom
	       This  variable  is  similar to the f.bottomzoom function	except
	       that the	selected window	is only	resized	to the top half	of the
	       display.

       f.unfocus
	       This  function  resets  the focus back to pointer-driven.  This
	       should be used when a focused window is no longer desired.

       f.upiconmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the previous row in the cur-
	       rent  icon manager, wrapping to the last	row in the same	column
	       if necessary.

       f.vlzoom
	       This function is	a synonym for f.leftzoom.

       f.vrzoom
	       This function is	a synonym for f.rightzoom.

       f.warpring string
	       This function warps the pointer to the next or previous	window
	       (as  indicated  by  the argument	string,	which may be "next" or
	       "prev") specified in the	WindowRing variable.

       f.warpto	string
	       This function warps the pointer to the window which has a  name
	       or  class  that matches string.	If the window is iconified, it
	       will be deiconified if the variable WarpUnmapped	is set or else
	       ignored.	  If  string is	empty (i.e. ""), the current window is
	       selected.  In addition to warping the pointer to	the window the
	       Virtual	Desktop	 will be scrolled to the logical quadrant that
	       contains	the window.

       f.warptoiconmgr string
	       This function warps the pointer to the icon manager entry asso-
	       ciated  with the	window containing the pointer in the icon man-
	       ager specified by the argument  string.	 If  string  is	 empty
	       (i.e. ""), the current icon manager is chosen.

       f.warptoscreen string
	       This  function warps the	pointer	to the screen specified	by the
	       argument	string.	 String	may be a number	(e.g. "0" or "1"), the
	       word  "next"  (indicating  the  current screen plus 1, skipping
	       over any	unmanaged screens), the	word  "back"  (indicating  the
	       current	screen	minus 1, skipping over any unmanaged screens),
	       or the word "prev" (indicating the last screen visited.

       f.winrefresh
	       This function is	similar	to the f.refresh function except  that
	       only the	selected window	is refreshed.

       f.zoom  This  function  is  similar  to the f.fullzoom function,	except
	       that the	only the height	of the selected	window is changed.

MENUS
       Functions may be	grouped	and interactively selected using pop-up	 (when
       bound  to a pointer button) or pull-down	(when associated with a	title-
       button) menus.  Each menu specification contains	the name of  the  menu
       as  it  will  be	referred to by f.menu, optional	default	foreground and
       background colors, the list of item names and the functions they	should
       invoke,	and  optional  foreground and background colors	for individual
       items:
       Menu "menuname" [ ("deffore":"defback") ]
       {
	    string1   [	("fore1":"backn")]     function1
	    string2   [	("fore2":"backn")]     function2
		 .
		 .
		 .
	    stringN   [	("foreN":"backN")]     functionN
       }

       The menuname is case-sensitive.	The optional deffore and defback argu-
       ments specify the foreground and	background colors used on a color dis-
       play to highlight menu entries.	The string portion of each menu	 entry
       will  be	the text which will appear in the menu.	 The optional fore and
       back arguments specify the foreground and background colors of the menu
       entry  when the pointer is not in the entry.  These colors will only be
       used on a color display.	 The default is	to use the colors specified by
       the  MenuForeground and MenuBackground variables.  The function portion
       of the menu entry is one	of the functions, including  any  user-defined
       functions, or additional	menus.

       There  is  a  special menu named	TwmWindows which contains the names of
       all of the client and twm-supplied windows.  Selecting  an  entry  will
       cause the WindowFunction	to be executed on that window.	If WindowFunc-
       tion hasn't been	set, the window	will be	deiconified  and  raised.   If
       the  Virtual  Desktop  is enabled, the desktop will also	be scrolled to
       the logical quadrant that contains the windows.

ICONS
       Twm supports several different ways of manipulating iconified  windows.
       The  common  pixmap-and-text style may be laid out by hand or automati-
       cally arranged as described by the IconRegion variable.	In addition, a
       terse grid of icon names, called	an icon	manager, provides a more effi-
       cient use of screen space as well as the	ability	to navigate among win-
       dows from the keyboard.

       An icon manager is a window that	contains names of selected or all win-
       dows currently on the display.  In addition to the window name, a small
       button  using  the default iconify symbol will be displayed to the left
       of the name when	the window is iconified.  By default, clicking	on  an
       entry  in  the  icon manager performs f.iconify.	 To change the actions
       taken in	the icon manager, use the the iconmgr context when  specifying
       button and keyboard bindings.

       Moving the pointer into the icon	manager	also directs keyboard focus to
       the indicated window (setting the focus explicitly or else sending syn-
       thetic events NoTitleFocus is set).  Using the f.upiconmgr, f.downicon-
       mgr f.lefticonmgr, and f.righticonmgr functions,	the input focus	can be
       changed between windows directly	from the keyboard.

SIGNALS
       It is possible to issue a the equivalent	of a f.restart via a unix sig-
       nal.  This is intended to ease debugging	of twm	initialization	files.
       To  force  this send a SIGUSR1 to the twm process ID.   See man kill(1)
       for more	details.

BUGS
       The resource manager should have	been used instead of all of the	window
       lists.

       The IconRegion variable should take a list.

       Double  clicking	 very  fast  to	get the	constrained move function will
       sometimes cause the window to move, even	 though	 the  pointer  is  not
       moved.

       If  IconifyByUnmapping  is  on  and  windows are	listed in IconManager-
       DontShow	but not	in DontIconifyByUnmapping, they	may be	lost  if  they
       are  iconified  and  no bindings	to f.menu "TwmWindows" or f.warpto are
       setup.

FILES
	$HOME/.[tv]twmrc.<screen number>
	$HOME/.[tv]twmrc
	/usr/lib/X11/twm/system.[tv]twmrc

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       DISPLAY This variable is	used to	determine which	X server to  use.   It
	       is  also	 set  during  f.exec  so  that programs	come up	on the
	       proper screen.

       HOME    This variable is	used as	the prefix for files that begin	with a
	       tilde and for locating the twm startup file.

SEE ALSO
       X(1), Xserver(1), xdm(1), xrdb(1), m4(1), kill(1)

COPYRIGHT
       Portions	 copyright  1988 Evans & Sutherland Computer Corporation; por-
       tions copyright 1989 Hewlett-Packard Company and	the Massachusetts  In-
       stitute	of  Technology,	  See  X(1) for	a full statement of rights and
       permissions.

AUTHORS
       Tom LaStrange, Solbourne	Computer; Chris	Ross, University of  Maryland;
       Jim  Fulton, MIT	X Consortium; Steve Pitschke, Stardent Computer; Keith
       Packard,	MIT X Consortium; Dave	Sternlicht,  MIT  X  Consortium;  Dave
       Payne, Apple Computer.

       Virtual Desktop added by	Tom LaStrange, Solbourne Computer.

X Version 11			   Release 5			      TVTWM(1)

NAME | SYNTAX | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | CUSTOMIZATION | M4 PREPROCESSING | VIRTUAL DESKTOP | VARIABLES | BINDINGS | MENUS | ICONS | SIGNALS | BUGS | FILES | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | SEE ALSO | COPYRIGHT | AUTHORS

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