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curs_terminfo(3X)					     curs_terminfo(3X)

       del_curterm, mvcur, putp, restartterm, set_curterm, setterm, setupterm,
       tigetflag, tigetnum, tigetstr, tiparm, tparm, tputs, vid_attr,
       vid_puts, vidattr, vidputs - curses interfaces to terminfo database

       #include	<curses.h>
       #include	<term.h>

       int setupterm(char *term, int fildes, int *errret);
       int setterm(char	*term);
       TERMINAL	*set_curterm(TERMINAL *nterm);
       int del_curterm(TERMINAL	*oterm);
       int restartterm(char *term, int fildes, int *errret);
       char *tparm(char	*str, ...);
       int tputs(const char *str, int affcnt, int (*putc)(int));
       int putp(const char *str);
       int vidputs(chtype attrs, int (*putc)(int));
       int vidattr(chtype attrs);
       int vid_puts(attr_t attrs, short	pair, void *opts, int (*putc)(int));
       int vid_attr(attr_t attrs, short	pair, void *opts);
       int mvcur(int oldrow, int oldcol, int newrow, int newcol);
       int tigetflag(char *capname);
       int tigetnum(char *capname);
       char *tigetstr(char *capname);
       char *tiparm(const char *str, ...);

       These  low-level	 routines must be called by programs that have to deal
       directly	with the terminfo database to handle certain terminal capabil-
       ities, such as programming function keys.  For all other	functionality,
       curses routines are more	suitable and their use is recommended.

       Initially, setupterm should be called.  Note that setupterm is automat-
       ically  called  by initscr and newterm.	This defines the set of	termi-
       nal-dependent variables [listed in terminfo(5)].

       Each initialization routine provides applications with the terminal ca-
       pabilities  either  directly  (via  header  definitions), or by special
       functions.  The header files curses.h and term.h	should be included (in
       this  order)  to	 get  the  definitions for these strings, numbers, and

       The terminfo variables lines and	columns	are initialized	 by  setupterm
       as follows:

       o   If  use_env(FALSE)  has  been  called, values for lines and columns
	   specified in	terminfo are used.

       o   Otherwise, if the environment variables LINES  and  COLUMNS	exist,
	   their values	are used.  If these environment	variables do not exist
	   and the program is running in a window, the current window size  is
	   used.   Otherwise,  if  the environment variables do	not exist, the
	   values for lines and	columns	specified in the terminfo database are

       Parameterized  strings  should  be  passed through tparm	to instantiate
       them.  All terminfo strings [including the output of tparm]  should  be
       printed	with  tputs or putp.  Call reset_shell_mode to restore the tty
       modes before exiting [see curs_kernel(3X)].

       Programs	which use cursor addressing should

       o   output enter_ca_mode	upon startup and

       o   output exit_ca_mode before exiting.

       Programs	which execute shell subprocesses should

       o   call	reset_shell_mode and output exit_ca_mode before	the  shell  is
	   called and

       o   output  enter_ca_mode and call reset_prog_mode after	returning from
	   the shell.

       The setupterm routine reads in the terminfo database, initializing  the
       terminfo	 structures,  but  does	 not  set up the output	virtualization
       structures used by curses.  The terminal	type is	the  character	string
       term; if	term is	null, the environment variable TERM is used.  All out-
       put is to file descriptor fildes	which is initialized for  output.   If
       errret  is not null, then setupterm returns OK or ERR and stores	a sta-
       tus value in the	integer	pointed	to by errret.  A return	 value	of  OK
       combined	with status of 1 in errret is normal.  If ERR is returned, ex-
       amine errret:

       1    means that the terminal is hardcopy, cannot	be used	for curses ap-

	    setupterm  determines  if the entry	is a hardcopy type by checking
	    the	hc (hardcopy) capability.

       0    means that the terminal could not be found,	or that	it is a	gener-
	    ic	type, having too little	information for	curses applications to

	    setupterm determines if the	entry is a generic  type  by  checking
	    the	gn (generic) capability.

       -1   means that the terminfo database could not be found.

       If  errret  is  null, setupterm prints an error message upon finding an
       error and exits.	 Thus, the simplest call is:

	     setupterm((char *)0, 1, (int *)0);,

       which uses all the defaults and sends the output	to stdout.

