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TOP(1)			    General Commands Manual			TOP(1)

NAME
       top - display and update	information about the top cpu processes

SYNOPSIS
       top [ -abCHIijnPqStuvwz ] [ -dcount ] [ -mio|cpu	] [ -ofield ] [	-stime
       ] [ -Jjail ] [ -Uusername ] [ number ]

DESCRIPTION
       Top displays the	top processes on the system and	 periodically  updates
       this  information.   If standard	output is an intelligent terminal (see
       below) then as many processes as	will fit on the	 terminal  screen  are
       displayed  by  default.	 Otherwise,  a	good  number of	them are shown
       (around 20).  Raw cpu percentage	is used	to  rank  the  processes.   If
       number  is  given,  then	 the  top  number  processes will be displayed
       instead of the default.

       Top makes a distinction between terminals that support  advanced	 capa-
       bilities	and those that do not.	This distinction affects the choice of
       defaults	for certain options.  In the remainder of  this	 document,  an
       "intelligent"  terminal	is  one	that supports cursor addressing, clear
       screen, and clear to end	of line.  Conversely, a	"dumb" terminal	is one
       that  does  not	support	 such features.	 If the	output of top is redi-
       rected to a file, it acts as if it were being run on a dumb terminal.

OPTIONS
       -C     Toggle CPU display mode.	By default top displays	 the  weighted
	      CPU  percentage  in the WCPU column (this	is the same value that
	      ps(1) displays as	CPU).  Each time -C flag is passed it  toggles
	      between  "raw  cpu"  mode	 and  "weighted	cpu" mode, showing the
	      "CPU" or the "WCPU" column respectively.

       -S     Show system processes in the  display.   Normally,  system  pro-
	      cesses  such  as	the pager and the swapper are not shown.  This
	      option makes them	visible.

       -a     Display command names derived from  the  argv[]  vector,	rather
	      than  real  executable  name. It's useful	when you want to watch
	      applications, that puts their status information there.  If  the
	      real  name  differs from argv[0],	it will	be displayed in	paren-
	      thesis.

       -b     Use "batch" mode.	 In this mode, all input from the terminal  is
	      ignored.	Interrupt characters (such as ^C and ^\) still have an
	      effect.  This is the default on a	dumb  terminal,	 or  when  the
	      output is	not a terminal.

       -H     Display  each  thread  for a multithreaded process individually.
	      By default a single summary line is displayed for	each process.

       -i     Use "interactive"	mode.  In this mode, any input is  immediately
	      read  for	processing.  See the section on	"Interactive Mode" for
	      an explanation of	which keys perform what	functions.  After  the
	      command  is  processed,  the screen will immediately be updated,
	      even if the command  was	not  understood.   This	 mode  is  the
	      default when standard output is an intelligent terminal.

       -I     Do  not  display	idle processes.	 By default, top displays both
	      active and idle processes.

       -j     Display the jail(8) ID.

       -t     Do not display the top process.

       -mdisplay
	      Display either 'cpu' or 'io' statistics.	Default	is 'cpu'.

       -n     Use "non-interactive" mode.  This	is identical to	"batch"	mode.

       -P     Display per-cpu CPU usage	statistics.

       -q     Renice top to -20	so that	it will	run faster.  This can be  used
	      when  the	system is being	very sluggish to improve the possibil-
	      ity of discovering the problem.  This option can only be used by
	      root.

       -u     Do not take the time to map uid numbers to usernames.  Normally,
	      top will read as much of the file	"/etc/passwd" as is  necessary
	      to  map  all the user id numbers it encounters into login	names.
	      This option disables all that, while possibly decreasing	execu-
	      tion time.  The uid numbers are displayed	instead	of the names.

       -v     Write  version  number  information  to stderr then exit immedi-
	      ately.  No other processing takes	 place	when  this  option  is
	      used.  To	see current revision information while top is running,
	      use the help command "?".

       -w     Display approximate swap usage for each process.

       -z     Do not display the system	idle process.

       -dcount
	      Show only	count displays,	then exit.  A display is considered to
	      be  one  update  of  the screen.	This option allows the user to
	      select the number	of displays he wants to	see before  top	 auto-
	      matically	 exits.	  For intelligent terminals, no	upper limit is
	      set.  The	default	is 1 for dumb terminals.

       -stime Set the delay between  screen  updates  to  time	seconds.   The
	      default delay between updates is 2 seconds.

       -ofield
	      Sort the process display area on the specified field.  The field
	      name is the name of the column as	seen in	 the  output,  but  in
	      lower  case:  "cpu",  "size",  "res",  "time", "pri", "threads",
	      "total",	"read",	 "write",  "fault",  "vcsw",  "ivcsw",	"jid",
	      "swap" or	"pid".

