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TOP(1)			      User Commands			   TOP(1)

NAME
       top - display Linux processes

SYNOPSIS
       top -hv|-bcHiOSs	-d secs	-n max -u|U user -p pid	-o fld -w [cols]

       The traditional switches	'-' and	whitespace are optional.

DESCRIPTION
       The  top	 program  provides  a dynamic real-time	view of	a running
       system.	It can display system summary information as  well  as	a
       list  of	processes or threads currently being managed by	the Linux
       kernel.	The types of system summary  information  shown	 and  the
       types,  order  and size of information displayed	for processes are
       all user	configurable and that configuration can	be  made  persis-
       tent across restarts.

       The  program  provides a	limited	interactive interface for process
       manipulation as well as a much more extensive interface	for  per-
       sonal  configuration   --  encompassing every aspect of its opera-
       tion.  And while	top is referred	to throughout this document,  you
       are  free  to  name the program anything	you wish.  That	new name,
       possibly	an alias, will then be reflected  on  top's  display  and
       used when reading and writing a configuration file.

OVERVIEW
   Documentation
       The remaining Table of Contents

	   1. COMMAND-LINE Options
	   2. SUMMARY Display
	      a. UPTIME	and LOAD Averages
	      b. TASK and CPU States
	      c. MEMORY	Usage
	   3. FIELDS / Columns Display
	      a. DESCRIPTIONS of Fields
	      b. MANAGING Fields
	   4. INTERACTIVE Commands
	      a. GLOBAL	Commands
	      b. SUMMARY AREA Commands
	      c. TASK AREA Commands
		 1. Appearance
		 2. Content
		 3. Size
		 4. Sorting
	      d. COLOR Mapping
	   5. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY	Provisions
	      a. WINDOWS Overview
	      b. COMMANDS for Windows
	      c. SCROLLING a Window
	      d. SEARCHING in a	Window
	      e. FILTERING in a	Window
	   6. FILES
	      a. SYSTEM	Configuration File
	      b. PERSONAL Configuration	File
	      c. ADDING	INSPECT	Entries
	   7. STUPID TRICKS Sampler
	      a. Kernel	Magic
	      b. Bouncing Windows
	      c. The Big Bird Window
	      d. The Ol' Switcheroo
	   8. BUGS, 9. HISTORY Former top, 10. AUTHOR, 11. SEE Also

   Operation
       When  operating top, the	two most important keys	are the	help ('h'
       or '?')	key and	quit ('q') key.	 Alternatively,	you could  simply
       use the traditional interrupt key ('^C')	when you're done.

       When  started  for  the first time, you'll be presented with these
       traditional elements on the main	top screen: 1) Summary	Area;  2)
       Fields/Columns  Header;	3)  Task Area.	Each of	these will be ex-
       plored in the sections that follow.  There is also  an  Input/Mes-
       sage  line between the Summary Area and Columns Header which needs
       no further explanation.

       The main	top screen is generally	quite adaptive to changes in ter-
       minal  dimensions  under	X-Windows.  Other top screens may be less
       so, especially those with static	 text.	 It  ultimately	 depends,
       however,	 on your particular window manager and terminal	emulator.
       There may be occasions when their view of terminal size	and  cur-
       rent  contents  differs	from top's view, which is always based on
       operating system	calls.

       Following any re-size operation,	if a top screen	is corrupted, ap-
       pears  incomplete or disordered,	simply typing something	innocuous
       like a punctuation character or cursor motion key will usually re-
       store  it.   In	extreme	cases, the following sequence almost cer-
       tainly will:
	      key/cmd  objective
	      ^Z       suspend top
	      fg       resume top
	      <Left>   force a screen redraw (if necessary)

       But if the display is still corrupted, there is one more	step  you
       could  try.   Insert this command after top has been suspended but
       before resuming it.
	      key/cmd  objective
	      reset    restore your terminal settings

       Note: the width of top's	display	will be	limited	to 512 positions.
       Displaying  all fields requires approximately 250 characters.  Re-
       maining screen width is usually allocated to  any  variable  width
       columns	currently  visible.   The variable width columns, such as
       COMMAND,	are noted in topic 3a. DESCRIPTIONS  of	 Fields.   Actual
       output  width  may  also	 be influenced by the -w switch, which is
       discussed in topic 1. COMMAND-LINE Options.

       Lastly, some of top's screens or	functions require the use of cur-
       sor  motion  keys like the standard arrow keys plus the Home, End,
       PgUp and	PgDn keys.  If your terminal or	emulator does not provide
       those  keys,  the  following combinations are accepted as alterna-
       tives:
	      key      equivalent-key-combinations
	      Up       alt + \	    or	alt + k
	      Down     alt + /	    or	alt + j
	      Left     alt + <	    or	alt + h
	      Right    alt + >	    or	alt + l	(lower case L)
	      PgUp     alt + Up	    or	alt + ctrl + k
	      PgDn     alt + Down   or	alt + ctrl + j
	      Home     alt + Left   or	alt + ctrl + h
	      End      alt + Right  or	alt + ctrl + l

       The Up and Down arrow keys have special significance when prompted
       for  line  input	 terminated with the <Enter> key.  Those keys, or
       their aliases, can be used to retrieve previous input lines  which
       can  then  be  edited and re-input.  And	there are four additional
       keys available with line	oriented input.
	      key      special-significance
	      Up       recall older strings for	re-editing
	      Down     recall newer strings or erase entire line
	      Insert   toggle between insert and overtype modes
	      Delete   character removed at cursor, moving others left
	      Home     jump to beginning of input line
	      End      jump to end of input line

   Startup Defaults
       The following startup defaults assume no	configuration file,  thus
       no  user	 customizations.   Even	 so, items shown with an asterisk
       ('*') could be overridden through the command-line.  All	 are  ex-
       plained in detail in the	sections that follow.

	   Global-defaults
	      'A' - Alt	display	     Off (full-screen)
	    * 'd' - Delay time	     3.0 seconds
	    * 'H' - Threads mode     Off (summarize as tasks)
	      'I' - Irix mode	     On	 (no, 'solaris'	smp)
	    * 'p' - PID	monitoring   Off (show all processes)
	    * 's' - Secure mode	     Off (unsecured)
	      'B' - Bold enable	     On	 (yes, bold globally)
	   Summary-Area-defaults
	      'l' - Load Avg/Uptime  On	 (thus program name)
	      't' - Task/Cpu states  On	 (1+1 lines, see '1')
	      'm' - Mem/Swap usage   On	 (2 lines worth)
	      '1' - Single Cpu	     On	 (thus 1 line if smp)
	   Task-Area-defaults
	      'b' - Bold hilite	     On	 (not 'reverse')
	    * 'c' - Command line     Off (name,	not cmdline)
	    * 'i' - Idle tasks	     On	 (show all tasks)
	      'J' - Num	align right  On	 (not left justify)
	      'j' - Str	align right  Off (not right justify)
	      'R' - Reverse sort     On	 (pids high-to-low)
	    * 'S' - Cumulative time  Off (no, dead children)
	    * 'u' - User filter	     Off (show euid only)
	    * 'U' - User filter	     Off (show any uid)
	      'x' - Column hilite    Off (no, sort field)
	      'y' - Row	hilite	     On	 (yes, running tasks)
	      'z' - color/mono	     Off (no, colors)

1. COMMAND-LINE	Options
       The command-line	syntax for top consists	of:

	 -hv|-bcHiOSs -d secs -n max -u|U user -p pid -o fld -w	[cols]

       The  typically  mandatory  switches  ('-') and even whitespace are
       completely optional.

       -h | -v	:Help/Version
	    Show library version and the usage prompt, then quit.

       -b  :Batch-mode operation
	    Starts top in 'Batch' mode,	which could be useful for sending
	    output  from  top  to  other  programs or to a file.  In this
	    mode, top will not accept input and	runs until the iterations
	    limit  you've  set with the	'-n' command-line option or until
	    killed.

       -c  :Command-line/Program-name toggle
	    Starts top with  the  last	remembered  'c'	 state	reversed.
	    Thus,  if  top  was	 displaying command lines, now that field
	    will show program names, and visa versa.  See the 'c'  inter-
	    active command for additional information.

       -d  :Delay-time interval	as:  -d	ss.t (secs.tenths)
	    Specifies the delay	between	screen updates,	and overrides the
	    corresponding value	in one's personal configuration	 file  or
	    the	 startup default.  Later this can be changed with the 'd'
	    or 's' interactive commands.

	    Fractional seconds are honored, but	a negative number is  not
	    allowed.   In all cases, however, such changes are prohibited
	    if top is running in 'Secure mode',	except for  root  (unless
	    the	's' command-line option	was used).  For	additional infor-
	    mation on 'Secure mode' see	topic  6a.  SYSTEM  Configuration
	    File.

       -H  :Threads-mode operation
	    Instructs  top  to	display	individual threads.  Without this
	    command-line option	 a  summation  of  all	threads	 in  each
	    process is shown.  Later this can be changed with the 'H' in-
	    teractive command.

       -i  :Idle-process toggle
	    Starts top with the	last remembered	'i' state reversed.  When
	    this  toggle  is  Off, tasks that have not used any	CPU since
	    the	last update will not be	displayed.  For	additional infor-
	    mation  regarding  this  toggle  see topic 4c. TASK	AREA Com-
	    mands, SIZE.

       -n  :Number-of-iterations limit as:  -n number
	    Specifies the maximum number of iterations,	 or  frames,  top
	    should produce before ending.

       -o  :Override-sort-field	as:  -o	fieldname
	    Specifies  the  name  of  the  field  on  which tasks will be
	    sorted, independent	of what	is reflected in	the configuration
	    file.  You can prepend a '+' or '-'	to the field name to also
	    override the sort direction.  A leading '+'	will force  sort-
	    ing	 high to low, whereas a	'-' will ensure	a low to high or-
	    dering.

	    This option	exists primarily  to  support  automated/scripted
	    batch mode operation.

       -O  :Output-field-names
	    This  option  acts as a form of help for the above -o option.
	    It will cause top to print each of the available field  names
	    on a separate line,	then quit.  Such names are subject to nls
	    translation.

