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tosha(1)		    General Commands Manual		      tosha(1)

       tosha - read CD digital audio and video data via	SCSI

       tosha [ -i | -q | -v | -h | -V |	-r ] [ -d dev ]	[ -f fmt ] [ -t	track-
       list ] [	-s sector ] [ -e sector	] [ -o outfile ] [ -k rate ] [ -b sec-
       tors ]

       tosha  reads  one or more CD-DA (digital	audio) tracks or absolute sec-
       tors and	writes them into a single or multiple files, or	to  the	 stan-
       dard  output.   VideoCD tracks (digital video) are supported, too.  The
       digital audio / video data is read through the  SCSI  bus;  thus	 tosha
       does  not work with IDE/ATAPI CD-ROM drives nor with proprietary	inter-

       tosha options may be either the traditional POSIX one  letter  options,
       or the GNU style	long options.  POSIX style options start with a	single
       ``-'', while GNU	long options start with	``--''.

       -i, --index
	      Display the track	index (table of	contents) of the CD and	 exit.
	      No  audio	data is	read.  If you use -iq, the index is printed in
	      a	more compact format which is suitable  for  parsing  by	 shell
	      scripts etc.  Note that the index	is written to stderr.

       -q, --quiet
	      Quiet  operation,	 i.e. no informational output except for error

       -v, --verbose
	      Verbose operation.  Display additional information while reading
	      audio  data  (how	 many percent done, and	how long the remaining
	      data will	approximately take to read).  Specify -vv to  make  it
	      even more	verbose.

       -h, --help
	      Print a short help text and exit.

       -V, --version
	      Print version information	and exit.

       -r, --reset
	      Reset the	CD-ROM drive (set default sector size and density) and
	      exit.  This is sometimes useful if you interrupt tosha by	press-
	      ing  Ctrl-C or by	killing	it, which might	leave the CD-ROM drive
	      in a state of being unable to mount regular  data	 CD-ROMs.   In
	      such a case, just	running	``tosha	-r'' should help.

       -d dev, --device	dev
	      Specify the CD-ROM device	to use.	 The default is	/dev/cd0c.  If
	      you have two drives and you want to read from  the  second  one,
	      use  /dev/cd1c.	If  you	 want  to  read	 from a	CD writer, use

       -f fmt, --format	fmt
	      Specify the output audio format.	The default is pcm.  Currently
	      supported	 formats:   ``pcm''  or	``raw''	(headerless little-en-
	      dian), ``mcp'' or	``war''	(headerless big-endian), ``aiff'' (IFF
	      audio format, used on the	Amiga and by certain semi-professional
	      software), ``wav'' (RIFF/WAV format commonly used	 by  Microsoft
	      products), ``au''	(AU format used	by Sun workstations).  The au-
	      dio data is always stored	in 16bit stereo	44.1kHz.  If you  need
	      a	different format, you can use sox(1) to	convert	it.

	      The -f option is ignored when reading VideoCD tracks.

       -t tracklist, --track tracklist
	      Specify which track(s) to	read.  This can	be a single track num-
	      ber, a range (from-to), multiple track numbers separated by com-
	      mas,  or a combination thereof.  Tracks which don't exist	on the
	      CD are ignored.  The default is to read all tracks  in  sequence

       -s sector, --start sector
	      Specify  the  start  sector.  You	must also use the -e option to
	      specify the end sector.  The -t option is	 ignored  when	sector
	      addresses	are used.  Only	one output file	is created.

       -e sector, --end	sector
	      Specify the end sector (inclusive).  See the -s option above.

       -o outfile, --output outfile
	      Specify  the  output file	name, which is used to store the audio
	      data.  If	the name is a single dash ``-'', audio data is written
	      to  the standard output.	If the name contains the character se-
	      quence ``%s'', it	is substituted by an extension appropriate for
	      the  file	file format (for example, if the output	is in WAV for-
	      mat, ``%s'' will be replaced by ``wav'').