       -Jjail Show only	those processes	owned by jail.	This may be either the
	      jid or name of the jail.	Use 0  to  limit  to  host  processes.
	      Using this option	implies	the -j flag.

       -Uusername  Show	 only  those processes owned by	username.  This	option
       currently only accepts usernames	and will not understand	uid numbers.

       Both count and number fields can	be specified as	"infinite", indicating
       that  they  can	stretch	 as  far as possible.  This is accomplished by
       using any proper	prefix	of  the	 keywords  "infinity",	"maximum",  or
       "all".	The  default for count on an intelligent terminal is, in fact,
       infinity.

       The environment variable	TOP is examined	for options before the command
       line  is	 scanned.  This	enables	a user to set his or her own defaults.
       The number of processes to display can also be specified	in  the	 envi-
       ronment	variable TOP.  The options -a, -C, -H, -I, -j, -P, -S, -t, -u,
       -w, and -z are actually toggles.	 A  second  specification  of  any  of
       these  options will negate the first.  Thus a user who has the environ-
       ment variable TOP set to	"-I" may use the command "top -I" to see  idle
       processes.

INTERACTIVE MODE
       When  top  is running in	"interactive mode", it reads commands from the
       terminal	and acts upon them accordingly.	 In this mode, the terminal is
       put in "CBREAK",	so that	a character will be processed as soon as it is
       typed.  Almost always, a	key will be pressed when top is	 between  dis-
       plays;  that  is,  while	 it is waiting for time	seconds	to elapse.  If
       this is the case, the command will be processed and the display will be
       updated immediately thereafter (reflecting any changes that the command
       may have	specified).  This happens even if the command  was  incorrect.
       If a key	is pressed while top is	in the middle of updating the display,
       it will finish the update and then process the command.	Some  commands
       require	additional  information, and the user will be prompted accord-
       ingly.  While typing this information in, the  user's  erase  and  kill
       keys (as	set up by the command stty) are	recognized, and	a newline ter-
       minates the input.

       These commands are currently recognized (^L refers to control-L):

       ^L     Redraw the screen.

       h or ? Display a	summary	of the commands	(help screen).	Version	infor-
	      mation is	included in this display.

       q      Quit top.

       d      Change  the  number of displays to show (prompt for new number).
	      Remember that the	next display counts as one, so typing d1  will
	      make top show one	final display and then immediately exit.

       m      Toggle the display between 'cpu' and 'io'	modes.

       n or # Change  the  number of processes to display (prompt for new num-
	      ber).

       s      Change the number	of seconds to delay between  displays  (prompt
	      for new number).

       S      Toggle the display of system processes.

       a      Toggle the display of process titles.

       k      Send  a signal ("kill" by	default) to a list of processes.  This
	      acts similarly to	the command kill(1)).

       r      Change the priority (the "nice") of a list of  processes.	  This
	      acts similarly to	the command renice(8)).

       u      Display  only processes owned by a specific username (prompt for
	      username).  If the username specified is simply "+",  then  pro-
	      cesses belonging to all users will be displayed.

       o      Change  the  order in which the display is sorted.  This command
	      is not available on all systems.	The sort key names  vary  from
	      system  to  system  but  usually include:	 "cpu",	"res", "size",
	      "time".  The default is cpu.

       e      Display a	list of	system errors (if any) generated by  the  last
	      kill or renice command.

       H      Toggle the display of threads.

       i      (or I) Toggle the	display	of idle	processes.

       j      Toggle the display of jail(8) ID.

       J      Display  only  processes	owned  by  a specific jail (prompt for
	      jail).  If the jail specified  is	 simply	 "+",  then  processes
	      belonging	 to  all  jails	 and the host will be displayed.  This
	      will also	enable the display of JID.

       P      Toggle the display of per-CPU statistics.

       t      Toggle the display of the	top process.

       w      Toggle the display of swap usage.

       z      Toggle the display of the	system idle process.

THE DISPLAY
       The actual display varies depending on the  specific  variant  of  Unix
       that  the  machine  is running.	This description may not exactly match
       what is seen by top running on this  particular	machine.   Differences
       are listed at the end of	this manual entry.

       The  top	 few  lines  of	the display show general information about the
       state of	the system, including  the  last  process  id  assigned	 to  a
       process	(on  most systems), the	three load averages, the current time,
       the number of existing processes, the number of processes in each state
       (sleeping,  running,  starting, zombies,	and stopped), and a percentage
       of time spent in	each of	the processor states (user, nice, system,  and
       idle).	It also	includes information about physical and	virtual	memory
       allocation.