       -p  :Monitor-PIDs mode as:  -pN1	-pN2 ...  or  -pN1,N2,N3 ...
	    Monitor only processes with	specified process IDs.	This  op-
	    tion  can be given up to 20	times, or you can provide a comma
	    delimited list with	up to  20  pids.   Co-mingling	both  ap-
	    proaches is	permitted.

	    A  pid value of zero will be treated as the	process	id of the
	    top	program	itself once it is running.

	    This is a command-line option only and should you wish to re-
	    turn  to  normal  operation,  it is	not necessary to quit and
	    restart top	 --  just issue	any  of	 these	interactive  com-
	    mands: '=',	'u' or 'U'.

	    The	'p', 'u' and 'U' command-line options are mutually exclu-
	    sive.

       -s  :Secure-mode	operation
	    Starts top with secure mode	forced,	even for root.	This mode
	    is	far  better  controlled	 through the system configuration
	    file (see topic 6. FILES).

       -S  :Cumulative-time toggle
	    Starts top with the	last remembered	'S' state reversed.  When
	    'Cumulative	time' mode is On, each process is listed with the
	    cpu	time that it and its dead children have	 used.	 See  the
	    'S'	 interactive command for additional information	regarding
	    this mode.

       -u | -U	:User-filter-mode as:  -u | -U number or name
	    Display only processes with	a user id or user  name	 matching
	    that  given.   The	'-u'  option  matches  on  effective user
	    whereas the	'-U' option matches on any user	(real, effective,
	    saved, or filesystem).

	    Prepending	an exclamation point ('!') to the user id or name
	    instructs top to display only processes with users not match-
	    ing	the one	provided.

	    The	'p', 'u' and 'U' command-line options are mutually exclu-
	    sive.

       -w  :Output-width-override as:  -w [ number ]
	    In 'Batch' mode, when used without an argument top will  for-
	    mat	 output	 using	the COLUMNS= and LINES=	environment vari-
	    ables, if set.  Otherwise, width will be fixed at the maximum
	    512	columns.  With an argument, output width can be	decreased
	    or increased (up to	512) but the number of rows is considered
	    unlimited.

	    In	normal	display	 mode,	when used without an argument top
	    will attempt to format output using	the COLUMNS=  and  LINES=
	    environment	 variables,  if	 set.	With  an argument, output
	    width can only be decreased, not  increased.   Whether  using
	    environment	 variables  or	an  argument with -w, when not in
	    'Batch' mode actual	terminal  dimensions  can  never  be  ex-
	    ceeded.

	    Note:  Without  the	 use  of this command-line option, output
	    width is always based on the terminal at which  top	 was  in-
	    voked whether or not in 'Batch' mode.

2. SUMMARY Display
       Each  of	 the  following	 three	areas are individually controlled
       through one or more interactive commands.  See topic  4b.  SUMMARY
       AREA  Commands  for  additional information regarding these provi-
       sions.

   2a. UPTIME and LOAD Averages
       This portion consists of	a single line containing:
	   program or window name, depending on	display	mode
	   current time	and length of time since last boot
	   total number	of users
	   system load avg over	the last 1, 5 and 15 minutes

   2b. TASK and	CPU States
       This portion consists of	a minimum of two lines.	 In an SMP  envi-
       ronment,	 additional  lines  can	reflect	individual CPU state per-
       centages.

       Line 1 shows total tasks	or threads, depending on the state of the
       Threads-mode toggle.  That total	is further classified as:
	   running; sleeping; stopped; zombie

       Line 2 shows CPU	state percentages based	on the interval	since the
       last refresh.  Where two	labels are shown below,	 those	for  more
       recent kernel versions are shown	first.
	   us, user    : time running un-niced user processes
	   sy, system  : time running kernel processes
	   ni, nice    : time running niced user processes
	   wa, IO-wait : time waiting for I/O completion
	   hi :	time spent servicing hardware interrupts
	   si :	time spent servicing software interrupts
	   st :	time stolen from this vm by the	hypervisor

   2c. MEMORY Usage
       This  portion  consists	of  two	lines which may	express	values in
       kibibytes (KiB) through exbibytes (EiB) depending on  the  scaling
       factor enforced with the	'E' interactive	command.

       Line 1 reflects physical	memory,	classified as:
	   total, used,	free and buffers

       Line 2 reflects mostly virtual memory, classified as:
	   total, used,	free and cached	(which is physical memory)

       This table may help in interpreting the scaled values displayed:
	   KiB = kibibyte = 1024 bytes
	   MiB = mebibyte = 1024 KiB = 1,048,576 bytes
	   GiB = gibibyte = 1024 MiB = 1,073,741,824 bytes
	   TiB = tebibyte = 1024 GiB = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes
	   PiB = pebibyte = 1024 TiB = 1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes
	   EiB = exbibyte = 1024 PiB = 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes

3. FIELDS / Columns
   3a. DESCRIPTIONS of Fields
       Listed  below  are top's	available process fields (columns).  They
       are shown in strict ascii alphabetical order.  You  may	customize
       their  position	and  whether or	not they are displayable with the
       'f' or 'F' (Fields Management) interactive commands.

       Any field is selectable as the sort field, and you control whether
       they are	sorted high-to-low or low-to-high.  For	additional infor-
       mation on sort provisions see topic 4c. TASK AREA Commands,  SORT-
       ING.

       The  fields related to physical memory or virtual memory	reference
       '(KiB)' as the default, unsuffixed display mode.	 Such fields can,
       however,	be scaled differently via the 'e' interactive command.

	1. %CPU	 --  CPU Usage
	   The task's share of the elapsed CPU time since the last screen
	   update, expressed as	a percentage of	total CPU time.

	   In a	true SMP environment, if a process is multi-threaded  and
	   top	is  not	 operating  in Threads mode, amounts greater than
	   100%	may be reported.  You toggle Threads mode  with	 the  'H'
	   interactive command.

	   Also	 for multi-processor environments, if 'Irix mode' is Off,
	   top will operate in 'Solaris	mode' where a  task's  cpu  usage
	   will	 be  divided  by  the  total  number of	CPUs.  You toggle
	   'Irix/Solaris' modes	with the 'I' interactive command.

	2. %MEM	 --  Memory Usage (RES)
	   A task's currently used share of available physical memory.

	3. CGROUPS  --	Control	Groups
	   The names of	the control group(s) to	which a	process	 belongs,
	   or '-' if not applicable for	that process.

	   Control  Groups provide for allocating resources (cpu, memory,
	   network bandwidth, etc.) among installation-defined groups  of
	   processes.	They enable fine-grained control over allocating,
	   denying,  prioritizing,  managing  and  monitoring  those  re-
	   sources.

	   Many	different hierarchies of cgroups can exist simultaneously
	   on a	system and each	hierarchy is attached to one or	more sub-
	   systems.  A subsystem represents a single resource.

	   Note:  The 'CGROUPS'	field, unlike most columns, is not fixed-
	   width.  When	displayed, it plus any other variable width  col-
	   umns	 will  be allocated all	remaining screen width (up to the
	   maximum 512 characters).  Even so, such variable width  fields
	   could still suffer truncation.  See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Win-
	   dow for additional  information  on	accessing  any	truncated
	   data.

	4. CODE	 --  Code Size (KiB)
	   The amount of physical memory devoted to executable code, also
	   known as the	'text resident set' size or TRS.

	5. COMMAND  --	Command	Name or	Command	Line
	   Display the command line used to start a task or the	 name  of
	   the	associated  program.  You toggle between command line and
	   name	with 'c', which	is both	a command-line option and an  in-
	   teractive command.

	   When	you've chosen to display command lines,	processes without
	   a command line (like	kernel threads)	will be	shown  with  only
	   the program name in brackets, as in this example:
	       [kthreadd]

	   This	 field	may also be impacted by	the 'forest view' display
	   mode.  See the 'V' interactive command for additional informa-
	   tion	regarding that mode.

	   Note:  The 'COMMAND'	field, unlike most columns, is not fixed-
	   width.  When	displayed, it plus any other variable width  col-
	   umns	 will  be allocated all	remaining screen width (up to the
	   maximum 512 characters).  Even so, such variable width  fields
	   could  still	 suffer	 truncation.  This is especially true for
	   this	field when command lines are being displayed (the 'c' in-
	   teractive  command.)	 See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window for ad-
	   ditional information	on accessing any truncated data.

	6. DATA	 --  Data + Stack Size (KiB)
	   The amount of physical memory devoted to other than executable
	   code, also known as the 'data resident set' size or DRS.

	7. ENVIRON  --	Environment variables
	   Display  all	 of the	environment variables, if any, as seen by
	   the respective processes.  These variables will  be	displayed
	   in their raw	native order, not the sorted order you are accus-
	   tomed to seeing with	an unqualified 'set'.

	   Note: The 'ENVIRON' field, unlike most columns, is not  fixed-
	   width.   When displayed, it plus any	other variable width col-
	   umns	will be	allocated all remaining	screen width (up  to  the
	   maximum  512	characters).  Even so, such variable width fields
	   could still suffer truncation.  This	is  especially	true  for
	   this	 field.	  See topic 5c.	SCROLLING a Window for additional
	   information on accessing any	truncated data.

	8. Flags  --  Task Flags
	   This	column represents the  task's  current	scheduling  flags
	   which  are  expressed  in  hexadecimal notation and with zeros
	   suppressed.	 These	flags  are   officially	  documented   in
	   <linux/sched.h>.

	9. GID	--  Group Id
	   The effective group ID.

       10. GROUP  --  Group Name
	   The effective group name.

       11. NI  --  Nice	Value
	   The	nice  value  of	 the  task.   A	negative nice value means
	   higher priority, whereas a positive	nice  value  means  lower
	   priority.   Zero  in	this field simply means	priority will not
	   be adjusted in determining a	task's dispatch-ability.

       12. P  --  Last used CPU	(SMP)
	   A number representing the last used processor.  In a	true  SMP
	   environment	this will likely change	frequently since the ker-
	   nel intentionally uses weak affinity.  Also,	the very  act  of
	   running  top	 may break this	weak affinity and cause	more pro-
	   cesses to change CPUs more often (because of	the extra  demand
	   for cpu time).

