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TREE(1)                 FreeBSD General Commands Manual                TREE(1)

       tree - list contents of directories in a tree-like format.

       tree [-acdfghilnpqrstuvxACDFQNSUX] [-L level [-R]] [-H baseHREF] [-T
       title] [-o filename] [--nolinks] [-P pattern] [-I pattern] [--inodes]
       [--device] [--noreport] [--dirsfirst] [--version] [--help] [--filelimit
       #] [--si] [--prune] [--du] [--timefmt format] [--matchdirs] [--]
       [directory ...]

       Tree is a recursive directory listing program that produces a depth
       indented listing of files, which is colorized ala dircolors if the
       LS_COLORS environment variable is set and output is to tty.  With no
       arguments, tree lists the files in the current directory.  When
       directory arguments are given, tree lists all the files and/or
       directories found in the given directories each in turn.  Upon
       completion of listing all files/directories found, tree returns the
       total number of files and/or directories listed.

       By default, when a symbolic link is encountered, the path that the
       symbolic link refers to is printed after the name of the link in the

           name -> real-path

       If the `-l' option is given and the symbolic link refers to an actual
       directory, then tree will follow the path of the symbolic link as if it
       were a real directory.

       Tree understands the following command line switches:

       -a     All files are printed.  By default tree does not print hidden
              files (those beginning with a dot `.').  In no event does tree
              print the file system constructs `.' (current directory) and
              `..' (previous directory).

       -d     List directories only.

       -l     Follows symbolic links if they point to directories, as if they
              were directories. Symbolic links that will result in recursion
              are avoided when detected.

       -f     Prints the full path prefix for each file.

       -x     Stay on the current file-system only.  Ala find -xdev.

       -L level
              Max display depth of the directory tree.

       -R     Recursively cross down the tree each level directories (see -L
              option), and at each of them execute tree again adding `-o
              00Tree.html' as a new option.

       -P pattern
              List only those files that match the wild-card pattern.  Note:
              you must use the -a option to also consider those files
              beginning with a dot `.' for matching.  Valid wildcard operators
              are `*' (any zero or more characters), `?' (any single
              character), `[...]' (any single character listed between
              brackets (optional - (dash) for character range may be used: ex:
              [A-Z]), and `[^...]' (any single character not listed in
              brackets) and `|' separates alternate patterns.

       -I pattern
              Do not list those files that match the wild-card pattern.

        .TP --ignore-case If a match pattern is specified by the -P or -I
       option, this will cause the pattern to match without regards to the
       case of each letter.

              If a match pattern is specified by the -P option, this will
              cause the pattern to be applied to directory names (in addition
              to filenames).  In the event of a match on the directory name,
              matching is disabled for the directory's contents. If the
              --prune option is used, empty folders that match the pattern
              will not be pruned.

              Makes tree prune empty directories from the output, useful when
              used in conjunction with -P or -I.  See BUGS AND NOTES below for
              more information on this option.

              Omits printing of the file and directory report at the end of
              the tree listing.

       --charset charset
              Set the character set to use when outputting HTML and for line

       --filelimit #
              Do not descend directories that contain more than # entries.

       --timefmt format
              Prints (implies -D) and formats the date according to the format
              string which uses the strftime(3) syntax.

       -o filename
              Send output to filename.

       -q     Print non-printable characters in filenames as question marks
              instead of the default.

       -N     Print non-printable characters as is instead of as escaped octal

       -Q     Quote the names of files in double quotes.

       -p     Print the file type and permissions for each file (as per ls

       -u     Print the username, or UID # if no username is available, of the

       -g     Print the group name, or GID # if no group name is available, of
              the file.

       -s     Print the size of each file in bytes along with the name.

       -h     Print the size of each file but in a more human readable way,
              e.g. appending a size letter for kilobytes (K), megabytes (M),
              gigabytes (G), terabytes (T), petabytes (P) and exabytes (E).

       --si   Like -h but use SI units (powers of 1000) instead.