       The setterm routine was replaced	by setupterm.  The call:

	     setupterm(term, 1,	(int *)0)

       provides	the same functionality as setterm(term).  The setterm  routine
       is  provided for	BSD compatibility, and is not recommended for new pro-

   The Terminal	State
       The setupterm routine stores its	information about the  terminal	 in  a
       TERMINAL	 structure  pointed to by the global variable cur_term.	 If it
       detects an error, or decides that the terminal is unsuitable  (hardcopy
       or  generic),  it discards this information, making it not available to

       If setupterm is called repeatedly for the same terminal type,  it  will
       reuse  the  information.	  It maintains only one	copy of	a given	termi-
       nal's capabilities in memory.  If it is called for  different  terminal
       types,  setupterm  allocates new	storage	for each set of	terminal capa-

       The set_curterm routine sets cur_term to	nterm, and makes  all  of  the
       terminfo	 boolean,  numeric,  and  string variables use the values from
       nterm.  It returns the old value	of cur_term.

       The del_curterm routine frees the space pointed to by oterm  and	 makes
       it available for	further	use.  If oterm is the same as cur_term,	refer-
       ences to	any of the terminfo boolean,  numeric,	and  string  variables
       thereafter  may	refer  to  invalid  memory locations until another se-
       tupterm has been	called.

       The restartterm routine is similar to  setupterm	 and  initscr,	except
       that it is called after restoring memory	to a previous state (for exam-
       ple, when reloading a game saved	as a core  image  dump).   restartterm
       assumes	that the windows and the input and output options are the same
       as when memory was saved, but the terminal type and baud	 rate  may  be
       different.   Accordingly,  restartterm  saves  various  tty state bits,
       calls setupterm,	and then restores the bits.

   Formatting Output
       The tparm routine instantiates the string str with  parameters  pi.   A
       pointer is returned to the result of str	with the parameters applied.

       tiparm  is  a  newer  form of tparm which uses _stdarg.h_ rather	than a
       fixed-parameter list.  Its numeric parameters are integers (int)	rather
       than longs.

   Output Functions
       The  tputs  routine  applies  padding information to the	string str and
       outputs it.  The	str must be a terminfo string variable or  the	return
       value from tparm, tgetstr, or tgoto.  affcnt is the number of lines af-
       fected, or 1 if not applicable.	putc  is  a  putchar-like  routine  to
       which the characters are	passed,	one at a time.

       The putp	routine	calls tputs(str, 1, putchar).  Note that the output of
       putp always goes	to stdout, not to the fildes specified in setupterm.

       The vidputs routine displays the	string on the terminal	in  the	 video
       attribute mode attrs, which is any combination of the attributes	listed
       in curses(3X).  The characters are passed to the	 putchar-like  routine

       The vidattr routine is like the vidputs routine,	except that it outputs
       through putchar.

       The vid_attr and	vid_puts routines correspond to	vidattr	 and  vidputs,
       respectively.   They  use a set of arguments for	representing the video
       attributes plus color, i.e., one	of type	attr_t for the attributes  and
       one of short for	the color_pair number.	The vid_attr and vid_puts rou-
       tines are designed to use the attribute constants with the WA_  prefix.
       The  opts argument is reserved for future use.  Currently, applications
       must provide a null pointer for that argument.

       The mvcur routine provides low-level cursor motion.   It	 takes	effect
       immediately (rather than	at the next refresh).

   Terminal Capability Functions
       The  tigetflag,	tigetnum and tigetstr routines return the value	of the
       capability corresponding	to the terminfo	capname	passed to  them,  such
       as  xenl.  The capname for each capability is given in the table	column
       entitled	capname	code in	the capabilities section of terminfo(5).

       These routines return special values to denote errors.

       The tigetflag routine returns

       -1     if capname is not	a boolean capability, or

       0      if it is canceled	or absent from the terminal description.

       The tigetnum routine returns

       -2     if capname is not	a numeric capability, or

       -1     if it is canceled	or absent from the terminal description.

       The tigetstr routine returns

       (char *)-1
	      if capname is not	a string capability, or

       0      if it is canceled	or absent from the terminal description.