       13. PGRP	 --  Process Group Id
	   Every  process  is  member  of a unique process group which is
	   used	for distribution of signals and	by terminals to	arbitrate
	   requests  for  their	input and output.  When	a process is cre-
	   ated	(forked), it becomes a member of the process group of its
	   parent.   By	convention, this value equals the process ID (see
	   PID)	of the first  member  of  a  process  group,  called  the
	   process group leader.

       14. PID	--  Process Id
	   The task's unique process ID, which periodically wraps, though
	   never restarting at zero.  In kernel	terms, it is a	dispatch-
	   able	entity defined by a 'task_struct'.

	   This	value may also be used as: a process group ID (see PGRP);
	   a session ID	for the	session	leader (see SID); a thread  group
	   ID  for  the	thread group leader (see TGID);	and a TTY process
	   group ID for	the process group leader (see TPGID).

       15. PPID	 --  Parent Process Id
	   The process ID (pid)	of a task's parent.

       16. PR  --  Priority
	   The scheduling priority of the task.	 If you	see 'rt' in  this
	   field, it means the task is running under 'real time' schedul-
	   ing priority.

	   Under linux,	real time priority is somewhat	misleading  since
	   traditionally  the  operating itself	was not	preemptible.  And
	   while the 2.6 kernel	can be made mostly preemptible,	it is not
	   always so.

       17. RES	--  Resident Memory Size (KiB)
	   The non-swapped physical memory a task has used.

       18. RUID	 --  Real User Id
	   The real user ID.

       19. RUSER  --  Real User	Name
	   The real user name.

       20. S  --  Process Status
	   The status of the task which	can be one of:
	       D = uninterruptible sleep
	       R = running
	       S = sleeping
	       T = traced or stopped
	       Z = zombie

	   Tasks  shown	 as running should be more properly thought of as
	   'ready to run'  --  their task_struct is simply represented on
	   the Linux run-queue.	 Even without a	true SMP machine, you may
	   see numerous	tasks in this state depending on top's delay  in-
	   terval and nice value.

       21. SHR	--  Shared Memory Size (KiB)
	   The	amount	of  shared memory available to a task, not all of
	   which is typically resident.	 It simply reflects  memory  that
	   could be potentially	shared with other processes.

       22. SID	--  Session Id
	   A  session  is a collection of process groups (see PGRP), usu-
	   ally	established by the login shell.	 A newly  forked  process
	   joins  the  session of its creator.	By convention, this value
	   equals the process ID (see PID) of the  first  member  of  the
	   session, called the session leader, which is	usually	the login
	   shell.

       23. SUID	 --  Saved User	Id
	   The saved user ID.

       24. SUPGIDS  --	Supplementary Group IDs
	   The IDs of any supplementary	group(s) established at	login  or
	   inherited from a task's parent.  They are displayed in a comma
	   delimited list.

	   Note: The 'SUPGIDS' field, unlike most columns, is not  fixed-
	   width.   When displayed, it plus any	other variable width col-
	   umns	will be	allocated all remaining	screen width (up  to  the
	   maximum  512	characters).  Even so, such variable width fields
	   could still suffer truncation.  See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Win-
	   dow	for  additional	 information  on  accessing any	truncated
	   data.

       25. SUPGRPS  --	Supplementary Group Names
	   The names of	any supplementary group(s) established	at  login
	   or  inherited  from	a task's parent.  They are displayed in	a
	   comma delimited list.

	   Note: The 'SUPGRPS' field, unlike most columns, is not  fixed-
	   width.   When displayed, it plus any	other variable width col-
	   umns	will be	allocated all remaining	screen width (up  to  the
	   maximum  512	characters).  Even so, such variable width fields
	   could still suffer truncation.  See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Win-
	   dow	for  additional	 information  on  accessing any	truncated
	   data.

       26. SUSER  --  Saved User Name
	   The saved user name.

       27. SWAP	 --  Swapped Size (KiB)
	   The non-resident portion of a task's	address	space.

       28. TGID	 --  Thread Group Id
	   The ID of the thread	group to which a task belongs.	It is the
	   PID	of  the	 thread	group leader.  In kernel terms,	it repre-
	   sents those tasks that share	an 'mm_struct'.

       29. TIME	 --  CPU Time
	   Total CPU time the task has used since it started.  When  'Cu-
	   mulative mode' is On, each process is listed	with the cpu time
	   that	it and its dead	children have used.  You toggle	 'Cumula-
	   tive	 mode'	with 'S', which	is both	a command-line option and
	   an interactive command.  See	the 'S'	interactive  command  for
	   additional information regarding this mode.

       30. TIME+  --  CPU Time,	hundredths
	   The	same  as  'TIME', but reflecting more granularity through
	   hundredths of a second.

       31. TPGID  --  Tty Process Group	Id
	   The process group ID	of the foreground process  for	the  con-
	   nected tty, or -1 if	a process is not connected to a	terminal.
	   By convention, this value equals the	process	ID (see	 PID)  of
	   the process group leader (see PGRP).

       32. TTY	--  Controlling	Tty
	   The name of the controlling terminal.  This is usually the de-
	   vice	(serial	port, pty,  etc.)  from	 which	the  process  was
	   started,  and  which	 it uses for input or output.  However,	a
	   task	need not be associated with a  terminal,  in  which  case
	   you'll see '?' displayed.

       33. UID	--  User Id
	   The effective user ID of the	task's owner.

       34. USED	 --  Memory in Use (KiB)
	   This	 field	represents the non-swapped physical memory a task
	   has used (RES) plus the non-resident	portion	 of  its  address
	   space (SWAP).

       35. USER	 --  User Name
	   The effective user name of the task's owner.

       36. VIRT	 --  Virtual Memory Size (KiB)
	   The	total  amount of virtual memory	used by	the task.  It in-
	   cludes all code, data and shared  libraries	plus  pages  that
	   have	 been swapped out and pages that have been mapped but not
	   used.

       37. WCHAN  --  Sleeping in Function
	   Depending on	the availability of the	kernel	link  map  ('Sys-
	   tem.map'), this field will show the name or the address of the
	   kernel function in which the	task is	currently sleeping.  Run-
	   ning	tasks will display a dash ('-')	in this	column.

	   By  displaying  this	field, top's own working set could be in-
	   creased by  over  700Kb,  depending	on  the	 kernel	 version.
	   Should  that	 occur,	your only means	of reducing that overhead
	   will	be to stop and restart top.

       38. nDRT	 --  Dirty Pages Count
	   The number of pages that have been modified	since  they  were
	   last	 written to auxiliary storage.	Dirty pages must be writ-
	   ten to auxiliary storage  before  the  corresponding	 physical
	   memory location can be used for some	other virtual page.

       39. nMaj	 --  Major Page	Fault Count
	   The number of major page faults that	have occurred for a task.
	   A page fault	occurs when a process attempts to  read	 from  or
	   write  to  a	virtual	page that is not currently present in its
	   address space.  A major page	fault is when  auxiliary  storage
	   access is involved in making	that page available.

       40. nMin	 --  Minor Page	Fault count
	   The number of minor page faults that	have occurred for a task.
	   A page fault	occurs when a process attempts to  read	 from  or
	   write  to  a	virtual	page that is not currently present in its
	   address space.  A minor page	fault does not involve	auxiliary
	   storage access in making that page available.

       41. nTH	--  Number of Threads
	   The number of threads associated with a process.

       42. nsIPC  --  IPC namespace
	   The Inode of	the namespace used to isolate interprocess commu-
	   nication (IPC) resources such as  System  V	IPC  objects  and
	   POSIX message queues.

       43. nsMNT  --  MNT namespace
	   The	Inode  of  the namespace used to isolate filesystem mount
	   points thus offering	different views	of the filesystem hierar-
	   chy.

       44. nsNET  --  NET namespace
	   The	Inode  of the namespace	used to	isolate	resources such as
	   network devices, IP addresses, IP routing, port numbers, etc.

       45. nsPID  --  PID namespace
	   The Inode of	the namespace used to isolate process ID  numbers
	   meaning  they  need	not remain unique.  Thus, each such name-
	   space could have its	own 'init' (PID	 #1)  to  manage  various
	   initialization tasks	and reap orphaned child	processes.

       46. nsUSER  --  USER namespace
	   The	Inode of the namespace used to isolate the user	and group
	   ID numbers.	Thus, a	process	could have a normal  unprivileged
	   user	 ID outside a user namespace while having a user ID of 0,
	   with	full root privileges, inside that namespace.

       47. nsUTS  --  UTS namespace
	   The Inode of	the namespace used to isolate  hostname	 and  NIS
	   domain name.	 UTS simply means "UNIX	Time-sharing System".

       48. vMj	--  Major Page Fault Count Delta
	   The	number	of major page faults that have occurred	since the
	   last	update (see nMaj).

       49. vMn	--  Minor Page Fault Count Delta
	   The number of minor page faults that	have occurred  since  the
	   last	update (see nMin).

   3b. MANAGING	Fields
       After  pressing the interactive command 'f' or 'F' (Fields Manage-
       ment) you will be presented with	a screen showing:  1)  the  'cur-
       rent'  window name; 2) the designated sort field; 3) all	fields in
       their current order along with descriptions.  Entries marked  with
       an  asterisk are	the currently displayed	fields,	screen width per-
       mitting.

	   o  As the on	screen instructions indicate, you navigate  among
	      the  fields  with	 the  Up  and Down arrow keys.	The PgUp,
	      PgDn, Home and End keys can also be used to  quickly  reach
	      the first	or last	available field.

	   o  The  Right  arrow	key selects a field for	repositioning and
	      the Left arrow key or the	<Enter>	key commits that  field's
	      placement.

	   o  The  'd'	key  or	the <Space> bar	toggles	a field's display
	      status, and thus the presence or absence of the asterisk.

	   o  The 's' key designates a field  as  the  sort  field.   See
	      topic 4c.	TASK AREA Commands, SORTING for	additional infor-
	      mation regarding your selection of a sort	field.

	   o  The 'a' and 'w' keys can	be  used  to  cycle  through  all
	      available	 windows  and  the  'q'	or <Esc> keys exit Fields
	      Management.