       The remainder of	the screen displays information	about individual  pro-
       cesses.	 This  display	is  similar  in	 spirit	to ps(1) but it	is not
       exactly the same.  PID is the process id, JID, when displayed,  is  the
       jail(8)	ID  corresponding  to the process, USERNAME is the name	of the
       process's owner (if -u is specified, a UID column will  be  substituted
       for  USERNAME), PRI is the current priority of the process, NICE	is the
       nice amount (in the range -20 to	20), SIZE is the  total	 size  of  the
       process	(text, data, and stack), RES is	the current amount of resident
       memory, SWAP is the approximate amount of swap, if enabled  (SIZE,  RES
       and  SWAP  are  given in	kilobytes), STATE is the current state (one of
       "START",	"RUN" (shown as	 "CPUn"	 on  SMP  systems),  "SLEEP",  "STOP",
       "ZOMB",	"WAIT",	 "LOCK"	or the event on	which the process waits), C is
       the processor number on which the process is executing (visible only on
       SMP  systems),  TIME  is	the number of system and user cpu seconds that
       the process has used, WCPU, when	displayed, is the  weighted  cpu  per-
       centage (this is	the same value that ps(1) displays as CPU), CPU	is the
       raw percentage and is the field that is sorted to determine  the	 order
       of  the	processes,  and	 COMMAND  is  the name of the command that the
       process is currently running (if	the process is swapped out, this  col-
       umn is marked "<swapped>").

NOTES
       If  a  process is in the	"SLEEP"	or "LOCK" state, the state column will
       report the name of the event or lock on which the process  is  waiting.
       Lock  names  are	 prefixed  with	an asterisk "*"	while sleep events are
       not.

AUTHOR
       William LeFebvre, EECS Department, Northwestern University

ENVIRONMENT
       TOP  user-configurable defaults for options.

FILES
       /dev/kmem      kernel memory
       /dev/mem	      physical memory
       /etc/passwd	   used	to map uid numbers to user names
       /boot/kernel/kernel system image

BUGS
       Don't shoot me, but the default for -I has changed once again.  So many
       people  were  confused by the fact that top wasn't showing them all the
       processes that I	have decided to	make the default  behavior  show  idle
       processes,  just	 like  it  did in version 2.  But to appease folks who
       can't stand that	behavior, I have added the ability  to	set  "default"
       options	in  the	 environment  variable	TOP (see the OPTIONS section).
       Those who want the behavior that	version	3.0  had  need	only  set  the
       environment variable TOP	to "-I".

       The command name	for swapped processes should be	tracked	down, but this
       would make the program run slower.

       As with ps(1), things can change	while top  is  collecting  information
       for  an	update.	 The picture it	gives is only a	close approximation to
       reality.

SEE ALSO
       kill(1),	ps(1), stty(1),	mem(4),	renice(8)

FreeBSD	NOTES
DESCRIPTION OF MEMORY
       Mem: 61M	Active,	86M Inact, 1M Laundry, 22G Wired, 2M  Buf,  102G  Free
       ARC: 15G	Total, 9303M MFU, 6155M	MRU, 1464K Anon, 98M Header, 35M Other
	    15G	 Compressed,  27G  Uncompressed,  1.75:1  Ratio, 174M Overhead
       Swap: 4096M Total, 532M Free, 13% Inuse,	80K In,	104K Out

       K:     Kilobyte

       M:     Megabyte

       G:     Gigabyte

       %:     1/100

   Physical Memory Stats
       Active:
	      number of	bytes active

       Inact: number of	clean bytes inactive

       Laundry:
	      number of	dirty bytes queued for laundering

       Wired: number of	bytes wired down, including BIO-level cached file data
	      pages

       Buf:   number of	bytes used for BIO-level disk caching

       Free:  number of	bytes free

   ZFS ARC Stats
       These stats are only displayed when the ARC is in use.

       Total: number of	wired bytes used for the ZFS ARC

       MRU:   number of	ARC bytes holding most recently	used data

       MFU:   number of	ARC bytes holding most frequently used data

       Anon:  number of	ARC bytes holding in flight data

       Header:
	      number of	ARC bytes holding headers

       Other: miscellaneous ARC	bytes

       Compressed:
	      bytes of memory used by ARC caches

       Uncompressed:
	      bytes of data stored in ARC caches before	compression

       Ratio: compression ratio	of data	cached in the ARC

   Swap	Stats
       Total: total available swap usage

       Free:  total free swap usage

       Inuse: swap usage

       In:    bytes paged in from swap devices (last interval)

       Out:   bytes paged out to swap devices (last interval)

4th Berkeley Distribution	     Local				TOP(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | INTERACTIVE MODE | THE DISPLAY | NOTES | AUTHOR | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | BUGS | SEE ALSO | FreeBSD NOTES | DESCRIPTION OF MEMORY

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