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TROFF(1)                                                              TROFF(1)

       troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system

       troff [ -abcivzCERU ] [ -dcs ] [ -ffam ] [ -Fdir ] [ -Idir ] [ -mname ]
             [ -Mdir ] [ -nnum ] [ -olist ] [ -rcn ] [ -Tname ] [ -wname ]
             [ -Wname ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its

       This manual page describes the GNU version of troff.  It is part of the
       groff  document  formatting system.  It is functionally compatible with
       UNIX troff, but has many extensions,  see  groff_diff(7).   Usually  it
       should  be  invoked using the groff(1) command which will also run pre-
       processors and postprocessors in the appropriate  order  and  with  the
       appropriate options.

       -a        Generate an ASCII approximation of the typeset output.

       -b        Print  a  backtrace with each warning or error message.  This
                 backtrace should help track down the cause of the error.  The
                 line  numbers  given  in the backtrace may not always be cor-
                 rect, for troff's idea of line numbers gets confused by as or
                 am requests.

       -c        Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility mode).

       -C        Enable compatibility mode.

       -dname=s  Define c or name to be a string s; c must  be  a  one  letter

       -E        Inhibit  all error messages of troff.  Note that this doesn't
                 affect messages output to standard error  by  macro  packages
                 using the tm or tm1 requests.

       -ffam     Use fam as the default font family.

       -Fdir     Search  in  directory (or directory path) dir for subdirecto-
                 ries devname (name is the name of the device) and  there  for
                 the  DESC  file  and  font  files.  dir is scanned before all
                 other font directories.

       -i        Read the standard input after all the named input files  have
                 been processed.

       -Idir     This  option may be used to specify a directory to search for
                 files (both those on the command  line  and  those  named  in
                 .psbb  requests).   The  current directory is always searched
                 first.  This option may be  specified  more  than  once;  the
                 directories  will  be  searched  in  the order specified.  No
                 directory search is performed for files  specified  using  an
                 absolute path.

       -mname    Read in the file name.tmac.  If it isn't found, try
                 instead.  It will be first searched for in directories  given
                 with the -M command line option, then in directories given in
                 the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then in the current
                 directory  (only  if  in  unsafe  mode),  the home directory,
                 /usr/share/tmac, /usr/share/tmac, and /usr/share/tmac.

       -Mdir     Search directory (or directory path)  dir  for  macro  files.
                 This is scanned before all other macro directories.

       -nnum     Number the first page num.

       -olist    Output only pages in list, which is a comma-separated list of
                 page ranges; n means print page n, m-n means print every page
                 between  m and n, -n means print every page up to n, n- means
                 print every page from n.  troff will exit after printing  the
                 last page in the list.

       -rname=n  Set number register c or name to n; c must be a one character
                 name; n can be any troff numeric expression.

       -R        Don't load troffrc and troffrc-end.

       -Tname    Prepare output for device name, rather than the  default  ps;
                 see groff(1) for a more detailed description.

       -U        Unsafe  mode.  This will enable the following requests: open,
                 opena, pso, sy, and pi.  For security reasons,  these  poten-
                 tially  dangerous  requests  are disabled otherwise.  It will
                 also add the current directory to the macro search path.

       -v        Print the version number.

       -wname    Enable warning name.  Available warnings are described in the
                 section WARNINGS below.  For example, to enable all warnings,
                 use -w all.  Multiple -w options are allowed.

       -Wname    Inhibit warning name.  Multiple -W options are allowed.

       -z        Suppress formatted output.

       The warnings that can be given by troff are divided into the  following
       categories.   The  name  associated with each warning is used by the -w
       and -W options; the number is used by the  warn  request,  and  by  the
       .warn register; it is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise composition.

                 |Bit   Code   Warning | Bit    Code      Warning   |
                 |  0      1   char    |  10     1024   reg         |
                 |  1      2   number  |  11     2048   tab         |
                 |  2      4   break   |  12     4096   right-brace |
                 |  3      8   delim   |  13     8192   missing     |
                 |  4     16   el      |  14    16384   input       |
                 |  5     32   scale   |  15    32768   escape      |
                 |  6     64   range   |  16    65536   space       |
                 |  7    128   syntax  |  17   131072   font        |
                 |  8    256   di      |  18   262144   ig          |
                 |  9    512   mac     |  19   524288   color       |

       break           4   In fill mode, lines which could not  be  broken  so
                           that  their  length  was less than the line length.
                           This is enabled by default.