       The Fields Management screen can	also be	used to	change the  'cur-
       rent'  window/field  group  in  either  full-screen mode	or alter-
       nate-display mode.  Whatever was	targeted when 'q'  or  <Esc>  was
       pressed	will  be  made	current	as you return to the top display.
       See topic 5. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Provisions and the 'g'  interactive
       command for insight into	'current' windows and field groups.

       Note: Any window	that has been scrolled horizontally will be reset
       if any field changes are	made via the  Fields  Management  screen.
       Any  vertical  scrolled	position,  however, will not be	affected.
       See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window	for  additional	 information  re-
       garding vertical	and horizontal scrolling.

4. INTERACTIVE Commands
       Listed below is a brief index of	commands within	categories.  Some
       commands	appear more than once  --  their  meaning  or  scope  may
       vary depending on the context in	which they are issued.

	 4a. Global-Commands
	       <Ent/Sp>	?, =, 0,
	       A, B, d,	E, e, g, h, H, I, k, q,	r, s, W, X, Y, Z
	 4b. Summary-Area-Commands
	       C, l, t,	m, 1, 2, 3
	 4c. Task-Area-Commands
	       Appearance:  b, J, j, x,	y, z
	       Content:	    c, f, F, o,	O, S, u, U, V
	       Size:	    #, i, n
	       Sorting:	    <, >, f, F,	R
	 4d. Color-Mapping
	       <Ret>, a, B, b, H, M, q,	S, T, w, z, 0 -	7
	 5b. Commands-for-Windows
	       -, _, =,	+, A, a, g, G, w
	 5c. Scrolling-a-Window
	       C, Up, Dn, Left,	Right, PgUp, PgDn, Home, End
	 5d. Searching-in-a-Window
	       L, &

   4a. GLOBAL Commands
       The  global  interactive	 commands  are	always	available in both
       full-screen mode	and alternate-display  mode.   However,	 some  of
       these  interactive commands are not available when running in 'Se-
       cure mode'.

       If you wish to know in advance whether or not your  top	has  been
       secured,	 simply	 ask  for help and view	the system summary on the
       second line.

	 <Enter> or <Space>  :Refresh-Display
	      These commands awaken top	and following receipt of any  in-
	      put  the entire display will be repainted.  They also force
	      an update	of any hotplugged cpu or physical memory changes.

	      Use either of these keys if you have a large delay interval
	      and wish to see current status,

	  ? | h	 :Help
	      There  are  two help levels available.  The first	will pro-
	      vide a reminder of all the basic interactive commands.   If
	      top is secured, that screen will be abbreviated.

	      Typing 'h' or '?'	on that	help screen will take you to help
	      for those	interactive commands applicable	to alternate-dis-
	      play mode.

	  =  :Exit-Task-Limits
	      Removes  restrictions  on	which tasks are	shown.	This com-
	      mand will	reverse	any 'i'	(idle tasks) and 'n' (max  tasks)
	      commands	that  might  be	 active.  It also provides for an
	      exit from	pid monitoring,	'user' filtering and 'other' fil-
	      tering.	See the	'-p' command-line option for a discussion
	      of PID monitoring, the 'U' or 'u'	interactive commands  for
	      user  filtering and the 'O' or 'o' interactive commands for
	      'other' filtering.

	      Additionally, any	window that has	been scrolled will be re-
	      set  with	 this  command.	 See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window
	      for additional information regarding vertical and	 horizon-
	      tal scrolling.

	      When operating in	alternate-display mode this command has	a
	      broader meaning.

	  0  :Zero-Suppress toggle
	      This command determines whether zeros  are  shown	 or  sup-
	      pressed  for  many  of the fields	in a task window.  Fields
	      like UID,	GID, NI, PR or P are not affected by this toggle.

	  A  :Alternate-Display-Mode toggle
	      This command will	switch between full-screen mode	 and  al-
	      ternate-display  mode.  See topic	5. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Pro-
	      visions and the 'g' interactive command  for  insight  into
	      'current'	windows	and field groups.

	  B  :Bold-Disable/Enable toggle
	      This  command will influence use of the 'bold' terminfo ca-
	      pability and alters both the summary area	and task area for
	      the  'current'  window.  While it	is intended primarily for
	      use with dumb terminals, it can be applied anytime.

	      Note: When this toggle is	On and top is operating	in  mono-
	      chrome mode, the entire display will appear as normal text.
	      Thus, unless the 'x' and/or 'y' toggles are  using  reverse
	      for  emphasis,  there  will  be no visual	confirmation that
	      they are even on.

       *  d | s	 :Change-Delay-Time-interval
	      You will be prompted to enter the	delay time,  in	 seconds,
	      between display updates.

	      Fractional  seconds  are	honored, but a negative	number is
	      not allowed.  Entering 0	causes	(nearly)  continuous  up-
	      dates, with an unsatisfactory display as the system and tty
	      driver try to keep up with top's demands.	 The delay  value
	      is inversely proportional	to system loading, so set it with
	      care.

	      If at any	time you wish to know  the  current  delay  time,
	      simply ask for help and view the system summary on the sec-
	      ond line.

	  E  :Extend-Memory-Scale in Summary Area
	      With this	command	you can	cycle through the available  sum-
	      mary  area  memory scaling which ranges from KiB (kibibytes
	      or    1,024    bytes)    through	  EiB	 (exbibytes    or
	      1,152,921,504,606,846,976	bytes).

	      If you see a '+' between a displayed number and the follow-
	      ing label, it means that top was forced  to  truncate  some
	      portion  of  that	 number.   By raising the scaling factor,
	      such truncation can be avoided.

	  e  :Extend-Memory-Scale in Task Windows
	      With this	command	you can	cycle through the available  task
	      window  memory  scaling which ranges from	KiB (kibibytes or
	      1,024	bytes)	   through     PiB     (pebibytes      or
	      1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes).

	      While  top will try to honor the selected	target range, ad-
	      ditional scaling might still be necessary	in order  to  ac-
	      commodate	 current values.  If you wish to see a more homo-
	      geneous result in	the memory columns, raising  the  scaling
	      range  will  usually  accomplish that goal.  Raising it too
	      high, however, is	likely to  produce  an	all  zero  result
	      which  cannot  be	 suppressed with the '0' interactive com-
	      mand.

	  g  :Choose-Another-Window/Field-Group
	      You will be prompted to enter a number between 1 and 4 des-
	      ignating the field group which should be made the	'current'
	      window.  You will	soon grow comfortable with these  4  win-
	      dows, especially after experimenting with	alternate-display
	      mode.

	  H  :Threads-mode toggle
	      When this	toggle is On, individual  threads  will	 be  dis-
	      played for all processes in all visible task windows.  Oth-
	      erwise, top displays a summation of  all	threads	 in  each
	      process.

	  I  :Irix/Solaris-Mode	toggle
	      When  operating  in  'Solaris  mode'  ('I'  toggled Off),	a
	      task's cpu usage will be divided by  the	total  number  of
	      CPUs.   After  issuing this command, you'll be told the new
	      state of this toggle.

       *  k  :Kill-a-task
	      You will be prompted for a PID and then the signal to send.

	      Entering no PID or a negative number will	be interpreted as
	      the default shown	in the prompt (the first task displayed).
	      A	PID value of zero means	the top	program	itself.

	      The default signal, as reflected in the prompt, is SIGTERM.
	      However, you can send any	signal,	via number or name.

	      If  you  wish to abort the kill process, do one of the fol-
	      lowing depending on your progress:
		  1) at	the pid	prompt,	type an	invalid	number
		  2) at	the signal prompt, type	0 (or any invalid signal)

	  q  :Quit

       *  r  :Renice-a-Task
	      You will be prompted for a PID and then the value	 to  nice
	      it to.

	      Entering no PID or a negative number will	be interpreted as
	      the default shown	in the prompt (the first task displayed).
	      A	PID value of zero means	the top	program	itself.

	      A	 positive  nice	value will cause a process to lose prior-
	      ity.  Conversely,	 a  negative  nice  value  will	 cause	a
	      process  to  be  viewed more favorably by	the kernel.  As	a
	      general rule, ordinary users can	only  increase	the  nice
	      value and	are prevented from lowering it.

	      If you wish to abort the renice process, do one of the fol-
	      lowing depending on your progress:
		  1) at	the pid	prompt,	type an	invalid	number
		  2) at	the nice prompt, type <Enter> with no input

	  W  :Write-the-Configuration-File
	      This will	save all of your options  and  toggles	plus  the
	      current  display mode and	delay time.  By	issuing	this com-
	      mand just	before quitting	top, you  will	be  able  restart
	      later in exactly that same state.

	  X  :Extra-Fixed-Width
	      Some  fields  are	 fixed	width and not scalable.	 As such,
	      they are subject to truncation which would be indicated  by
	      a	'+' in the last	position.

	      This interactive command can be used to alter the	widths of
	      the following fields:

		  field	 default    field  default    field  default
		  GID	    5	    GROUP     8	      WCHAN    10
		  RUID	    5	    RUSER     8	      nsIPC    10
		  SUID	    5	    SUSER     8	      nsMNT    10
		  UID	    5	    USER      8	      nsNET    10
				    TTY	      8	      nsPID    10
						      nsUSR    10
						      nsUTS    10

	      You will be prompted for the amount to be	added to the  de-
	      fault widths shown above.	 Entering zero forces a	return to
	      those defaults.

	      If you enter a negative number, top will automatically  in-
	      crease  the  column  size	 as needed until there is no more
	      truncated	data.  You can accelerate this process by  reduc-
	      ing the delay interval or	holding	down the <Space> bar.

	      Note:  Whether  explicitly  or automatically increased, the
	      widths for these fields are never	 decreased  by	top.   To
	      narrow  them  you	 must specify a	smaller	number or restore
	      the defaults.

	  Y  :Inspect-Other-Output
	      After issuing the	'Y'  interactive  command,  you	 will  be
	      prompted for a target PID.  Typing a value or accepting the
	      default results in a separate screen.  That screen  can  be
	      used  to	view  a	 variety of files or piped command output
	      while the	normal top iterative display is	paused.