   Terminal Capability Names
       These  null-terminated  arrays  contain	the   short   terminfo	 names
       ("codes"),  the	termcap	 names,	and the	long terminfo names ("fnames")
       for each	of the predefined terminfo variables:
	      char *boolnames[], *boolcodes[], *boolfnames[]

	      char *numnames[],	*numcodes[], *numfnames[]

	      char *strnames[],	*strcodes[], *strfnames[]

       Routines	that return an integer return ERR upon failure	and  OK	 (SVr4
       only  specifies "an integer value other than ERR") upon successful com-
       pletion,	unless otherwise noted in the preceding	routine	descriptions.

       Routines	that return pointers always return NULL	on error.

       X/Open defines no error conditions.  In this implementation

		 returns an error if its terminal parameter is null.

	    putp calls tputs, returning	the same error-codes.

		 returns an error if the associated call to setupterm  returns
		 an error.

		 returns an error if it	cannot allocate	enough memory, or cre-
		 ate the initial windows (stdscr, curscr, newscr).  Other  er-
		 ror conditions	are documented above.

		 returns  an  error  if	the string parameter is	null.  It does
		 not detect I/O	errors:	X/Open states that tputs  ignores  the
		 return	value of the output function putc.

       X/Open notes that vidattr and vidputs may be macros.

       The  function setterm is	not described by X/Open	and must be considered
       non-portable.  All other	functions are as described by X/Open.

       setupterm copies	the terminal name to the array ttytype.	 This  is  not
       part of X/Open Curses, but is assumed by	some applications.

       If configured to	use the	terminal-driver, e.g., for the MinGW port,

       o   setupterm  interprets  a missing/empty TERM variable	as the special
	   value "unknown".

       o   setupterm allows explicit use of the	the windows console driver  by
	   checking  if	$TERM is set to	"#win32con" or an abbreviation of that

       Older versions of ncurses assumed that the file	descriptor  passed  to
       setupterm from initscr or newterm uses buffered I/O, and	would write to
       the corresponding stream.  In addition to the limitation	that the  ter-
       minal was left in block-buffered	mode on	exit (like SystemV curses), it
       was problematic because ncurses did not allow a reliable	way to cleanup
       on  receiving SIGTSTP.  The current version uses	output buffers managed
       directly	by ncurses.  Some of the low-level functions described in this
       manual  page  write  to the standard output.  They are not signal-safe.
       The high-level functions	in ncurses use	alternate  versions  of	 these
       functions using the more	reliable buffering scheme.

       In  System  V Release 4,	set_curterm has	an int return type and returns
       OK or ERR.  We have chosen to implement the X/Open Curses semantics.

       In System V Release 4, the third	argument of tputs  has	the  type  int

       At  least one implementation of X/Open Curses (Solaris) returns a value
       other than OK/ERR from tputs.  That returns the length of  the  string,
       and does	no error-checking.

       X/Open  Curses  prototypes  tparm  with	a  fixed number	of parameters,
       rather than a variable argument list.  This implementation uses a vari-
       able  argument  list,  but can be configured to use the fixed-parameter
       list.  Portable applications should provide 9 parameters	after the for-
       mat; zeroes are fine for	this purpose.

       In response to comments by Thomas E. Dickey, X/Open Curses Issue	7 pro-
       posed the tiparm	function in mid-2009.

       X/Open notes that after calling mvcur, the curses state may  not	 match
       the actual terminal state, and that an application should touch and re-
       fresh the window	before resuming	normal curses calls.  Both ncurses and
       System  V  Release 4 curses implement mvcur using the SCREEN data allo-
       cated in	either initscr or newterm.  So though it is  documented	 as  a
       terminfo	 function, mvcur is really a curses function which is not well

       X/Open states that the old location must	be given for mvcur.  This  im-
       plementation  allows  the caller	to use -1's for	the old	ordinates.  In
       that case, the old location is unknown.

       Other implementions may not declare the capability name	arrays.	  Some
       provide them without declaring them.  X/Open does not specify them.

       Extended	terminal capability names, e.g., as defined by tic -x, are not
       stored in the arrays described here.

       curses(3X),   curs_initscr(3X),	 curs_kernel(3X),    curs_termcap(3X),
       curs_variables(3X), term_variables(3X), putc(3),	terminfo(5)



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