       --du   For each directory report its size as the accumulation of sizes
              of all its files and sub-directories (and their files, and so
              on).  The total amount of used space is also given in the final
              report (like the 'du -c' command.) This option requires tree to
              read the entire directory tree before emitting it, see BUGS AND
              NOTES below.  Implies -s.

       -D     Print the date of the last modification time or if -c is used,
              the last status change time for the file listed.

       -F     Append a `/' for directories, a `=' for socket files, a `*' for
              executable files, a `>' for doors (Solaris) and a `|' for
              FIFO's, as per ls -F

              Prints the inode number of the file or directory

              Prints the device number to which the file or directory belongs

       -v     Sort the output by version.

       -t     Sort the output by last modification time instead of

       -c     Sort the output by last status change instead of alphabetically.
              Modifies the -D option (if used) to print the last status change
              instead of modification time.

       -U     Do not sort.  Lists files in directory order. Disables

       -r     Sort the output in reverse order.  This is a meta-sort that
              alter the above sorts.  This option is disabled when -U is used.

              List directories before files. This is a meta-sort that alters
              the above sorts.  This option is disabled when -U is used.

              Sort the output by name (as per ls): name (default), ctime (-c),
              mtime (-t), size or version (-v).

       -i     Makes tree not print the indentation lines, useful when used in
              conjunction with the -f option.  Also removes as much whitespace
              as possible when used with the -J or -x options.

       -A     Turn on ANSI line graphics hack when printing the indentation

       -S     Turn on CP437 line graphics (useful when using Linux console
              mode fonts). This option is now equivalent to `--charset=IBM437'
              and may eventually be depreciated.

       -n     Turn colorization off always, over-ridden by the -C option.

       -C     Turn colorization on always, using built-in color defaults if
              the LS_COLORS environment variable is not set.  Useful to
              colorize output to a pipe.

       -X     Turn on XML output. Outputs the directory tree as an XML
              formatted file.

       -J     Turn on JSON output. Outputs the directory tree as an JSON
              formatted array.

       -H baseHREF
              Turn on HTML output, including HTTP references. Useful for ftp
              sites.  baseHREF gives the base ftp location when using HTML
              output. That is, the local directory may be `/local/ftp/pub',
              but it must be referenced as
              `ftp://hostname.organization.domain/pub' (baseHREF should be
              `ftp://hostname.organization.domain'). Hint: don't use ANSI
              lines with this option, and don't give more than one directory
              in the directory list. If you wish to use colors via CCS style-
              sheet, use the -C option in addition to this option to force
              color output.

       -T title
              Sets the title and H1 header string in HTML output mode.

              Turns off hyperlinks in HTML output.

       --help Outputs a verbose usage listing.

              Outputs the version of tree.

       --     Option processing terminator.  No further options will be
              processed after this.

       /etc/DIR_COLORS          System color database.
       ~/.dircolors        Users color database.

       LS_COLORS      Color information created by dircolors
       TREE_COLORS    Uses this for color information over LS_COLORS if it is
       TREE_CHARSET   Character set for tree to use in HTML mode.
       LC_CTYPE       Locale for filename output.
       LC_TIME        Locale for timefmt output, see strftime(3).
       TZ             Timezone for timefmt output, see strftime(3).

       Steve Baker (
       HTML output hacked by Francesc Rocher (
       Charsets and OS/2 support by Kyosuke Tokoro (

       Tree does not prune "empty" directories when the -P and -I options are
       used by default. Use the --prune option.

       The -h and --si options round to the nearest whole number unlike the ls
       implementations which rounds up always.

       Pruning files and directories with the -I, -P and --filelimit options
       will lead to incorrect file/directory count reports.

       The --prune and --du options cause tree to accumulate the entire tree
       in memory before emitting it. For large directory trees this can cause
       a significant delay in output and the use of large amounts of memory.

       The timefmt expansion buffer is limited to a ridiculously large 255
       characters.  Output of time strings longer than this will be undefined,
       but are guaranteed to not exceed 255 characters.

       XML/JSON trees are not colored, which is a bit of a shame.

       Probably more.

       dircolors(1), ls(1), find(1), du(1), strftime(3)

Tree 1.7.0                                                             TREE(1)


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