	      Note: This interactive command is	only fully realized  when
	      supporting  entries  have	been manually added to the end of
	      the top configuration file.  For details on creating  those
	      entries, see topic 6c. ADDING INSPECT Entries.

	      Most  of	the keys used to navigate the Inspect feature are
	      reflected	in its header prologue.	 There are, however,  ad-
	      ditional keys available once you have selected a particular
	      file or command.	They are familiar to anyone who	has  used
	      the  pager 'less'	and are	summarized here	for future refer-
	      ence.

		  key	   function
		  '='	   alternate status-line, file or pipeline
		  '/'	   find, equivalent to 'L' locate
		  'n'	   find	next, equivalent to '&'	locate next
		  <Space>  scroll down,	equivalent to <PgDn>
		  'b'	   scroll up, equivalent to <PgUp>
		  'g'	   first line, equivalent to <Home>
		  'G'	   last	line, equivalent to <End>

	  Z  :Change-Color-Mapping
	      This key will take you to	a separate screen where	 you  can
	      change the colors	for the	'current' window, or for all win-
	      dows.  For details regarding this	interactive  command  see
	      topic 4d.	COLOR Mapping.

       *  The  commands	shown with an asterisk ('*') are not available in
	  'Secure mode', nor will they	be  shown  on  the  level-1  help
	  screen.

   4b. SUMMARY AREA Commands
       The summary area	interactive commands are always	available in both
       full-screen mode	and alternate-display mode.  They affect the  be-
       ginning	lines  of your display and will	determine the position of
       messages	and prompts.

       These commands  always  impact  just  the  'current'  window/field
       group.	See topic 5. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Provisions and the 'g' in-
       teractive command for insight into  'current'  windows  and  field
       groups.

	  C  :Show-scroll-coordinates toggle
	      Toggle an	informational message which is displayed whenever
	      the message line is not otherwise	being  used.   For  addi-
	      tional information see topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window.

	  l  :Load-Average/Uptime toggle
	      This is also the line containing the program name	(possibly
	      an alias)	when operating in full-screen mode or  the  'cur-
	      rent' window name	when operating in alternate-display mode.

	  t  :Task/Cpu-States toggle
	      This command affects from	2 to many summary area lines, de-
	      pending on the state of the '1', '2' or '3' command toggles
	      and whether or not top is	running	under true SMP.

	      This  portion of the summary area	is also	influenced by the
	      'H' interactive command toggle, as reflected in  the  total
	      label which shows	either 'Tasks' or 'Threads'.

	  m  :Memory/Swap-Usage	toggle
	      This  command  affects  the  two summary area lines dealing
	      with physical and	virtual	memory.

	  1  :Single/Separate-Cpu-States toggle
	      This command affects how the 't' command's Cpu States  por-
	      tion  is	shown.	 Although this toggle exists primarily to
	      serve massively-parallel SMP machines, it	is not restricted
	      to solely	SMP environments.

	      When you see '%Cpu(s):' in the summary area, the '1' toggle
	      is On and	all cpu	information is gathered	in a single line.
	      Otherwise,  each	cpu  is	 displayed separately as: '%Cpu0,
	      %Cpu1, ...'  up to available screen height.

	  2  :NUMA-Nodes/Cpu-Summary toggle
	      This command toggles between the '1'  command  cpu  summary
	      display (only) or	a summary display plus the cpu usage sta-
	      tistics for each NUMA Node.  It is only available	if a sys-
	      tem has the requisite NUMA support.

	  3  :Expand-NUMA-Node
	      You  will	 be invited to enter a number representing a NUMA
	      Node.  Thereafter, a node	summary	plus the  statistics  for
	      each cpu in that node will be shown until	either the '1' or
	      '2' command toggle is pressed.  This interactive command is
	      only available if	a system has the requisite NUMA	support.

       Note: If	the entire summary area	has been toggled Off for any win-
       dow, you	would be left with just	the message line.  In  that  way,
       you will	have maximized available task rows but (temporarily) sac-
       rificed the program name	in full-screen mode or the 'current' win-
       dow name	when in	alternate-display mode.

   4c. TASK AREA Commands
       The  task  area	interactive  commands  are  always  available  in
       full-screen mode.

       The task	area interactive commands are never available  in  alter-
       nate-display  mode if the 'current' window's task display has been
       toggled Off (see	topic 5. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Provisions).

       APPEARANCE of task window
	  J  :Justify-Numeric-Columns toggle
	      Alternates between right-justified (the default) and  left-
	      justified	 numeric  data.	  If  the numeric data completely
	      fills the	available column, this command toggle may  impact
	      the column header	only.

	  j  :Justify-Character-Columns	toggle
	      Alternates  between left-justified (the default) and right-
	      justified	character data.	 If the	character data completely
	      fills  the available column, this	command	toggle may impact
	      the column header	only.

	 The following commands	will also be influenced	by the	state  of
	 the global 'B'	(bold enable) toggle.

	  b  :Bold/Reverse toggle
	      This  command  will  impact how the 'x' and 'y' toggles are
	      displayed.  Further, it will  only  be  available	 when  at
	      least one	of those toggles is On.

	  x  :Column-Highlight toggle
	      Changes  highlighting  for  the current sort field.  If you
	      forget which field is being sorted this command  can  serve
	      as a quick visual	reminder, providing the	sort field is be-
	      ing displayed.  The sort field might  not	 be  visible  be-
	      cause:
		  1) there is insufficient Screen Width
		  2) the 'f' interactive command turned	it Off

	      Note:  Whenever 'Searching' and/or 'Other	Filtering' is ac-
	      tive in a	window,	column highlighting is	temporarily  dis-
	      abled.   See  the	 notes at the end of topics 5d.	SEARCHING
	      and 5e. FILTERING	for an explanation why.

	  y  :Row-Highlight toggle
	      Changes highlighting for "running" tasks.	  For  additional
	      insight into this	task state, see	topic 3a. DESCRIPTIONS of
	      Fields, the 'S' field (Process Status).

	      Use of this provision provides important insight into  your
	      system's	health.	  The only costs will be a few additional
	      tty escape sequences.

	  z  :Color/Monochrome toggle
	      Switches the 'current' window between your last used  color
	      scheme  and  the	older form of black-on-white or	white-on-
	      black.  This command will	alter both the summary	area  and
	      task  area but does not affect the state of the 'x', 'y' or
	      'b' toggles.

       CONTENT of task window
	  c  :Command-Line/Program-Name	toggle
	      This command will	be honored whether or not  the	'COMMAND'
	      column is	currently visible.  Later, should that field come
	      into view, the change you	applied	will be	seen.

	  f | F	 :Fields-Management
	      These keys display a separate screen where you  can  change
	      which  fields are	displayed, their order and also	designate
	      the sort field.  For additional information on these inter-
	      active commands see topic	3b. MANAGING Fields.

	  o | O	 :Other-Filtering
	      You  will	be prompted for	the selection criteria which then
	      determines which tasks will be shown in the 'current'  win-
	      dow.   Your criteria can be made case sensitive or case can
	      be ignored.  And you determine if	top should include or ex-
	      clude matching tasks.

	      See  topic  5e.  FILTERING in a window for details on these
	      and additional related interactive commands.

	  S  :Cumulative-Time-Mode toggle
	      When 'Cumulative mode' is	On, each process is  listed  with
	      the cpu time that	it and its dead	children have used.

	      When  Off, programs that fork into many separate tasks will
	      appear less demanding.  For programs like	'init' or a shell
	      this is appropriate but for others, like compilers, perhaps
	      not.  Experiment with two	task  windows  sharing	the  same
	      sort field but with different 'S'	states and see which rep-
	      resentation you prefer.

	      After issuing this command, you'll be informed of	 the  new
	      state  of	 this  toggle.	 If  you  wish to know in advance
	      whether or not 'Cumulative mode' is in effect,  simply  ask
	      for help and view	the window summary on the second line.

	  u | U	 :Show-Specific-User-Only
	      You  will	 be  prompted  for the uid or name of the user to
	      display.	 The  '-u'  option  matches  on	  effective  user
	      whereas  the  '-U' option	matches	on any user (real, effec-
	      tive, saved, or filesystem).

	      Thereafter, in that task window only matching users will be
	      shown,  or possibly no processes will be shown.  Prepending
	      an exclamation point ('!') to the	user id	or name	instructs
	      top  to  display only processes with users not matching the
	      one provided.

	      Different	task windows can  be  used  to	filter	different
	      users.   Later,  if  you wish to monitor all users again in
	      the 'current' window, re-issue this command but just  press
	      <Enter> at the prompt.

	  V  :Forest-View-Mode toggle
	      In  this	mode,  processes are reordered according to their
	      parents and the layout of	the COMMAND column resembles that
	      of  a  tree.   In	 forest	view mode it is	still possible to
	      toggle between program name and command line (see	 the  'c'
	      interactive  command) or between processes and threads (see
	      the 'H' interactive command).

	      Note: Typing any key affecting the  sort	order  will  exit
	      forest  view  mode  in the 'current' window.  See	topic 4c.
	      TASK AREA	Commands, SORTING for information on those keys.

       SIZE of task window
	  i  :Idle-Process toggle
	      Displays all tasks or just active	tasks.	When this  toggle
	      is Off, tasks that have not used any CPU since the last up-
	      date will	not be displayed.  However, due	to the	granular-
	      ity  of the %CPU and TIME+ fields, some processes	may still
	      be displayed that	appear to have used no CPU.

	      If this command is applied to the	last task display when in
	      alternate-display	 mode,	then  it will not affect the win-
	      dow's size, as all prior task displays  will  have  already
	      been painted.

	  n | #	 :Set-Maximum-Tasks
	      You  will	 be prompted to	enter the number of tasks to dis-
	      play.  The lessor	of your	number and available screen  rows
	      will be used.

	      When  used  in  alternate-display	mode, this is the command
	      that gives you precise control over the size of  each  cur-
	      rently  visible task display, except for the very	last.  It
	      will not affect the last window's	size, as all  prior  task
	      displays will have already been painted.

	      Note:  If	you wish to increase the size of the last visible
	      task display when	in  alternate-display  mode,  simply  de-
	      crease the size of the task display(s) above it.