	      If the name contains a percent sign ``%''	(not  followed	by  an
	      ``s''),  it is interpreted as a formatting sequence for an inte-
	      ger value	(according to sprintf(3)) which	will be	substituted by
	      the current track	number,	so that	every track will be written to
	      its own file.  Example:

		      -o track%d.raw -t	1-3

	      creates the files	track1.raw, track2.raw,	and track3.raw.

	      If the name does not contain a  percent  sign,  all  tracks  are
	      written into the same output file, one after another.

       -k rate,	--kbps rate
	      Specify  the desired mp3 bitrate (in kbits/s) for	MPEG audio en-
	      coding (the default is 128 kbits/s).  This is not	essential  for
	      tosha  to	operate	correctly, but it helps	in estimating the file
	      size if you're going to MPEG encode the audio data.   If	you're
	      not  planning  to	 MPEG  encode  it, this	number is meaningless.
	      It's also	meaningless for	VideoCD	tracks.

       -b sectors, --buffer sectors
	      WARNING: This is a ``wizard option'' -- do not use it unless you
	      know  exactly what you're	doing.	This option specifies the size
	      of the read buffer (in CD	DA sectors), and thus it specifies the
	      number  of sectors that can be read at once (with	a single drive
	      access).	The default is 10, which should	work  reasonably  well
	      with  most  drives.  The maximum is 26 (my drive doesn't support
	      more, probably because no	more than 26 sectors  with  subchannel
	      data fit into 64 Kb of memory).

       pcmplay(1), pcmfade(1), sox(1), intro(1), sprintf(3)

       In  order  to  be able to access	the CD-ROM drive with tosha, make sure
       that you	have sufficient	permission to access  the  appropriate	device
       entries	in  the	 /dev directory	(you need read and write access	to the
       device).	 For the ``classic'' SCSI system, this is  usually  /dev/cd0c.
       For  the	new CAM	SCSI system (FreeBSD 3.0), you need access to the pass
       and xpt devices (please refer to	the manual pages pass(4) and xpt(4)).

       The easiest way,	of course, is to run tosha as root, thus not having to
       worry about permissions.	 However, this is not recommended.

       A  much	cleaner	 approach would	be to create a group for the users who
       are allowed to access the CD-ROM	drive (or use an existing  group  such
       as  ``operator'').   Add	 those	users  to  that	 group	by editing the
       /etc/group file (note that modifications	to that	file will take	effect
       the  next time you log in), see the manual page group(5).  Use chgrp(1)
       to give the appropriate devices to that group,  then  use  chmod(1)  to
       give read/write permission to that group.  For example:

	      chgrp operator /dev/cd0c
	      chmod g+rw /dev/cd0c

       The  first  track  on VideoCDs usually contains a small ISO filesystem,
       containing information for CD-i players etc.  The actual	 video	tracks
       (one or more) start at track 2.

       tosha  detects  if the track is an audio	track or a VideoCD data	track,
       and it automatically uses the appropriate access	method for the	drive.
       However,	 do not	try to read normal CD-ROM data tracks with tosha.  Do-
       ing so might result in SCSI errors.

       The VideoCD data	(as read by tosha) is basically	an MPEG	system	stream
       with additional information (sync, timecode etc.).  In order to play it
       on the screen, you'll need an MPEG player that is aware of this	format
       (a  plain MPEG player won't work).  For example,	you can	use ``mpegtv''

       Not all SCSI drives work	with tosha, and	only some  are	really	tested
       and  proven  to	work.  See the WWW page	(section AUTHOR) for a list of
       drives which are	know to	work (or not to	work).

       The name	``tosha'' has historical reasons: The very first version  only
       worked with the author's	Toshiba	drive.

       There  is  currently  no	 ``jitter  correction''	performed.  Frankly, I
       think that it shouldn't be necessary with most modern CD-ROM drives, so
       I  didn't bother	to implement it.  Besides, I don't have	drives to test
       it with -- all of my drives work	perfectly well without jitter  correc-


       Copyright (C) 1997-1999 Oliver Fromme <>
       All  rights  reserved.	For more information, please refer to the file
       LICENCE which is	included with the source distribution.

       Internet	references:

				  01 Jan 1999			      tosha(1)


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