       char            1   Non-existent  characters.   This  is   enabled   by

       color      524288   Color related warnings.

       delim           8   Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.

       di            256   Use  of  di or da without an argument when there is
                           no current diversion.

       el             16   Use of the el request with no matching ie  request.

       escape      32768   Unrecognized  escape  sequences.   When an unrecog-
                           nized escape sequence is  encountered,  the  escape
                           character is ignored.

       font       131072   Non-existent fonts.  This is enabled by default.

       ig         262144   Invalid   escapes  in  text  ignored  with  the  ig
                           request.  These are conditions that are errors when
                           they do not occur in ignored text.

       input       16384   Invalid input characters.

       mac           512   Use  of  undefined  strings, macros and diversions.
                           When an undefined string,  macro  or  diversion  is
                           used,  that  string  is  automatically  defined  as
                           empty.  So, in most cases, at most one warning will
                           be given for each name.

       missing      8192   Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.

       number          2   Invalid  numeric  expressions.   This is enabled by

       range          64   Out of range arguments.

       reg          1024   Use of undefined number registers.  When  an  unde-
                           fined  number  register  is  used, that register is
                           automatically defined to have a value of 0.  So, in
                           most  cases,  at most one warning will be given for
                           use of a particular name.

       right-brace  4096   Use of \} where a number was expected.

       scale          32   Meaningless scaling indicators.

       space       65536   Missing space between a request or  macro  and  its
                           argument.  This warning will be given when an unde-
                           fined name longer than two  characters  is  encoun-
                           tered,  and  the  first  two characters of the name
                           make a defined name.  The request or macro will not
                           be  invoked.   When this warning is given, no macro
                           is  automatically  defined.   This  is  enabled  by
                           default.  This warning will never occur in compati-
                           bility mode.

       syntax        128   Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.

       tab          2048   Inappropriate use of a tab character.   Either  use
                           of  a tab character where a number was expected, or
                           use of tab character in an unquoted macro argument.

       There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings:

       all    All  warnings except di, mac, and reg.  It is intended that this
              covers all warnings that are useful with traditional macro pack-

       w      All warnings.

              A  colon  separated  list  of directories in which to search for
              macro files.  troff will scan directories given in the -M option
              before  these, and in standard directories (current directory if
              in    unsafe    mode,    home    directory,     /usr/share/tmac,
              /usr/share/tmac, /usr/share/tmac) after these.

              Default device.

              A colon separated list of directories in which to search for the
              devname directory.  troff will scan directories given in the  -F
              option    before    these,    and    in   standard   directories
              (/usr/share/groff_font,                   /usr/share/groff_font,
              /usr/share/groff_font) after these.

              Initialization file (called before any other macro package).

              Initialization file (called after any other macro package).

              Macro files

              Device description file for device name.

              Font file for font F of device name.

       Note  that  troffrc and troffrc-end are neither searched in the current
       nor in the home directory by default for security reasons (even if  the
       -U   option  is  given).   Use  the  -M  command  line  option  or  the
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable to add these  directories  to  the
       search path if necessary.

       Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002, 2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu-
       mentation License) version 1.1 or later.  You should  have  received  a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft site  <>.   This  document
       was  written  by  James  Clark,  with modifications from Werner Lemberg
       <> and Bernd Warken <>

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.

              The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.

              A description of the groff language, including a short but  com-
              plete  reference  of  all  predefined  requests,  registers, and
              escapes of plain groff.  From the command line, this  is  called

                     man 7 groff

              The  differences  of  the groff language and the classical troff
              language.  Currently, this is the most actual  document  of  the
              groff system.

              An  overview over groff and other roff systems, including point-
              ers to further related documentation.

       The groff info file, cf.  info(1),  presents  all  groff  documentation
       within a single document.

Groff Version 1.19.2           15 November 2005                       TROFF(1)


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