       SORTING of task window
	 For compatibility, this top supports most of the former top sort
	 keys.	Since this is primarily	a service to  former  top  users,
	 these commands	do not appear on any help screen.
	    command   sorted-field		    supported
	      A		start time (non-display)      No
	      M		%MEM			      Yes
	      N		PID			      Yes
	      P		%CPU			      Yes
	      T		TIME+			      Yes

	 Before	 using any of the following sort provisions, top suggests
	 that you temporarily turn on column highlighting using	 the  'x'
	 interactive command.  That will help ensure that the actual sort
	 environment matches your intent.

	 The following interactive commands will only be honored when the
	 current sort field is visible.	 The sort field	might not be vis-
	 ible because:
	      1) there is insufficient Screen Width
	      2) the 'f' interactive command turned it Off

	  <  :Move-Sort-Field-Left
	      Moves the	sort column to the left	unless the  current  sort
	      field is the first field being displayed.

	  >  :Move-Sort-Field-Right
	      Moves  the sort column to	the right unless the current sort
	      field is the last	field being displayed.

	 The  following	 interactive  commands	will  always  be  honored
	 whether or not	the current sort field is visible.

	  f | F	 :Fields-Management
	      These  keys  display a separate screen where you can change
	      which field is used as the sort column, among  other  func-
	      tions.   This  can be a convenient way to	simply verify the
	      current sort field, when running top with	column highlight-
	      ing turned Off.

	  R  :Reverse/Normal-Sort-Field	toggle
	      Using  this  interactive	command	you can	alternate between
	      high-to-low and low-to-high sorts.

	 Note: Field sorting uses internal values, not	those  in  column
	 display.   Thus,  the	TTY  and WCHAN fields will violate strict
	 ASCII collating sequence.

   4d. COLOR Mapping
       When you	issue the 'Z' interactive command, you will be	presented
       with  a	separate  screen.   That screen	can be used to change the
       colors in just the 'current' window or in all four windows  before
       returning to the	top display.

       The following interactive commands are available.
	   4 upper case	letters	to select a target
	   8 numbers to	select a color
	   normal toggles available
	       'B'	 :bold disable/enable
	       'b'	 :running tasks	"bold"/reverse
	       'z'	 :color/mono
	   other commands available
	       'a'/'w'	 :apply, then go to next/prior
	       <Enter>	 :apply	and exit
	       'q'	 :abandon current changes and exit

       If  you use 'a' or 'w' to cycle the targeted window, you	will have
       applied the color scheme	that was displayed  when  you  left  that
       window.	You can, of course, easily return to any window	and reap-
       ply different colors or turn colors Off completely  with	 the  'z'
       toggle.

       The  Color Mapping screen can also be used to change the	'current'
       window/field group in either full-screen	mode or	alternate-display
       mode.   Whatever	was targeted when 'q' or <Enter> was pressed will
       be made current as you return to	the top	display.

5. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Provisions
   5a. WINDOWS Overview
       Field Groups/Windows:
	  In full-screen mode there is a single	window represented by the
	  entire screen.  That single window can still be changed to dis-
	  play 1 of 4 different	field groups  (see  the	 'g'  interactive
	  command,  repeated  below).	Each  of the 4 field groups has	a
	  unique separately configurable summary area and its own config-
	  urable task area.

	  In  alternate-display	mode, those 4 underlying field groups can
	  now be made visible simultaneously, or can be	turned Off  indi-
	  vidually at your command.

	  The  summary area will always	exist, even if it's only the mes-
	  sage line.  At any given time	only one summary area can be dis-
	  played.   However,  depending	 on your commands, there could be
	  from zero to four separate task displays currently  showing  on
	  the screen.

       Current Window:
	  The  'current' window	is the window associated with the summary
	  area and the window to which task related commands  are  always
	  directed.   Since  in	alternate-display mode you can toggle the
	  task display Off, some commands might	 be  restricted	 for  the
	  'current' window.

	  A  further  complication arises when you have	toggled	the first
	  summary area line Off.  With the loss	of the window  name  (the
	  'l'  toggled	line),	you'll not easily know what window is the
	  'current' window.

   5b. COMMANDS	for Windows
	  - | _	 :Show/Hide-Window(s) toggles
	      The '-' key turns	the 'current' window's	task  display  On
	      and  Off.	  When	On, that task area will	show a minimum of
	      the columns header you've	established with the 'f' interac-
	      tive command.  It	will also reflect any other task area op-
	      tions/toggles you've applied yielding zero or more tasks.

	      The '_' key does the same	for all	task displays.	In  other
	      words,  it switches between the currently	visible	task dis-
	      play(s) and any task display(s) you had  toggled	Off.   If
	      all 4 task displays are currently	visible, this interactive
	      command will leave the summary area as the only display el-
	      ement.

       *  = | +	 :Equalize-(reinitialize)-Window(s)
	      The  '='	key forces the 'current' window's task display to
	      be visible.  It also reverses any	 'i'  (idle  tasks),  'n'
	      (max  tasks), 'u'/'U' (user filter) and 'o'/'O' (other fil-
	      ter) commands that might be active.  Also,  if  the  window
	      had been scrolled, it will be reset with this command.  See
	      topic 5c.	SCROLLING a Window for additional information re-
	      garding vertical and horizontal scrolling.

	      The  '+'	key does the same for all windows.  The	four task
	      displays will reappear, evenly balanced.	 They  will  also
	      have  retained  any  customizations  you had previously ap-
	      plied, except for	the 'i'	(idle tasks),  'n'  (max  tasks),
	      'u'/'U' (user filter), 'o'/'O' (other filter) and	scrolling
	      interactive commands.

       *  A  :Alternate-Display-Mode toggle
	      This command will	switch between full-screen mode	 and  al-
	      ternate-display mode.

	      The  first  time you issue this command, all four	task dis-
	      plays will be shown.  Thereafter when you	switch modes, you
	      will  see	 only  the  task display(s) you've chosen to make
	      visible.

       *  a | w	 :Next-Window-Forward/Backward
	      This will	 change	 the  'current'	 window,  which	 in  turn
	      changes  the  window to which commands are directed.  These
	      keys act in a circular fashion so	you can	reach any desired
	      'current'	window using either key.

	      Assuming	the  window name is visible (you have not toggled
	      'l' Off),	whenever the 'current' window name loses its  em-
	      phasis/color, that's a reminder the task display is Off and
	      many commands will be restricted.

       *  g  :Choose-Another-Window/Field-Group
	      You will be prompted to enter a number between 1 and 4 des-
	      ignating the field group which should be made the	'current'
	      window.

	      In full-screen mode, this	command	is necessary to	alter the
	      'current'	 window.  In alternate-display mode, it	is simply
	      a	less convenient	alternative to the 'a' and 'w' commands.

	  G  :Change-Window/Field-Group-Name
	      You will be prompted for a new name to be	 applied  to  the
	      'current'	window.	 It does not require that the window name
	      be visible (the 'l' toggle to be On).

       *  The interactive commands shown with an asterisk ('*')	have  use
	  beyond alternate-display mode.
	      '=', 'A',	'g'  are always	available
	      'a', 'w'	     act the same with color mapping
			     and fields	management

   5c. SCROLLING a Window
       Typically  a  task window is a partial view into	a systems's total
       tasks/threads which shows only some of the  available  fields/col-
       umns.   With  these  scrolling keys, you	can move that view verti-
       cally or	horizontally to	reveal any desired task	or column.

       Up,PgUp	:Scroll-Tasks
	   Move	the view up toward the first task row,	until  the  first
	   task	 is displayed at the top of the	'current' window.  The Up
	   arrow key moves a single line while PgUp  scrolls  the  entire
	   window.

       Down,PgDn  :Scroll-Tasks
	   Move	 the  view  down toward	the last task row, until the last
	   task	is the only task displayed at the top  of  the	'current'
	   window.   The  Down	arrow  key moves a single line while PgDn
	   scrolls the entire window.

       Left,Right  :Scroll-Columns
	   Move	the view of displayable	fields horizontally one	column at
	   a time.

	   Note:  As  a	reminder, some fields/columns are not fixed-width
	   but allocated all remaining screen width when  visible.   When
	   scrolling  right  or	left, that feature may produce some unex-
	   pected results initially.

	   Additionally, there are special provisions  for  any	 variable
	   width field when positioned as the last displayed field.  Once
	   that	field is reached via the right arrow key, and is thus the
	   only	 column	 shown,	 you  can continue scrolling horizontally
	   within such a field.	 See the 'C'  interactive  command  below
	   for additional information.

       Home  :Jump-to-Home-Position
	   Reposition the display to the un-scrolled coordinates.

       End  :Jump-to-End-Position
	   Reposition  the  display so that the	rightmost column reflects
	   the last displayable	field and the bottom task row  represents
	   the last task.

	   Note:  From	this position it is still possible to scroll down
	   and right using the arrow keys.  This is true until	a  single
	   column and a	single task is left as the only	display	element.

       C  :Show-scroll-coordinates toggle
	   Toggle  an  informational  message which is displayed whenever
	   the message line is not otherwise being  used.   That  message
	   will	take one of two	forms depending	on whether or not a vari-
	   able	width column has also been scrolled.

	     scroll coordinates: y = n/n (tasks), x = n/n (fields)
	     scroll coordinates: y = n/n (tasks), x = n/n (fields) + nn

	   The coordinates shown as n/n	are relative to	 the  upper  left
	   corner  of the 'current' window.  The additional '+ nn' repre-
	   sents the displacement into a variable width	 column	 when  it
	   has	been  scrolled horizontally.  Such displacement	occurs in
	   normal 8 character tab stop amounts via the right and left ar-
	   row keys.

	   y = n/n (tasks)
	       The  first  n  represents  the topmost visible task and is
	       controlled by scrolling keys.  The second n is updated au-
	       tomatically to reflect total tasks.

	   x = n/n (fields)
	       The  first  n represents	the leftmost displayed column and
	       is controlled by	scrolling keys.	 The second n is the  to-
	       tal  number  of displayable fields and is established with
	       the 'f' interactive command.

       The above interactive commands are always available in full-screen
       mode  but  never	 available in alternate-display	mode if	the 'cur-
       rent' window's task display has been toggled Off.

       Note: When any form of filtering	is active, you	can  expect  some
       slight aberrations when scrolling since not all tasks will be vis-
       ible.  This is particularly apparent when using the Up/Down  arrow
       keys.

   5d. SEARCHING in a Window
       You  can	 use these interactive commands	to locate a task row con-
       taining a particular value.

       L  :Locate-a-string
	   You will be prompted	for the	case-sensitive string  to  locate
	   starting  from  the	current	window coordinates.  There are no
	   restrictions	on search string content.

	   Searches are	not limited to values from a single field or col-
	   umn.	 All of	the values displayed in	a task row are allowed in
	   a search string.  You may include spaces, numbers, symbols and
	   even	forest view artwork.

	   Keying  <Enter> with	no input will effectively disable the '&'
	   key until a new search string is entered.

       &  :Locate-next
	   Assuming a search string has	been established,  top	will  at-
	   tempt to locate the next occurrence.

       When  a	match is found,	the current window is repositioned verti-
       cally so	the task row containing	that string is first.  The scroll
       coordinates  message  can  provide  confirmation	 of such vertical
       repositioning  (see  the	 'C'  interactive  command).   Horizontal
       scrolling, however, is never altered via	searching.

       The  availability  of  a	matching string	will be	influenced by the
       following factors.
	  a. Which fields are displayable from the total available,
	     see topic 3b. MANAGING Fields.
	  b. Scrolling a window	vertically and/or horizontally,
	     see topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window.
	  c. The state of the command/command-line toggle,
	     see the 'c' interactive command.
	  d. The stability of the chosen sort column,
	     for example PID is	good but %CPU bad.

       If a search  fails,  restoring  the  'current'  window  home  (un-
       scrolled)  position,  scrolling	horizontally, displaying command-
       lines or	choosing a more	stable sort field  could  yet  produce	a
       successful '&' search.

       The above interactive commands are always available in full-screen
       mode but	never available	in alternate-display mode  if  the  'cur-
       rent' window's task display has been toggled Off.

       Note:  Whenever	a search key is	typed, top will	turn column high-
       lighting	Off to prevent false matches on	internal non-display  es-
       cape  sequences.	  Such	highlighting will be restored when a win-
       dow's search string is empty.  See the 'x' interactive command for
       additional information on sort column highlighting.

   5e. FILTERING in a Window
       You can use the 'Other Filter' feature to establish selection cri-
       teria which will	then determine which tasks are shown in	the 'cur-
       rent' window.

       Establishing  a	filter requires: 1) a field name; 2) an	operator;
       and 3) a	selection value, as a minimum.	This is	the most  complex
       of top's	user input requirements	so, when you make a mistake, com-
       mand recall will	be your	friend.	 Remember the Up/Down arrow  keys
       or their	aliases	when prompted for input.

       Filter Basics
	  .  field names are case sensitive and	spelled	as in the header
	  .  selection values need not comprise	the full displayed field
	  .  a selection is either case	insensitive or sensitive to case
	  .  the default is inclusion, prepending '!' denotes exclusions
	  .  multiple selection	criteria can be	applied	to a task window
	  .  inclusion and exclusion criteria can be used simultaneously
	  .  the 1 equality and	2 relational filters can be freely mixed
	  .  separate unique filters are maintained for	each task window

       If a field is not turned	on or is not currently in view,	then your
       selection criteria will not affect the display.	Later,	should	a
       filtered	field become visible, the selection criteria will then be
       applied.

       Keyboard	Summary
	 o  :Other-Filter (lower case)
	     You will be prompted to establish a filter	that ignores case
	     when matching.

	 O  :Other-Filter (upper case)
	     You will be prompted to establish a case sensitive	filter.

	^O  :Show-Active-Filters (Ctrl key + 'o')
	     This  can serve as	a reminder of which filters are	active in
	     the 'current' window.  A summary will be shown on	the  mes-
	     sage line until you press the <Enter> key.

	 =  :Reset-Filtering in	current	window
	     This  clears all of your selection	criteria in the	'current'
	     window.  It also has additional impact so please  see  topic
	     4a. GLOBAL	Commands.

	 +  :Reset-Filtering in	all windows
	     This  clears the selection	criteria in all	windows, assuming
	     you are in	alternate-display mode.	 As with the '=' interac-
	     tive  command,  it	 too  has  additional consequences so you
	     might wish	to see topic 5b. COMMANDS for Windows.

       Input Requirements
	  When prompted	for selection criteria,	the data you provide must
	  take one of two forms.  There	are 3 required pieces of informa-
	  tion,	with a 4th as optional.	 These examples	 use  spaces  for
	  clarity but your input generally would not.
		  #1	       #2  #3		   ( required )
		  Field-Name   ?   include-if-value
	       !  Field-Name   ?   exclude-if-value
	       #4				   ( optional )

	  Items	#1, #3 and #4 should be	self-explanatory.  Item	#2 repre-
	  sents	both a required	delimiter and the operator which must  be
	  one of either	equality ('=') or relation ('<'	or '>').

	  The  '='  equality  operator	requires only a	partial	match and
	  that can reduce your 'if-value' input	requirements.  The '>' or
	  '<' relational operators always employ string	comparisons, even
	  with numeric fields.	They are designed to work with a  field's
	  default  justification  and  with  homogeneous data.	When some
	  field's numeric amounts have been subjected  to  scaling  while
	  others have not, that	data is	no longer homogeneous.

	  If  you  establish a relational filter and you have changed the
	  default 'Numeric' or 'Character' justification, that filter  is
	  likely  to fail.  When a relational filter is	applied	to a mem-
	  ory field and	you have not changed the scaling, it may  produce
	  misleading   results.	   This	 happens,  for	example,  because
	  '100.0m' (MiB) would appear greater than  '1.000g'  (GiB)  when
	  compared as strings.

	  If your filtered results appear suspect, simply altering justi-
	  fication or scaling may yet achieve the desired objective.  See
	  the 'j', 'J' and 'e' interactive commands for	additional infor-
	  mation.

       Potential Problems
	  These	GROUP filters could produce the	exact same results or the
	  second one might not display anything	at all,	just a blank task
	  window.
	       GROUP=root	 ( only	the same results when )
	       GROUP=ROOT	 ( invoked via lower case 'o' )

	  Either of these RES filters  might  yield  inconsistent  and/or
	  misleading  results,	depending  on  the current memory scaling
	  factor.  Or both filters could produce the exact same	results.
	       RES>9999		 ( only	the same results when )
	       !RES<10000	 ( memory scaling is at	'KiB' )

	  This nMin filter  illustrates	 a  problem  unique  to	 scalable
	  fields.   This particular field can display a	maximum	of 4 dig-
	  its, beyond which values are automatically  scaled  to  KiB  or
	  above.  So while amounts greater than	9999 exist, they will ap-
	  pear as 2.6m,	197k, etc.
	       nMin>9999	 ( always a blank task window )

       Potential Solutions
	  These	examples illustrate how	'Other	Filtering'  can	 be  cre-
	  atively  applied  to achieve almost any desired result.  Single
	  quotes are sometimes shown to	delimit	the spaces which are part
	  of  a	 filter	 or  to	represent a request for	status (^O) accu-
	  rately.  But if you used them	with if-values in real	life,  no
	  matches would	be found.

	  Assuming  field  nTH is displayed, the first filter will result
	  in only multi-threaded processes being shown.	 It also  reminds
	  us that a trailing space is part of every displayed field.  The
	  second filter	achieves the exact same	results	with less typing.
	       !nTH=' 1	'		 ( ' for clarity only )
	       nTH>1			 ( same	with less i/p )

	  With Forest View mode	active and the COMMAND	column	in  view,
	  this	filter effectively collapses child processes so	that just
	  3 levels are shown.
	       !COMMAND='	`- '	 ( ' for clarity only )

	  The final two	filters	appear as in response to the  status  re-
	  quest	 key  (^O).   In reality, each filter would have required
	  separate input.  The PR example shows	the two	 concurrent  fil-
	  ters	necessary to display tasks with	priorities of 20 or more,
	  since	some might be negative.	 Then by exploiting trailing spa-
	  ces, the nMin	series of filters could	achieve	the failed '9999'
	  objective discussed above.
	       'PR>20' + '!PR=-'	 ( 2 for right result )
	       '!nMin=0	' + '!nMin=1 ' + '!nMin=2 ' + '!nMin=3 ' ...

       Note: When 'Other Filtering' is active,	top  turns  column  high-
       lighting	 Off to	prevent	false matches on internal non-display es-
       cape sequences.	Such highlighting will be restored when	a  window
       is  no  longer subject to filtering.  See the 'x' interactive com-
       mand for	additional information on sort column highlighting.

6. FILES
   6a. SYSTEM Configuration File
       The presence of this file will  influence  which	 version  of  the
       'help'  screen is shown to an ordinary user.  More importantly, it
       will limit what ordinary	users are allowed to do	when top is  run-
       ning.  They will	not be able to issue the following commands.
	   k	    Kill a task
	   r	    Renice a task
	   d or	s   Change delay/sleep interval

       The  system configuration file is not created by	top.  Rather, you
       create this file	manually and place it in the /etc directory.  Its
       name  must  be  'toprc' and must	have no	leading	'.' (period).  It
       must have only two lines.

       Here is an example of the contents of /etc/toprc:
	   s	    # line 1: 'secure' mode switch
	   5.0	    # line 2: 'delay'  interval	in seconds

   6b. PERSONAL	Configuration File
       This file is written as '$HOME/.your-name-4-top'	+ 'rc'.	 Use  the
       'W' interactive command to create it or update it.

       Here is the general layout:
	   global   # line  1: the program name/alias notation
	     "	    # line  2: id,altscr,irixps,delay,curwin
	   per ea   # line  a: winname,fieldscur
	   window   # line  b: winflags,sortindx,maxtasks
	     "	    # line  c: summclr,msgsclr,headclr,taskclr
	   global   # line 15: fixed-width incr
	     "	    # any remaining lines are devoted to the
	     "	    # generalized 'inspect' provisions
	     "	    # discussed	below

       If  the	$HOME  variable	is not present,	top will try to	write the
       personal	configuration file to the current directory,  subject  to
       permissions.

   6c. ADDING INSPECT Entries
       To  exploit  the	 'Y' interactive command, you must add entries at
       the end of the top personal configuration file.	Such entries sim-
       ply  reflect  a file to be read or command/pipeline to be executed
       whose results will then be displayed  in	 a  separate  scrollable,
       searchable window.

       If you don't know the location or name of your top rcfile, use the
       'W' interactive command to rewrite it and note those details.

       Inspect entries can be added with a redirected echo or by  editing
       the configuration file.	Redirecting an echo risks overwriting the
       rcfile should it	replace	(>) rather than	append (>>) to that file.
       Conversely, when	using an editor	care must be taken not to corrupt
       existing	lines, some of which will contain unprintable data or un-
       usual characters.

       Those  Inspect entries beginning	with a '#' character are ignored,
       regardless of content.  Otherwise they consist of the following	3
       elements, each of which must be separated by a tab character (thus
       2 '\t' total):

	 .type:	 literal 'file'	or 'pipe'
	 .name:	 selection shown on the	Inspect	screen
	 .fmts:	 string	representing a path or command

       The two types of	Inspect	entries	are not	 interchangeable.   Those
       designated  'file' will be accessed using fopen and must	reference
       a single	file in	the '.fmts' element.  Entries  specifying  'pipe'
       will  employ  popen,  their  '.fmts'  element  could  contain many
       pipelined commands and, none can	be interactive.

       If the file or pipeline represented in your '.fmts' deals with the
       specific	 PID  input  or	 accepted  when	prompted, then the format
       string must also	contain	the '%d' specifier, as these examples il-
       lustrate.

	 .fmts=	 /proc/%d/numa_maps
	 .fmts=	 lsof -P -p %d

       For 'pipe' type entries only, you may also wish to redirect stderr
       to stdout for a more comprehensive result.  Thus	the format string
       becomes:

	 .fmts=	 pmap -x %d 2__1

       Here  are  examples of both types of Inspect entries as they might
       appear in the rcfile.  The first	entry will be ignored due to  the
       initial	'#'  character.	  For  clarity,	the pseudo tab depictions
       (^I) are	surrounded by an extra space but the  actual  tabs  would
       not be.

	 # pipe	^I Sockets ^I lsof -n -P -i 2>&1
	 pipe ^I Open Files ^I lsof -P -p %d 2>&1
	 file ^I NUMA Info ^I /proc/%d/numa_maps
	 pipe ^I Log ^I	tail -n100 /var/log/syslog | sort -Mr

       Except  for  the	 commented  entry above, these next examples show
       what could be echoed to achieve similar results,	assuming the  rc-
       file  name was '.toprc'.	 However, due to the embedded tab charac-
       ters, each of these lines should	be preceded  by	 '/bin/echo  -e',
       not  just  a  simple an 'echo', to enable backslash interpretation
       regardless of which shell you use.

	 "pipe\tOpen Files\tlsof -P -p %d 2>&1"	>> ~/.toprc
	 "file\tNUMA Info\t/proc/%d/numa_maps" >> ~/.toprc
	 "pipe\tLog\ttail -n200	/var/log/syslog	| sort -Mr" >> ~/.toprc

       Caution:	If any inspect entry you create	produces output	with  un-
       printable characters they will be displayed in either the ^C nota-
       tion or hexadecimal <FF>	form, depending	on their value.	 This ap-
       plies  to tab characters	as well, which will show as '^I'.  If you
       want a truer representation, any	embedded tabs should be	expanded.

	 # next	would have contained '\t' ...
	 # file	^I <your_name> ^I /proc/%d/status
	 # but this will eliminate embedded '\t' ...
	 pipe ^I <your_name> ^I	cat /proc/%d/status | expand -

       The above example takes what could have been a  'file'  entry  but
       employs a 'pipe'	instead	so as to expand	the embedded tabs.

       Note:  While  'pipe'  type entries have been discussed in terms of
       pipelines and commands, there is	nothing	to prevent you	from  in-
       cluding	 shell	scripts	 as  well.   Perhaps  even  newly created
       scripts designed	specifically for the 'Y' interactive command.

       Lastly, as the number of	your Inspect entries grows over	time, the
       'Options:'  row	will  be truncated when	screen width is	exceeded.
       That does not affect operation other than to make some  selections
       invisible.

       However,	 if  some  choices are lost to truncation but you want to
       see more	options, there is an easy solution hinted at below.

	 Inspection Pause at pid ...
	 Use:  left/right then <Enter> ...
	 Options:  help	 1  2  3  4  5	6  7  8	 9  10	11 ...

       The entries in the top rcfile would have	a number for the  '.name'
       element	and the	'help' entry would identify a shell script you've
       written explaining what those numbered selections  actually  mean.
       In that way, many more choices can be made visible.

7. STUPID TRICKS Sampler
       Many  of	 these	'tricks' work best when	you give top a scheduling
       boost.  So plan on starting him with a nice value of -10, assuming
       you've got the authority.

   7a. Kernel Magic
       For these stupid	tricks,	top needs full-screen mode.

       o  The user interface, through prompts and help,	intentionally im-
	  plies	that the delay interval	is limited to tenths of	a second.
	  However,  you're free	to set any desired delay.  If you want to
	  see Linux at his scheduling best, try	a delay	of .09 seconds or
	  less.

	  For this experiment, under x-windows open an xterm and maximize
	  it.  Then do the following:
	    . provide a	scheduling boost and tiny delay	via:
		nice -n	-10 top	-d.09
	    . keep sorted column highlighting Off so as	to
	      minimize path length
	    . turn On reverse row highlighting for emphasis
	    . try various sort columns (TIME/MEM work well),
	      and normal or reverse sorts to bring the most
	      active processes into view

	  What you'll see is a very busy Linux	doing  what  he's  always
	  done	for you, but there was no program available to illustrate
	  this.

       o  Under	an xterm using 'white-on-black'	colors,	 on  top's  Color
	  Mapping  screen  set	the  task color	to black and be	sure that
	  task highlighting is set to bold, not	reverse.   Then	 set  the
	  delay	interval to around .3 seconds.

	  After	bringing the most active processes into	view, what you'll
	  see are the ghostly images of	just the currently running tasks.

       o  Delete the existing rcfile, or create	 a  new	 symlink.   Start
	  this	new  version  then  type 'T' (a	secret key, see	topic 4c.
	  Task Area Commands, SORTING) followed	by 'W' and 'q'.	 Finally,
	  restart the program with -d0 (zero delay).

	  Your	display	 will be refreshed at three times the rate of the
	  former top, a	300% speed advantage.  As  top	climbs	the  TIME
	  ladder,  be  as patient as you can while speculating on whether
	  or not top will ever reach the top.

   7b. Bouncing	Windows
       For these stupid	tricks,	top needs alternate-display mode.

       o  With 3 or 4 task displays visible, pick any window  other  than
	  the last and turn idle processes Off using the 'i' command tog-
	  gle.	Depending on where you	applied	 'i',  sometimes  several
	  task	displays  are  bouncing	and sometimes it's like	an accor-
	  dion,	as top tries his best to allocate space.

       o  Set each window's summary lines differently: one with	no memory
	  ('m');  another with no states ('t');	maybe one with nothing at
	  all, just the	message	line.  Then hold  down	'a'  or	 'w'  and
	  watch	a variation on bouncing	windows	 --  hopping windows.

       o  Display all 4	windows	and for	each, in turn, set idle	processes
	  to Off using the 'i' command toggle.	You've just  entered  the
	  "extreme bounce" zone.

   7c. The Big Bird Window
       This stupid trick also requires alternate-display mode.

       o  Display all 4	windows	and make sure that 1:Def is the	'current'
	  window.  Then, keep increasing window	size with the 'n'  inter-
	  active  command  until  all the other	task displays are "pushed
	  out of the nest".

	  When they've all been	displaced, toggle between all visible/in-
	  visible  windows  using  the	'_'  command toggle.  Then ponder
	  this:
	     is	top fibbing or telling honestly	your imposed truth?

   7d. The Ol' Switcheroo
       This stupid trick works best without alternate-display mode, since
       justification is	active on a per	window basis.

       o  Start	 top  and  make	 COMMAND the last (rightmost) column dis-
	  played.  If necessary, use the 'c' command  toggle  to  display
	  command  lines  and ensure that forest view mode is active with
	  the 'V' command toggle.

	  Then use the up/down arrow keys to position the display so that
	  some	truncated command lines	are shown ('+' in last position).
	  You may have to resize your xterm to produce truncation.

	  Lastly, use the 'j' command toggle to	make the  COMMAND  column
	  right	justified.

	  Now  use the right arrow key to reach	the COMMAND column.  Con-
	  tinuing with the right arrow key, watch closely  the	direction
	  of travel for	the command lines being	shown.

	     some lines	travel left, while others travel right

	     eventually	all lines will Switcheroo, and move right

8. BUGS
       To report bugs, follow the instructions at:
	   http://www.debian.org/Bugs/Reporting

9. HISTORY Former top
       The  original  top  was	written	 by  Roger Binns, based	on Branko
       Lankester's <lankeste@fwi.uva.nl> ps program.

       Robert Nation <nation@rocket.sanders.lockheed.com> adapted it  for
       the proc	file system.

       Helmut  Geyer  <Helmut.Geyer@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de>  added support
       for configurable	fields.

       Plus many other individuals contributed over the	years.

10. AUTHOR
       This entirely new and enhanced replacement was written by:
	   Jim Warner, <james.warner@comcast.net>

       With invaluable help from:
	   Craig Small,	<csmall@enc.com.au>
	   Albert Cahalan, <albert@users.sf.net>

11. SEE	Also
       free(1),	ps(1), uptime(1), atop(1), slabtop(1), vmstat(8), w(1).

procps-ng		      November 2013			   TOP(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OVERVIEW | 1. COMMAND-LINE Options | 2. SUMMARY Display | 3. FIELDS / Columns | 4. INTERACTIVE Commands | 5. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Provisions | 6. FILES | 7. STUPID TRICKS Sampler | 8. BUGS | 9. HISTORY Former top | 10. AUTHOR | 11. SEE Also

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